(Also available at oct.ca/en/CollegePublications/PDF/ The two lessons together illustrate how the same book may lend itself to various

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Part 1Improving Student Achievement in Reading1. Achieving and Sustaining Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 A Framework for School Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Target Setting and Improvement Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.8 The Pace of Implementation of Effective Reading Instruction . . .1.10 Working Together to Improve Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . .1.10 Professional Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.16 Home and Community Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.18 AppendicesAppendix 1-1: Three Approaches to the Assignment of Lead Literacy Teachers and Other Literacy Support Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.22 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.24 Part 2Effective Reading Instruction2. Overview of Effective Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 The Goals of Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 The Stages of Reading Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 The Behaviours of Proficient Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7 The Knowledge and Skills Required for Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8 Four Key Instructional Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.11 Instructional Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.13 Teaching Within StudentsÕ Zone of Proximal Development . . . .2.15 Selecting Instructional Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.16 Setting High Expectations for AllStudents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.18 Une publication ”quivalente est disponible en fran“ais sous le titresuivant : Guide dÕenseignement efficace de la lecture, de la maternelle ‹ la 3eann”e.

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A Framework for Effective Early Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . .2.21 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.22 3.Oral Language and Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 The Relationship Between Oral Language and Reading . . . . . . .3.4 The Oral Language Continuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Initial Assessment and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.7 Integrating Diverse Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.9 Developing and Extending Oral Language Skills . . . . . . . . . . . .3.11 The Importance of Stories for Oral Language Development . . . .3.16 Oral Responses to Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.17 Oral Language in a Comprehensive Early Reading Program . . . .3.18 AppendicesAppendix 3-1:An Oral Language Developmental Continuum . .3.21 Appendix 3-2:Sample Barrier Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.26 Appendix 3-3:Activities for Responding to Texts . . . . . . . . . . . .3.28 Appendix 3-4:Picture Walks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.29 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.30 4. Read-Alouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 Preparing For and Conducting a Read-Aloud Session . . . . . . . . .4.3 Teaching Reading Strategies Through Think-Alouds . . . . . . . . . .4.6 Revisiting Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.8 Sample LessonsSample Read-Aloud Lesson 1: Grades 1Ð2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.9 Sample Read-Aloud Lesson 2: Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.13 AppendicesAppendix 4-1:Read-Aloud/Think-Aloud Planning Sheet . . . . . .4.17 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.18 5. Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 The Frequency of Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 The Focus of Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 Roles and Responsibilities in Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6 Resources for Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7 The Shared Reading Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.9 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.13

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Sample LessonsSample Shared Reading Lesson 1: Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.15 Sample Shared Reading Lesson 2: Grade 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.19 Sample Shared Reading Lesson 3: Grade 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.26 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.32 6. Guided Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.1 Guided Reading in Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4 The TeacherÕs Role in Guided Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4 ÒEffective ReadingÓ Versus ÒAccurate ReadingÓ . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.5 Guided Reading Versus Shared Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6 A Focus on the Three Cueing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.7 Guided Reading Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.9 Resources for Guided Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.11 The Guided Reading Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.20 Activities for the Rest of the Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.24 Sample LessonsSample Guided Reading Lesson 1: Kindergarten (Emergent Readers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.27 Sample Guided Reading Lesson 2: Grade 1 (Early Readers) . . . .6.31 Sample Guided Reading Lesson 3: Grade 3 (Fluent Readers) . . .6.34 AppendicesAppendix 6-1: Sample Reading Lesson Planner Ð Guided Reading, Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.38 Appendix 6-2: Sample System for Tracking Student Progress in Guided Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.39 Appendix 6-3: Sample Guided Reading Anecdotal Record Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.40 Appendix 6-4: Tracking Sheet for Class Book Levels . . . . . . . . . .6.41 Appendix 6-5: Record of Individual Reading Progress . . . . . . . .6.42 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.43 7. Independent Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.1 Independent Reading Versus Silent, Sustained Reading . . . . . . .7.4 Responsibilities in Independent Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5 Resources for Independent Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.6 The Independent Reading Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.8 The Classroom Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.15 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.17

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8-6b After Reading: Questions About Fictional and Factual Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.32 8-6c Questions Based on BloomÕs Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.33 8-6d Questions to Help Students Make Connections . .8.34 8-6e Questions to Promote Metacognitive Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.34 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.35 9. Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study . . . . . . . . . . .9.1 The Purpose of Instruction in Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.3 An Overview of the Three Areas of Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.3 Planning Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.5 Phonemic Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.7 Phonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.11 Word Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.16 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.22 Sample Lessons Sample Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study Lesson 1: Kindergarten (Emergent Readers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.23 Sample Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study Lesson 2: Grade 3 (Fluent Readers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.27 AppendicesAppendix 9-1: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study Activities and Approaches, Kindergarten to Grade 3 . . . . . . . . . .9.30 Appendix 9-2: Phonemic Awareness Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.33 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.34 10.The Role of Writing in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.1 How Does Writing Support Reading? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.3 Using Writing in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.5 Using Visual Representations (Graphic Organizers) in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.10 Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.11 AppendicesAppendix 10-1:Sample Graphic Organizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.12 10-1a Character Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.12

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10-1b Venn Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.13 10-1c Map or Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.14 10-1d Event Map or Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.15 10-1e Who, What, Where, When, and Why (or How) Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.16 10-1fK-W-L Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.17 10-1g Story Sequence Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.18 10-1h T-chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.19 10-1i Circle Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.20 10-1j Main and Supporting Ideas Map . . . . . . . . . . .10.21 10-1k Main and Supporting Ideas Table . . . . . . . . . .10.22 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.23 11.The Role of Technology in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . .11.1 Information Technology in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.3 Telecommunications in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.4 Features of Electronic Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.5 Computer Software in Reading Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.6 TeachersÕ Computer Literacy: Recommendations From the International Reading Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.11 AppendicesAppendix 11-1: Software Evaluation Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.13 12.Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1 Three Categories of Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.4 Purposes of Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.6 Assessment Strategies and Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.7 AppendicesAppendix 12-1:Sample Template for an Anecdotal Record . . .12.29 Appendix 12-2:Sample Reading Interview Record Sheet . . . .12.30 Appendix 12-3:Sample Reading Conference Record Sheet (Grades 2 and 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.31 Appendix 12-4:Sample StudentÕs Reading Record . . . . . . . . .12.32 Appendix 12-5:Sample StudentÕs Reading Self-Assessment Sheet (Grade 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.33 Appendix 12-6:Sample Retelling Checklists . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.34 Appendix 12-7:Sample Oral Retelling Rubric (Grade 1) . . . . .12.35 Appendix 12-8:Sample Reading Portfolio Checklist . . . . . . . .12.36 Appendix 12-9:Sample Reading Developmental Continuum . .12.37

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Appendix 12-10:Sample Reading Attitudes and Interests Interview Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.41 Appendix 12-11:Running Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.42 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.55 13. Planning and Classroom Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.1 Planning an Effective Reading Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.3 Classroom Set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.8 Creating Timetables for Literacy Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.12 Student Groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.16 Models of Organization for Literacy Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.17 The Importance of Routines in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.22 Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.24 AppendicesAppendix 13-1:Sample Classroom Floor Plan, Kindergarten . . .13.29 Appendix 13-2:Sample Classroom Floor Plan, Grade 1 . . . . . . .13.30 Appendix 13-3:Sample Classroom Floor Plan, Grade 2 or 3 . . .13.31 Appendix 13-4:Annotated Sample Timetable, Kindergarten (Half Days) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.32 Appendix 13-5:Annotated Sample Timetable, Kindergarten (Full Days) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.34 Appendix 13-6:Sample Literacy Block Organization, Grades 1Ð3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.36 Appendix 13-7:Sample Literacy Block Timetable, Grade 1 . . . .13.37 Appendix 13-8:Sample Literacy Block Timetable, Grade 2 . . . .13.38 Appendix 13-9:Sample Literacy Block Timetable, Grade 3 . . . .13.39 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.40 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GL.1

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