3. 50 FOODS FOR HEALTHIER PEOPLE AND A HEALTHIER PLANET affordable, accessible and taste good. The list of Future 50 Their oil, which is a good source of essential pdf [Last accessed November 2018] and Sejian V. et al.

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OUR WORLD IS FACING AN UNPRECEDENTED CHALLENGE By 2050 the world population is predicted to increase to almost ten billion people whom we must nourish on a planet of ˜nite resources. It is well- documented that to do this we need to transform our global food system Œ from the way we farm and ˜sh to what we choose to eat. It is a complex task, and if we are to deliver nutritious food to all, everyone needs to play a part in making the food system more sustainable. Large scale, practical solutions are essential to make the required changes. Globally we rely on a small range of foods. This negatively impacts our health and the health of the planet. Seventy-˜ve percent of the global food supply comes from only 12 plant and ˜ve animal species. Just three (rice, maize, wheat) make up nearly 60 percent of calories from plants in the entire human diet 1. This excludes many valuable sources of nutrition. While people may be getting su˚cient calories, these narrow diets don™t provide enough vitamins and minerals. Dietary monotony is linked to a decline in the diversity of plants and animals used in and around agriculture (agrobiodiversity), threatening the resilience of our food system and limiting the breadth of food we can eat. Since 1900, a staggering 75 percent of the genetic plant diversity in agriculture has been lost 2. In most Asian countries, the number of rice types grown has decreased rapidly from thousands to a dozen. In Thailand, for example, the 16,000 varieties once cultivated have dropped to just 37 varieties 3. In the past century, the United States has lost 80 percent of its cabbage, pea and tomato varieties. This dependence on a limited pool of crop species leaves harvests vulnerable to pests, diseases and the impact of climate change. Farming a narrow range of crops using intensive methods can have serious repercussions on our fragile natural ecosystems. Monoculture farming, which is the repeated harvesting of a single crop, and over-reliance on animal-based foods are threatening food security. Monoculture farming can deplete nutrients and leave soil vulnerable to the build-up of pests and pathogens. This requires applications of fertilisers and pesticides that can, if used inappropriately, damage wildlife and leach into water systems 4, 5 . Many types of birds, animals and wild plants cannot thrive in biologically degraded landscapes. Reliance on animal-based protein sources puts additional strain on our environment and current agricultural practices are not sustainable in the long term. Total agriculture accounts for around a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions, of which approximately 60 percent is due to animal agriculture 6. Meat, dairy and egg production is more water, land and greenhouse gas intensive than plant production. It also contributes to pollution through liquid waste discharged into rivers and seas. These problems seem insurmountable, but we believe that large scale change starts with small actions.fiMost of us might believe it™s our energy or transport choices that cause the most serious environmental damage. In fact, it™s our food system that creates the biggest impact.fl Dr. Tony Juniper, CBE, Executive Director for Advocacy, WWF-UK fiDiversi˜ed diets not only improve human health but bene˜t the environment through diversi˜ed production systems that encourage wildlife and more sustainable use of resources.fl Peter Gregory, Research Advisor, Crops For the Future EATING TO IMPROVE THE FOOD SYSTEM 350 FOODS FOR HEALTHIER PEOPLE AND A HEALTHIER PLANET

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fiThe search for nutrient-dense plants has taken us toward ancient grains, heirloom plant varieties, and less commonly cultivated crops. There is a good reason for rediscovering some of the forgotten plants.fl Dr. Adam Drewnowski, Director of The Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington Knorr and WWF have a shared ambition to drive change, which is why we, in partnership with Dr. Adam Drewnowski, Director of The Center for Public Health Nutrition at the University of Washington, have collaborated to create The Future 50 Foods Report. In a world cluttered with advice and pressure around what not to eat, we want to provide people with more food choices to empower positive change. For this reason, we have identi˜ed 50 foods we should eat more of because they are nutritious, have a lower impact on our planet than animal-based foods, can be a˛ordable, accessible and taste good. The list of Future 50 Foods, consisting of vegetables, grains, cereals, seeds, legumes and nuts from across the globe, has been developed to inspire greater variety in what we cook and eat. It is intended to enable three important dietary shifts. First, a greater variety of vegetables to increase intake of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Second, plant-based sources of protein to replace meat, poultry and ˜sh, resulting in reduced negative impact on our environment. Third, more nutrient-rich sources of carbohydrates to promote agrobiodiversity and provide more nutrients. fiBy joining together with our partners, we believe we can shift the way food is grown and the foods people choose to eat, delivering signi˜cant, positive impact on the food system. Our mission is simple: make delicious, nutritious, and sustainable food accessible to all.fl April Redmond, Global Vice President, Knorr Not all 50 foods are currently easily accessible. Working together with partners allows us to make these foods more commonly grown and more widely eaten. By making a conscious choice to consume more of the Future 50 Foods, we take a crucial step towards improving the global food system. Swapping staples like maize and white rice for fonio or spelt increases the nutrient content of a dish while contributing to greater agrobiodiversity, making our food supply more resilient. It also helps safeguard these ancient variants for future generations. These 50 foods are some of the many that we can and should eat. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), there are between 20,000 and 50,000 discovered edible plant species, of which only 150 to 200 are regularly consumed by humans ˝. Future 50 Foods is the beginning of a journey and a way for people to make a change, one delicious dish at a time. 4FUTURE 50 FOODS

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CRITERIA FOR THE FUTURE 50 FOODS The Future 50 Foods have been selected based on their high nutritional value, relative environmental impact, ˜avour, accessibility, acceptability and a˚ordability. This set of criteria is modelled after the Food and Agricultural Organization™s (FAO) de˛nition of sustainable diets. Some of the Future 50 Foods have higher yields than similar crops, several are tolerant of challenging weather and environmental conditions, and many contain signi˛cant amounts of critical nutrients. Each has a story to tell. See the full methodology at the end of the report. The discovery of a new dish does more for the happiness of the human race than the discovery of a star. As famously said by French gastronome, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin 550 FOODS FOR HEALTHIER PEOPLE AND A HEALTHIER PLANET

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Laver seaweed Porphyra umbilicalis 1Category AlgaeLaver is a variety of red algae known for its link to Japanese cuisine. Called ‚nori™ in Japan and most commonly used for wrapping sushi, laver is heralded for its exceptional nutrient content and ability to bring out the umami ˙avour in foods. Umami is the ˙avour pro˜le that meat provides and is commonly missed in plant-based dishes. Edible seaweed cultivation has been suggested to be a game- changer10 in the food system. Because it lives wildly in the water, laver seaweed can be grown and harvested throughout the year and does not require pesticides or fertilisers. Laver seaweed is rich in vitamin C and iodine11. Laver is often consumed dried as a topping for soups and salads. In Korea, it is eaten dried as a savoury snack and is referred to as ‚gim™. In the UK, especially in Wales, laver is used to make laverbread, a dish in which the fresh seaweed is slow-cooked, seasoned and traditionally served with hot, buttered toast. Some say people in Wales have been eating laver since the ˜rst inhabitants arrived; others say it was introduced by the Vikings. 8FUTURE 50 FOODS 8

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Category AlgaeWakame seaweed Undaria pinnati˜da 2Cultivated for centuries by sea farmers in Korea and Japan, deep-green coloured wakame is rich in nutrients and easy to grow. Maintaining similar properties to other seaweeds, it can be harvested all year round, grows rapidly without the use of fertilisers or pesticides and supports the water™s biological balance. Beyond Asia, it is farmed in sea ˜elds in France, New Zealand, California and Argentina. In addition to containing a variety of vitamins and minerals, wakame is one of the few plant-based sources of the omega 3 fatty acid EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), which is found almost exclusively in fatty ˜sh that feed on algae12. Most commonly sold dried and then rehydrated, wakame has a savoury ˙avour and satin-like texture. It can be chopped and added to soups or fried and thrown into salads, stir-fries, and side dishes for a salty, umami ˙avour. 9950 FOODS FOR HEALTHIER PEOPLE AND A HEALTHIER PLANET

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fiWe work with hundreds of thousands of smallholder farmers in many countries in sub- Saharan Africa to garner the bene˜ts of nitrogen- ˜xing grain legumes. It™s no surprise that many legumes made it onto the Future 50 Foods list.fl Professor Ken Giller, Wageningen University, N2Africa N2Africa is a research-in-development project focused on putting nitrogen-˛xing to work on smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa 13

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Beans and other pulses are members of the legume family. They can convert nitrogen from the air and ‚˛x™ it into a form that can be readily used by plants. More than environmental superheroes, beans o˚er us a rich source of ˛bre, protein and B vitamins. They are eaten in many dishes all over the world and have a mild ˜avour and meat-like texture, making them a sensible swap for meat in stews, soups and sauces.

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