by L Rozakis · 1998 · Cited by 6 — Research indicates that critical thinking is neither inborn nor naturally acquired. This activity tests students’ observation and memory skills.

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81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking ActivitiesEngaging Activities and Reproducibles to Develop KidsÕ Higher-Level Thinking Skills by Laurie Rozakis SCHOLASTICBPROFESSIONAL OOKS New Y ork Toronto London Aukland Sydney 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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DedicationWith love and thanks, I dedicate this book to all the fine teachers who have enriched my life: Barbara Bengels, Chris LaRosa, Ed Leigh, Jack McGrath, Jim Pepperman, Jennifer Richmond, Elizabeth Simmons, Lenore Strober, and Tom Thibadeau. Scholastic Inc. grants teachers permission to photocopy the activity sheets from this book for class- room use. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without written permission of the pub -lisher. For information regarding permission, write to Scholastic Professional Books, 555 Broadway, New Y ork, NY 10012-3999. Cover design by Jaime Lucero Interior design by Jaime Lucero and Robert Dominguez for Grafica, Inc. Interior illustrations by Maxie Chambliss ISBN: 0-590-37526-1 Copyright © 1998 by Laurie Rozakis. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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ContentsIntroduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Recognizing and Recalling Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Distinguishing and Visualizing Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Activities for Following Directions and Classifying. . . . . . . . . . . 36 Sequencing and Predicting Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Activities for Inferring and Drawing Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Evaluating Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Analyzing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Synthesizing Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11581 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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4Introduction TodayÕs students will inherit a complex and rapidly changing world, a world in which theyÕll be required to absorb new ideas, examine and interpret informa- tion, apply knowledge, and solve unconventional problems. To deal with the information explosion of the twenty-first century, students will need to develop systematic ways of thinking and reasoning. Critical-thinking skills will be essen- tial.What is critical thinking ? ItÕs the ability to: ¥ solve pr oblems¥ make products that are valued in a particular culture ¥ be flexible, creative, and original ¥ think about thinking ¥ locate the appropriate route to a goal ¥ capture and transmit knowledge ¥ expr ess views and feelings appropriately Effective critical thinkers use one or more of the seven multiple intelligences identified by Dr. Howard Gardner: 1. verbal/linguistic 2. logical/mathematical 3. visual/spatial 4. bodily/kinesthetic 5. musical/rhythmic 6. interpersonal (the ability to work cooperatively in a gr oup)7. intrapersonal (self-identity) Research indicates that critical thinking is neither inborn nor naturally acquired. In fact, fewer than half the adults in America today have the ability to reflect upon their thinking and explain how they solved a problem. Fortunately, critical thinking canbe taught and learned. This book, and its companion volume for younger grades, will help you teach students to reflect upon their own thinking processes and become more successful, active learn- ers. Both pr ofessional educators and parents can use this book to help childr enlearn to think critically. In our daily lives, we use many critical-thinking skills simultaneouslyÑand not in any prescribed order. For the purposes of this book, however, the critical- thinking activities are arranged in a hierarchy, beginning with the skills of 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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recognition and recall and working up to the more advanced skills of analysis and synthesis. This arrangement will help you and your students more clearly understand and identify the specific critical-thinking skills they are using. For each thinking skill in this book, there are two kinds of activities: (1) those that you, as the teacher, will lead, and (2) student reproducibles for indepen- dent work. On the introductory pages for each section of the book, youÕll find ideas for introducing and using the student reproducibles. You can use the Try This! activity at the bottom of each reproducible as an extension of the lesson, a challenge activity, or a homework assignment. Here are some ways you can use the lessons to help students become more effective thinkers: 1. Read each activity aloud or have a child read it aloud to the rest of the gr oup.2. Allow children ample time to think and respond. 3. Ask students questions to assess their understanding of the pr oblem. 4. Welcome dif ferent strategies for solving the problem. Encourage divergent thinking. 5. Observe children as they work in order monitor their problem-solving skills. 6. Give helpful hints to those children who are having difficulty finding ways to approach the problem. 7. Guide children to link the problem to others they have already solved. 8. Encourage children to check their work. 9. Help children explore their thinking and identify the strategies that workedÑand those that didnÕt. 10. Invite students to share their results. Since critical thinking doesnÕt end when an individual project does, you will want to give students sufficient time to evaluate their thinking strategies. Guide students to formulate ways they might adjust their critical-thinking strategies with the next problems they solve. Finally, model critical thinking for students by sharing your own problem-solv- ing strategies and accepting unusual and unexpected strategies and solutions. Your participation as an active learner will further reinforce the critical-thinking skills you teach. Above all, encourage your students to see themselves as thinkers. 581 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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6Recognizing and Recalling Activities To begin thinking critically, students must first learn to recognize and recall key information. These skills are important for the mastery of higher-level skills such as classification, inferring, and analyzing. The activities in this section will help students tap their prior knowledge to iden- tify and remember key facts. You can present each of the following activities as a complete lesson or integrate the activities into lessons in different curriculum areas. The section begins with the easier activities and concludes with more diffi- cult ones. Instructions for teacher-led activities appear on the same page as the activity. Use the teacher notes that follow for the student r eproducibles. Cross-Curricular Links Teacher Notes for Student Reproducibles Page 9: Mind Squeeze This activity tests studentsÕ observation and memory skills. After the class com -pletes the repr oducible, discuss various strategies that students used to recall the items on the page. For example, they might have memorized them in r owsor columns; they might have classified them into groups. Page 10: Trivia Trackdown Trivia Trackdown is a great way to sharpen studentsÕ recognition and recalling skills. You might begin by having students complete this page independently or with a partner. Then have the class research general information on science, ActivityPageContent Ar ea Time Capsule 8language arts Mind Squeeze 9language arts Trivia Trackdown 10math, science/social studies Wordplay 11language arts Making a Menu 12science/health Recycled Words 13language arts What Am I? 14language arts/science/social studies Arctic Facts 15science/social studies Antarctic Facts 16science/social studies WhatÕs Up & WhatÕs Down? 17Ð18science/social studies Transformations 19mathematics 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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Time Capsule HereÕs a unique way to use literature to help your students recog- nize and gather key ideas. Begin by selecting a novel or short story that the entire class has read fairly recently. Write the title and the name of the main character on the chalkboard. Then ask students to list six to ten items from the book that were impor- tant to the main character. This can be done individually or in small groups. If the students read Gary PaulsenÕs Hatchet, for example, the list might look like this: Next, ask students to put themselves in the main characterÕs place. As the main character , which of these items might they want to save in a time cap- sule? What other items might they add? Have each student create a short list of things they would put in a time capsule for the main character. Stu- dents should be able to explain their choices. You can expand this activity by having students make real time capsules for characters in other books and stories or for themselves. What items might best express other charactersÕ personalitiesÑor their own? What items best capture the fictional or real experience? You might want to create a class time capsule. Ask each student to contribute one item. Then bury the cap- sule somewhere on the school grounds. 8hatchetbow and arrow airplanecavefirelakefishemergency transmi tterraspberries81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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Name _______________________________________________________________ DDoo IItt AAggaaiinn Repeat the activity. Can you improve your performance? Try This! Mind Squeeze Take two minutes to look at the words and objects on this page. Then turn the page over and see how many you can recall. Good luck! HOMEWORK SUMMER VACATION STUDY! GOO D!LUNCHSUNGLASSES RAINBOW 9 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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Name _______________________________________________________________ Trivia Trackdown How many of these questions can you answer? 1.How many squares are there on a checkerboard? 2.What is the name of Mickey MouseÕs dog? 3.What kind of animal is Babar? 4.What was the name of the Wright BrothersÕ airplane? 5.What is the capital of New York? 6.What do fr ogs have in their mouths that toads donÕt? 7.Who was the first woman to sit on the Supreme Court? 8.What nations border the continental U.S. on the north and south? 9.Who created The Cat in the Hat? 10.How many queen bees are in each hive? 11.Who was the second president of the United States? 12.How many teaspoons make up a tablespoon? 13.What two states share Kansas City? 14.Who is the Friendly Ghost? 15.Name the Great Lakes. 16.Who painted the ÒMona LisaÓ? 17.What substance inside corn makes it pop? 18.How many sides are there on a snowflake? 19.How many wings does a bee have? 20.How many pints are in a quart? TThhiinnkk ooff AAnnootthheerr Think of another trivia question for a classmate to answer. Try This! 10 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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11Name _______________________________________________________________ Wordplay UUssee YYoouurr WWoorrddssNow, write a paragraph using onlyyour 20 words! Make sure your paragraph has at least five sentences. Try This! Imagine you live in a world with only 20 words. You can use these 20 words as much as you want, but you cannot use any other words at all. In the space below, list the 20 words youÕd pick: 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 6. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 8. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 12. ___________________ 13. ___________________ 14. ___________________ 15. ___________________ 16. ___________________ 17. ___________________ 18. ___________________ 19. ___________________ 20. ___________________ 81 Fresh & Fun Critical-Thinking Activities © Laurie Rozakis, Scholastic Teaching Resources

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