0 – enforcement and the administration of criminal justice. But Description of resource allocation within the system of admin of justice including
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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE History, Charter, Organization, and Philosophy National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Assistance Administration United States Department of Justice. Washington, D. C. Pamphlet No c 1 November 6, 1968 (Revised December 12, 1968)

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0 .. .. HISTORY The National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice was created by the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and activated on October 21, 1968. This Act was the culmination of much debate and thoughtful deliberations during the 19601 s on the issue of law, order, and justice. A monumental study was conducted by the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice which was established on July 23, 1965. The Commission’s final report of February 1967 strongly urged that research on law enforcement and criminal justice be expanded greatly, both in magnitude and scope. “The Commission has found and discussed many needs of law0 -enforcement and the administration of criminal justice. But what it has found to be the greatest need is the need to know. America has learned the uses of exploration and discovery and knowledge in shaping and controlling its physical environment, in protecting its health, in furthering its national security and in countless other areasŁ ŁŁ But this revolution of scientific discovery has largely bypassed the problems of crime and crime controlŁ ŁŁ There is virtually no subject connected with crime or criminal justice into which further research is unnecessary.” At the same time, valuable experience in research and training was being accumulated by the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance which implemented the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965. During ·its three-year life, the Office sponsored a fruitful grant program, involving hundreds of projects throughout the country. -1 –

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0 0 The urgent need for a focal point to bring the Nation’s research and development potential to bear on the problems of law, order, and justice led to the conception and proposal of the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice as a part of the bi-partisan Law Enforcement Assistance Administration of the Department of Justice. CHARTER The following charter was assigned to the Institute by the Act: (a) There is established within the Department of Justice a National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (hereafter referred to in this part as “Institute”). The Institute shall be under the general authority of the [Law Enforcement AssistadceJ Administration. It shall be the purpose of the Institute to encourage research and ment to improve and strengthen law enforcement. (b) The Institute is authorized-fl) to make grants to, or enter into contracts ~ith, ·public agencies, institutions of higher education, or private organizations to conduct research, demonstrations, or special projects pertaining to the purposes described in this title, including the development of new or proved approaches, techniques, systems, ment and devices to improve and strengthen law enforcement; (2) to make continuing studies and undertake programs of research to develop new or improved approaches, techniques, systems, equipment, and devices to improve and strengthen law ment, including but not limited to, the effectiveness of projects or programs carried out under this title; -2 -0

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0 0 0 (3) to carry out programs of behavioral research designed to provide more accurate formation on the causes of crime and the effectiveness of various means of preventing crime, and to evaluate the success of correctional procedures; (4) to make recommendations for action which can be taken by Federal, State, and local governments and by private persons and zations to improve and strengthen law ment; (5) to carry out programs of instructional assistance consisting of research fellowships for the programs provided under this section, and special workshops for the presentation and dissemination of information resulting from research, demonstrations, and special projects authorized by this title. (6) to carry out a program of collection and dissemination of information obtained by the Institute or other Federal agencies, public agencies, institutions of higher education, or private organizations engaged in projects under this title, including information relating to new or improved approaches, techniques, systems, equipment, and devices to improve and strengthen law enforcement; and (7) to establish a research center to carry out the programs described in this section. ORGANIZATION The organization chart is shown on the next page. The missions and functions of the principal elements are as follows: Institute Advisory Council advises on critical areas of the enforcement of law and the administration of justice to which research and development can contribute significantly; recommends policies, procedures, and approaches; assists in the recruitment of professional personnel; and conducts special studies upon request. -3 –

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Organization Chart Office of the ,oii Institute Nat’l L.E. & C.J. R&D Advisory Council DIRECTOR Coordination Council -I I Projec’t Plans, Programs, & Visiting Fellows Administrative & Managers Review Office Office Fiscal Office .. . –11:: ) User Crime Requirements, Prevention Detection Criminal Justice Demonstrations Standards, & & Management National & & Rehabilitation Apprehension & Criminal Justice Professional Evaluation Research Development Systems Statistics _ Services Division Center Center Center Center Division 0 0 0

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0 0 0 National Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Research and Development Coordination Council coordinates research and development activities of Federal agencies in law enforcement and criminal justice, encourages the elimination of unwarranted duplication, and facilitates the exchange of information. Project Managers are executive agents of the Director in spearheading the solution of problems of exceptional importance. Plans, Programs, and Review Office generates long-range plans, objectives, and programs; conducts progress reviews and management analyses; and formulates annual budgets. Visiting Fellows Office manages the fellowship program. Administrative and Fiscal Office provides administrative, personnel, and fiscal services. User RequireIµ.ents, Standards, and Evaluation Division identifies and describes operational needs and problems for research and development; directs objective user evaluations of proposed new techniques, procedures, tactics, equipment, and systems; and advises on standards and specifications for user agencies. Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation Research Center encourages, sponsors, and conducts programs to identify factors contributing to crime, the means to its prevention or reduction and ways in which offenders may best be processed and rehabilitated. Its interests include juvenile and adult offenders; activities of organized, professional, white collar, and casual criminals; violations of regulatory as well as criminal statutes; and the social and moral conditions which constitute the environment of crime and its control. Detection and Apprehension Development Center encourages, sponsors, and conducts programs for the development of niques, procedures, tactics, equipment, and systems designed to increase capabilities for deterring criminals and reducing criminal opportanities; for responding to and interfering with crimes in process; and for apprehending, securing, and convicting offenders. -5 –

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.0 0 1. To encourage the Nation’s scientists and engineers, with collateral managerial and human behavioral experts, to focus their talent and resources on the solution of problems encountered in the enforcement of law and the administration of justice. The Institute seeks a national mobilization of ideas and talents so that effective and democratic operations are insured in all aspects of police services, the courts, corrections, and ancillary institutions. · 2. To stimulate collaboration between physical and social scientists, engineers, management experts, and other skilled professionals, and local law enforcement and criminal justice agencies and personnel. Effective cooperation is needed so that shared problems can lead to shared problem-solving. 3. To develop a comprehensive view of the activities and challenges of the agencies of law enforcement and criminal justice so that operational requirements may be set forth and priorities for assistance and ment may be set. The Institute hopes that personnel \,of operating institutions, investigators in the research and development community, and the citizens they serve will all contribute their knowledge, energy, and dedication to these efforts. 4. To acquaint those serving in law enforcement and criminal justice with the range and depth of knowledge and technique presently available from science, technology, management, and human relations endeavors so that it may be applied to local problems. It is important that they soon become capable of exploiting the potential of research and development on their own. . -7 -0

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0 ‘,.., . 5. To enhance communication among local personnel so that they may share in one another’s problems and advances with maximum speed and with minimum cation of effort. Information dissemination and coordination will not only improve operations, but also will provide individual stimulation, strengthen confidence, and assist in maintaining high standards of performance. Improvements in the enforcement of law and the tration of justice come about in a multitude of ways. The support and encouragement of all citizens is a necessity. Collaboration is required among workers and professionals whose capabilities, experience, and understanding are relevant to the fundamental issues, as well as to the improvement of daily operations and services. Even with all of these energies and resources, the prevention of crime and disorder is and will continue to be difficult. Because crime and disorder reflect multiple and complex forces and events, one date not expect to find simple causes nor simple solutions. It is likely that there will be disagreement on the nature and priority of problems requiring attention as well as disagreement on the most desirable paths to solution. Even men of great wisdom and abundant good will differ when assessing complex legal, social, moral, and human issues. Yet out of these differences there will come stimulation, progress, and accomplishment. The Institute seeks the interest of all citizens in the furtherance of these ideas –in particular, the participation of the research and development community in joining with law enforcement, the courts, and corrections toward this objective. As the resources and capabilities of the Institute expand, while requests for assistance and proposals for research and development will be honored with the increasing frequency they deserve, so that law, order, and justice will continue to prevail in our Nation. -8 -0

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0 ;· I COMMENTS ON STATISTICS ON LAW ENFORCEMENT & CRIMINAL JUSTICE (A working paper) by Richard Blum Stanford University NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WASHINGTON, D. C. Pamphlet No. 2 November 5, 1968 0

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0 0 FOREWARD There has been much discussion during the past several years toward the establishment of a national center for the standardization, collection, and semination of statistics pertaining to all facets of law enforcement and criminal justice. The very ful reports, such as the Uniform Crime Index of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the National Prisoner Statistics of the Bureau of Prisons are to be supplemented with other data bearing on critical facets of the total picture. A stack of commentaries and reports of these deliberations laid on my desk one morning when Dr. Richard Blum of Stanford University walked in. I pounced upon his generous offer of assistance and asked him to distill the essence of the hundreds of documents, as well as give us the benefit of his off-hand reactions. Sitting at the typewriter, he dashed off an analysis within a few hours. His notes are reproduced in this pamphlet 1n· the spet=r•aneity of their~·unedited·..:~erb:i:bn. :–.–e~:::lCrfl RALPH G. H. SIU Director N~tional Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice November S, 1968 0

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