627 C.E.. Battle of the Trench—Meccans defeated and retaliation against the Banu Qurayza, a. Jewish tribe that had supported the Meccans. 628 C.E.. Treaty of

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Page – 1-A Conventional Chronology of MuhammadÕs Life 570 C.E. 1Year of Birth 576 C.E.Death of Mother, Amina578 C.E. Death of Grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib 580Õs C.E.Journey to Syria with his uncle, Abu Talib 595 C.E.Marriage to Khadija, who is reported to be fifteen years older. 610 C.E.Revelations begin 615 C.E.Some followers sent to Abyssinia 619 C.E.Death of Khadija and Abu Talib 620 C.E.Leaders of Yathrib [Medina] invite Muhammad to be their leader. 620/621 C.E.Night Journey and Ascension dreamÑMecca to Jerusalem 2622 C.E.HijrahÑmigration to Medina 3624 C.E.Battle of BadrÑMeccans defeated 625 C.E.Battle of UhudÑMuslims defeated 627 C.E.Battle of the TrenchÑMeccans defeated and retaliation against the Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe that had supported the Meccans 628 C.E.Treaty of Hudaybiyyah between Medina and Mecca 630 C.E.Conquest of Mecca following violation of Treaty; Meccans acceptance of Islam 632 C.E.MuhammadÕs death in MedinaAbu Bakr is elected caliph 1. In the list below I use what is now the standard scholarly notation C.E., or ÒCommon Era,Ó rather than A.D. 2. There is a vague reference to this ÒjourneyÓ in Surah 17:1, 60; Islamic scholars also cite Surah 53:4-18, but I consider that reference a real stretch. Neither passage names Jerusalem directly. 3. The traditional marker for the beginning of the Islamic era.

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Page – 2-List of Successors of Muhammad The ÒRightly GuidedÓ Caliphs [ Rashidun ]Abu Bakr632-634 C.E.died a natural death Umar634-644 C.E.assassinated by a slave Uthman644-656 C.E.assassinated by disgruntled allies from Egypt Ali651-661 C.E.assassinated The Arab Empire Caliphs Umayyad Caliphate661-750 C.E. Muawiyyah661-680 C.E.established principle of a hereditary caliphate Abbasid Caliphate750-1517 C.E. in Bagdad from 750 to 1258 C.E., then in Cairo 1261 to 1517 C.E. Ottoman Caliphate1517-1924 C.E. The Twelve Imams 4 651 C.E. to 872 C.E. [The spiritual and political successors of Muhammad according to the Twelver Sect of ShiÕites.] Ali ibn Abi Talib (M.Õs cousin and son-in-law)assassinated Hasan ibn Alipoisoned by wife Husayn ibn Alikilled at Karbala Ali ibn Husaynpoisoned by caliph Muhammad ibn Alipoisoned JaÕfar ibn Muhammadpoisoned Musa ibn JaÕfarpoisoned Ali ibn Musapoisoned Muhammad ibn Alipoisoned Ali ibn Muhammadpoisoned Hasan ibn Alipoisoned Muhammad ibn al-Hasandied in 872 but still considered ÒaliveÓ 4. Most died at the direction of a caliph.

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Page – 3-A Select Glossary of Terms 5 Used in the QurÕan and Islamic Teaching Adhan Call to prayer made by the muezzin Ahadith (singular, hadith ) means ÒnewsÓ or Òreports.Ó In Islamic teaching the ÒhadithÓ are reports of teachings and/or actions of Muhammad, most of which are in response to questions concerning teachings in the Qur’an that require some elaboration or explanation so that they can be applied to every day situations. These reports have authority and give insight into Muhammad’s life and habits, but they are not as authoritative as the Qur’an. Ahl -al-Kitab ÒPeople of the Book,Ó i.e., Jews, Christians, Muslims Allah The Arabic term for ÒGod.Ó Before the reforms instituted by Muhammad, al Lah was one of the gods worshipped at Mecca. With IslamÕs emphasis on a strict monotheism, Allah is now used by Muslims everywhere. On the other hand, Islam teaches that there are ninety-nine ÒnamesÓ for God in the Qur’an. Strictly speaking they are not so much names as terms for the character of God. Caliph A political leader who is recognized by the Sunni community as the successor to Muhammad. The first four are called ÒRightly Guided,Ó the Ò Rashidun .ÓFatwah means a opinion issued by a recognized Muslim jurist or religious scholar. The one many Westerners know was issued against Salman Rushdie by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeni of Iran in 1989 for his characterization of the Prophet in his novel, The Satanic Verses. A Fatwah cannot be issued by just anyone in a position of authority, and its force isnÕt universal. Five Pillars of Islam 6 (1) The declaration of faith ( shahadah ); (2) Daily Prayers ( salat ), typically five timesÑdawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, nightÑa day; (3) Fasting ( sawm )Ñfrom sunup through sundownÑduring the month of Ramadan; (4) Almsgiving ( zakat ); and, (5) Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj ). At least one sect group argued for jihad to belong to these fundamentals, but that was not picked up by the vast majority of Muslims. [Pillars listed in hadith Bukhari B2N7] Fiqh Islamic jurisprudence, both the study and application of Islamic law. Hadiz/Hafiza People who memorize the entire QurÕan. They are sometimes used as a resource to make sure a recitation of a Surah is correct. They also perform as recitation festivals. Hajj A pilgrimage made to Mecca by a Muslim in fulfillment of one of the ÒFive Pillars of Islam.Ó Hadith [see Ahadith above] Hijra The journey made by Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. The journey marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar 7, Anno Hegira . This year is A.H. 1442. Imams are leaders of ShiÕa communities, whom the Shia Muslims believe are direct descendants of Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter. They guide the community in reaching consensus in matters of interpreting the QurÕan and Hadith. 5. The transliteration of Arabic into English is difficult and the subject of debate. IÕve tried to go with ÒspellingÓ that seems to represent consensus, although you can always find variations among authors. 6. Not aggregated in the QurÕan but listed in the hadith, Bukhari B2N7, for example .7. The Muslim calendar is a lunar calendar.

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Page – 4-[E]Id-al-Fatir The ceremony that breaks the period of fasting at the end of Ramadan. Islam means Òsurrender,Ó and in the context of Qur’anic teaching it refers to believers who have surrendered to the will of God. The idea of ÒsubmissionÓ to God is a key element of Islam. Humans are not Òself-sufficient,Ó only God is. Jihad means Òstruggle.Ó From the time of Muhammad it has been used to refer to armed conflict (Òholy warfareÓ) or militancy in defense of Islam. It can also refer to the struggles one faces in trying to be fully submissive to the will of God. Jinn are unique life forms, made from fire or smoke, that can inhabit inanimate objects or influence the thoughts and actions of humans, for either good or evil. [See Surah 72.] Kabah [Kaaba; KaÕba; KaÕbah] is the black, square building at the center of The Sacred Mosque in Mecca, around which pilgrims circle at the end of the hajj. At one time it housed hundreds of idols associated with local deities. It is the center of religious devotion, towards which Muslims pray five time a day. Said to be built on site of an altar built by Abraham [Genesis 22:9]. Kafir Unbelief Mosque [Masjid ] means Òa place of prostration.Ó Worship, as practiced in Catholic or Protestant churches, doesn’t occur in a mosque. It is a place for performing salat. [Surah 48:29] Muslim means Òsubmitter,Ó that is, a person who practices Islam. Qibla is the direction Muslims should face when performing the Salat, i.e., towards Mecca. It is indicated in almost all mosques by a niche in a wall, and in hotels and other places by arrows in an accessible location. [Surah 2:144, 149] Qur’an means Òrecitation.Ó In Islam it refers to the collection of teachings revealed to Muhammad, who then ÒrecitedÓ them to his followers, who subsequently wrote them down. It contains 114 chapters, or Surah, and approximately 6200 verses. In the west it is typical to see the word ÒKoranÓ as the title for the collection. Shariah means Òright practiceÓ in Arabic, but in the context of the Muslim world it is Islamic law based on interpretations of the QurÕan and the hadith. Since the primary emphasis in the QurÕan is on correct practice rather theology as such, Shariah guides almost all aspects of life to insure that those who submit do what is required of them by Allah. ShiÕa means Òparty.Ó In the context of Islamic history it refers to followers [ ShiÕites ] of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Òpartisans of AliÓ), the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, whom his followers believe should have been designated successor of Muhammad. One commentator I read called ÒShiÕism the largest sect group in Islam.Ó Its religious leaders are called ÒImam,Ó who serve as interpreters of the Sunnah. Shirk refers to idolatry, or an act or belief that ignores the uniqueness of God. Sufi A person who practices the mystical traditions associated with the ShiÕites. Sunnah means ÒcustomÓ or Òtradition.Ó The specific reference is to the habits and practices, or Ònormative practices,Ó of Muhammad.

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Page – 5-Sunni are followers of the Sunnah [or ÒSunnaÓ], that is, the ÒWay of the ProphetÓ, or ÒcustomsÓ of the Prophet, as reported in the hadith . They accept the line of succession of the four caliphs who were companions of the Prophet. The Sunnis are the majority party in Islam. The distinction between Shi’ites and Sunnis is largely, although by no means entirely, political. Surah (or ÒSura Ó) is a chapter is the QurÕan. Each is numbered (1-114), named, and divided into verses. Ummah (pl. umam ) means ÒnationÓ in Arabic . Ummah is used to describe a larger group of people than, for example, a tribe or a clan. In the QurÕan the Ummah typically refers to a single group that shares common religious beliefs, specifically those that are the objects of a divine plan of salvation. That group can and does transcend geographical, political, and linguistic boundaries. Wahhabism An ultraconservative reform movement, named after an eighteenth century preacher/activist, designed to purge Islam of anything other than teaching and practices associated with the earliest stages of Islam. It is largely a social movement, a reactionary movement against the incursion of western cultural norms. It has been the official position of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is sometimes referred to as ÒPuritanical.Ó

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Page – 6-Select Bibliography Ali, Ahmed. The QurÕan: A Contemporary Translation . 3rd ed. (Sacred Writings, vol 3) Princeton University Press, 1992. Ali, Kecia. The Lives of Muhammad . Cambridge: Harvard Press, 2014. Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet . San Francisco: Harper, 1992. ÑÑÑÑ. Islam: A Short History . New York: Modern Library, 2000. Aslan, Reza. No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam . New York: Random House: 2006.Corrigan, John, et al. Jews, Christian, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998. Denny, Frederick M. An Introduction to Islam (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall, 2006. Emerick, Yahiya. The Complete IdiotÕs Guide to Understanding Islam . Alpha, 2002. Haleem, Abdel. The QurÕan: A new translation . Oxford University Press, 2016. Lee, Bernard. The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror . New York: Random House, 2003. Lippman, Thomas W. Understanding Islam: An Introduction to the Muslim World. 2nd rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1995. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, editor-in-chief. The Study QurÕan: A New Translation and Commentary. HarperOne, 2015. Prothero, Stephen. God is not One. HarperOne, 2010.

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