by KG Saur · 2001 · Cited by 2 — Printed on acid-free paper. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National. Standard for Information Sciences

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IFLAPublications edited by Carol HenryRecommended catalogue entry:The Public library service: IFLA/UNESCO guidelines fordevelopment / [International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions]. Ed. for the Section of Public Libraries by Philip Gill et. al. – München : Saur, 2001, XVI, 116 p. 21 cm (IFLApublications ; 97) ISBN 3-598-21827-3Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-EinheitsaufnahmeThe public library service : IFLA/UNESCO guidelines fordevelopment / [International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions]. Prepared by a working group chaired by Philip Gill on behalf of the Section of Public Libraries. – München : Saur, 2001 (IFLApublications ; 97) ISBN 3-598-21827-3Printed on acid-free paper The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Œ Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48.1984.© 2001 by International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague, The Netherlands Alle Rechte vorbehalten / All Rights Strictly Reserved K.G.Saur Verlag GmbH München 2001 Printed in the Federal Republic of GermanyAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem of any nature, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed / Bound by Strauss Offsetdruck, Mörlenbach ISBN 3-598-21827-3ISSN 0344-6891 (IFLAPublications) 8ifla97titel.qxd 21.05.01 10:12 Seite 4

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Contents Prefaceix Introductionxi 1 The role and purpose of the public library1 1.1Introduction1 1.2Defining the public library1 1.3The purposes of the public library2 1.4An agency for change7 1.5Freedom of information8 1.6Access for all8 1.7Local needs9 1.8Local culture9 1.9The cultural roots of the public library10 1.10Libraries without walls10 1.11Library buildings11 1.12Resources11 2 The legal and financial framework13 2.1Introduction13 2.2The public library and government13 2.3Public library legislation15 2.4Funding17 2.5The governance of the public library20

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2.6The administration of the public library21 2.7Publicity and promotion21 3Meeting the needs of the users23 3.1Introduction23 3.2Identifying potential users24 3.3Analysing needs within the community25 3.4Services to users25 3.5Customer care35 3.6User education37 3.7Co-operation and resource sharing38 3.8Electronic networks40 3.9Access to services42 3.10Library buildings42 4Collection dev elopment49 4.1Introduction49 4.2Collection management policy50 4.3Range of resources52 4.4Collection development53 4.5Collection maintenance principles54 4.6Standards for book collections56 4.7Standards for electronic information facilities56 4.8Collection development programme for new libraries57 4.9Acquisition and discard rates59 5Human resources61 5.1Introduction61 5.2The skills of library staff61 5.3Staff categories62 5.4Ethical standards65 5.5The duties of library staff65 5.6Staffing levels65 5.7Education of librarians66 VITHEPUBLICLIBRARYSERVICE : IFLA/UNESCO GUIDELINESFORDEVELOPMENT

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5.8Training66 5.9Career development68 5.10Working conditions68 5.11Volunteers69 6The management and marketing of public libraries71 6.1Introduction71 6.2Management skills71 6.3Building and maintaining networks74 6.4Financial management75 6.5Management of library resources75 6.6Staff management76 6.7Planning and development of library systems76 6.8The management of change77 6.9Delegation77 6.10Management tools78 6.11Marketing and promotion82 Appendices87 1The IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto87 2The Finnish Library Act 199891 3Library Service Customer Charter- Buckinghamshire County Library97 4Library Building Standards ± Ontario, Canada and Barcelona, Spain101 Resource list105 Index113 CONTENTSVII

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The interest shown in this publication as it has been in preparation is evidence of the demand for guidelines for public libraries that reflect the changed information world in which they no w operate. We tr ust that these guidelines will be relevant to public libraries at varying stages of develop- ment in the early years of the 21st century and can help librarians to meetthe exciting challenges they no w face. It is in that belief that we off er this publication to all those who are involved in the development of public libraries throughout the world. XTHEPUBLICLIBRARYSERVICE : IFLA/UNESCO GUIDELINESFORDEVELOPMENT

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Introduction In 1994 the third version of the IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto was published. It rapidly became recognized as an important statement of the fundamental principles of the public library service. It has been translated into over twenty languages and become an influential document in public library development (see Appendix 1) . It also became apparent that there was a need and a demand for a more detailed statement of practical guide- lines and standards that librarians and policy-makers could use in develop- ing public library services. The committee of the IFLA Section of Public Libraries decided to pr epare new guidelines and appointed a group of six of its members to carry out the drafting. In 1973 IFLA published Standards for public libraries , reissued with slight revisions in 1977. In 1986 this was replaced by Guidelines for public libraries .Both these publications have been overtaken by the dramatic developments in information technology that have tak en place in the last few years. As their titles suggest they represented two different approaches to pro viding prac- tical guidance to librarians. The introduction to the 1973 Standards states: Separate standards were no t considered desirable, since the general objec- tives in all countries were the same, the modifying factor being the pace at which development could take place. The 1973 version therefore provides a range of quantitative standards includ- ing the size of collections, size of administrative units, opening hours, st affing levels and building standards. Those drafting the 1986 Guidelinestook a different view:

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When needs and resources vary so widely there can be no common stan- dards for services . . . We ar e offering not rules but advice, based on expe- rience drawn from many different countries and capable of general application . . . Recommendations as to desirable levels of provision, based on past experience in quite different circumstances, are bound to be unre- liable and misleading.St atistics of public libraries in different countries were pro vided in an appendix against which librarians could measure their own service. In preparing this new edition many issues were raised and addressed but perhaps the three key questions were: ·Should the final document include both guidelines and quantitative stan- dards or be limited just to guidelines? ·Would it be possible to pr epare a version that could be of practical use to librarians in countries with public library services at different stages of development and with very different levels of available resources? ·Is it possible to make recommendations on the use of information and com- munications technology in public libraries when there are such great vari- ations in its availability and in the resources to provide and support it? In order to ge t a view on these and other issues, a seminar was held in Noord- wijk, Netherlands in August 1998 to discuss the content of the new edition and the form that it should take. The seminar was attended by 22 librari- ans from 21 countries in different parts of the world and from public libraries at different stages of development and with varying levels of resources. The conclusions reached at the end of that stimulating event have informed the work of the group carrying out the revision. The Noordwijk delegates strongly supported the view that the new publi- cation should include some practical standards and not be confined to guide-lines and recommendations. It became apparent that, though many people were aw are of the 1973 Standards and still used them to a c ertain extent, the 1986 Guidelines had not made the same practical impact. Though fully aware of the wide variety of social and economic circumstances within which public libraries in different countries operate the drafting group decided that, if this XIITHEPUBLICLIBRARYSERVICE : IFLA/UNESCO GUIDELINESFORDEVELOPMENT

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new edition was to have pr actical value, it should include some recommend- ed standards. The decision to include standards highlights the importance of the second question: can a set of standards and guidelines have universal relevance? As each draft has been produced it has been sent to the Noordwijk delegates, and to a n umber of other people who have shown interest in the project, for their reaction. Meetings have been held on the project at the IFLA conferences in Amsterdam (1998), Bangkok (1999) and Jerusalem (2000). This consultative process has been an invaluable element of the project and has revealed both the strength of the public library movement world-wide and the similarities and differences in public libraries in different countries and societies. Despite the variations in levels of service and in funds to support and develop them, it was decided that it would not be fruitful to attempt to pr e-pare a new edition which was aimed at one group of public libraries, for exam- ple those in the `developed’ or the `developing’ world. Such categorization is misleading as the level and range of services and their effectiveness is not necessarily based on the available resources. Libraries in any country and at any stage of development are capable of improvement and all will have both str engths and weaknesses. It was decided, therefore, to pr oduce a set of guide- lines and standards that could be relevant to an y public library at some point in its development. We recognize the problem of meeting standards when reliable population figures are not available and have suggested alternative approaches. We recommend that the more detailed guidelines produced by specialist sections of IFLA are also used. Where public libraries cannot meet all the standards and recommendations immediately, it is hoped that they will provide a target at which to aim. This publication is aimed primarily at librarians, for them to use in fighting for improved library services. We have a lso included some examples of service provision from around the world. These are not intended to be comprehensive or necessarily the most outstanding instances of service provision. They are intended to illustrate the te xt with some snapshots of what is happening in public libraries in different countries and to pro vide a glimpse of imaginative solutions to specific chal- lenges. We realize that these are very selective and many more examples could be used that would be equally relevant. They do demonstrate what is being done throughout the world to match the public library service to the needs of its users in a local context. We have a lso included website addresses for INTRODUCTIONXIII

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