further implementation of the National Disaster Response Framework (NDRF), /how-we-measure-performance/ode/Documents/lawjustice-indonesia-case-study.pdf.
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2 Table of Contents Acronyms 3 Glossary of Terms .. 5 B: Executiv e Summary 6 C: Analysis and Strategic Context .. 8 Country/Regional and Sector Issues 8 Development Problem/Issue Analysis 11 Evidence -base/Lessons Learned 14 Current Other Development Partners™ DRM programs 19 Strategic Setting and Rationale for Australian/DFAT Engagement 20 Innovation and Private Sector Engagement 21 D: Investment Description . 22 Program goal and outcomes 22 Program logic and scope 25 Delivery Approach 34 Indicative Budget 36 Resources 36 E: Implementation Arrangements .. 37 Governance Arrangements and Structure 37 Appointment of a Contractor 38 Resourcing and Recruitment 39 Communications and Reporting 39 Procurement Arrangements 39 Knowledge, Pe rformance and Learning ( KPL ) 40 Sustainability 41 Gender Equalit y and Social Inclusion (GESI) 42 Disability Inclusiveness 43 Private Sector 44 Safeguards 44 Risk Management Pl an 45 F: Annexes . 45 Annex 1 Indicative activities Annex 2 MEL Framework

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3 Acronyms AIFDR: (former) Australia -Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction AHA Centre: ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance Bappenas : Ministry of National Development Planning BMKG: Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency BNPB: National Disaster Management Authority BPBD: Provincial /District /Municipal Disaster Management Agencies CBDRM: Community -based disaster risk management CSO: Civil Society Organization DFAT: Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade DPO: Disabled Peoples Organisation DRM: Disaster risk management DRR: Disaster Risk Reduction EOPOs End of Program Outcomes EWS: Early warning systems GESI: Gender Equality and Social Inclusion GoA: Government of Australia GoI : Government of Indonesia HFI: Humanitarian Forum Indonesia IFRC: The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies IHA: Indonesia Humanitarian Alliance IMF : International Monetary Fund Monetary Fund JICA : Japan International Cooperation Agency KPLF: Knowledge, Performance and Learning Framework MC: Managing Contractor MDMC : Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre MELF: Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Framework MoF: Ministry of Finance MoFA : Ministry of Foreign Affairs MoHA: Ministry of Home Affairs MoSA: Ministry of Social Affairs MoSS: Ministry of State Secret ariat MSS : Minimum Service Standards NGO: Non-Government Organization NTB: West Nusa Tenggara province NTT: East Nusa Tenggara province NU: Nahd latul Ulama MFAT : New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade OFDA: USAID™s Office of Fo re ign Disaster Assistance OCHA: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Pusdalops: Emergency Operation Centre

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4 PMI: Indonesian Red Cross RIPB : Disaster Management Master Plan 2015 -2045 RPJMN: Medium Term National Development Plan SIDS: Small Islands Developing States SOP : Standard Operating Procedure TATTs: Technical Assis tance and Training Teams ToC : Theory of Change UNDP : Unite d Nations Development Program UNISDR: The United Nations Offi ce for Disaster Risk Reduction UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund USAID: United States Agency for International Development WFP: World Food Program WHO: World Health Organisation

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5 Glossary of Terms Community -based disaster risk management (CBDRM): an approach that promotes the involvement of potentially affected communities in disaster risk management at the local level. This includes community assessments of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities, and their involvement in plann ing, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of local action for disaster risk reduction (UNISDR 1). Disaster risk governance: The system of institutions, mechanisms, policy and legal frameworks and other arrangements to guide, coordinate and oversee disa ster risk reduction and related areas of policy (UNISDR). Disaster risk information: comprehensive information on all dimensions of disaster risk, including hazards, exposure, vulnerability and capacity, related to persons, communities, organi sations and c ountries and their assets. It includes all studies, information and mapping required to understand the disaster risk drivers and underlying risk factors (UNISDR). Disaster risk management (DRM): the application of disaster risk reduction policies and strat egies to prevent new disaster risk ( e.g. bet ter land -use planning or disaster resistant water supply systems), reduce existing disaster risk ( e.g. retrofitting critical infrastructure or relocation of exposed populations or assets) and manage residual risk (strengthen resilience of individuals and societies, including preparedness, response and recovery activities and a range of financing instruments such as contingency funds, insurance and social safety nets ) (UNISDR). The goal, or end result of DRM is dis aster risk reduction 2. Disaster risk management ecosystem: A framework which promotes DRM as a network of organisms that interact in an ecosystem ranging from local to national levels and across state and non -state actors, rather than a more conventional approach centring on disaster management agencies. The ecosystems approach allows policy makers to view all stakeholders as a connected system where e ach component interacts with other components. Every organism or organisation in that ecosystem has a role to play in reducing disaster risk . Government organisations and institutions (such as relevant national ministries and disaster management authority ) are equally important as ot her stakeholders including civil society, sub -national governments , the private sector and other parties including international humanitarian communities. Ultimately, grassroots organisations are integral part of a DRM ecosystem . Disaster risk reduction (DRR): is the policy objective or goal of disaster ri sk management, and its goals and objectives are defined in disaster risk reduction strategies and plans which aim to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development (UNISDR). Early warning system (EWS) : an integrated system of hazard monitoring, forecasting and prediction, disaster risk assessment, communication and preparedness activities systems and processes that enables individuals, communities, governments, businesses and others to take timely action to reduce disaster risks in advance of hazardous even ts (UNISDR). Hazard: a process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards may be natural, anthropogenic or socio -natural i n origin. Natural hazards are predominantly associated with natural processes and phenomena (such as earthquakes and cyclones). Anthropogenic hazards, or human -induced hazards, are induced entirely or predominantly by human activities and choices (floods a nd landslides can be categorised as anthropogenic hazards) (UNISDR). Resilience: The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a natural hazard (earthqua ke and/or tsunami) in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management (UNISDR) . 1 Definitions used by UNISDR, as adopted by the UNGA 71 st Session, 1 December 2016 fiReport of the open -ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reductionfl 2 Definitions adopted by the UNGA 71 st Session, 1 December 2016 fiReport of the open -ended intergov ernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reductionfl

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6 B: Executive Summary Preventing, reducing and managing disaster risks can protect economies from unexpected shocks, safeguard assets and infrastructure to help rapid economic and social recovery, and protect human capital from loss of life, injury and long -term vulnerability. Indonesia faces high levels of disaster risk with approximately 90% of the population of 262 million exposed to a range of hazards including earthquakes, flooding, tsunami, volcanoes, forest fire, drought, epidemics and disease outbreaks. Disaster risk management (D RM) is an Indonesian national development priority , a shared responsibility across all levels of government, civil society organisations (CSOs), universities, media, the private sector and communities. Indonesia has an active DRM fiecosystemfl wi th a large range of state and non -state stakeholders engaged in disaster response as well as preventing and reducing risk. These stakeholders , including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), are also involved in responding to humanitarian cris es in other countries . The national and subnational disaster management agencies, BNPB and BPBDs, are important hubs in the fiecosystem fl with responsibility to lead and coordinate disaster risk management, response and recovery in Indonesia. The y have a challeng ing r ole in lead ing and coordinating the range of state and non -state stakeholders , as evidenced in recent disaster events in Lombok and Central Sulawesi . These recent experiences serve as another reminder for Indonesia of the importance of building community r esilience to prepare for and respond to disaster s. DRM continues to be a critical development issue for Indonesia and over the years Indonesia has invested heavily in improving disaster response preparedness . While Indonesia has made progress in developing its DRM capacity there is still the need to strengthen DRM government structures and coordination between state and non -state actors in particular during the disaster response period . The Australia Œ Indonesia Partnership in Disaster Risk Management (AIP -DRM) is a five year, $25 million investment and will be delivered from 2019 Œ 2024, with the option of a two year extension . The goal of the investment is t o strengthen Indonesia™s management of disaster risk and engagement between Australia and Indonesia . The investment has both a domestic focus on improving Indonesia™s ability to prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from rapid and slow onset disasters in Indonesia ; and a regional focus to strengthen cooperation between Australia and Indonesia on regional humanitarian issues . The investment responds to Government of Indonesia ™s (GoI) and Government of Australia™s (GoA) policies and priorities . AIP -DRM supports GoI™s priorities under the Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMN 2015 -2019), BNPB Strategy on Disaster Management (2015 -2019) and Indonesia™s Disaster Management Master Plan (2015 -2045). It will be aligned to future GOI priorities in DRM. The Australian Foreign P olicy White Paper commits Australia to boosting resilience to natural disasters through the aid program. 3 The program will support the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between Australia and Indonesia, including through contributing to the enhanced econo mic and development partnership; securing our and the region™s shared interest; and contributing to Indo -Pacific stability and prosperity. AIP -DRM also responds directly to the Sendai 3 2017 Foreign Policy White Paper, Government of Australia at p90 Investment Design Title: Australia Indonesia Partnership in Disaster Risk Management Start date: March 2019 End Date: March 2024 Total proposed funding allocation: $25million Investment Concept (IC) approved by: Fleur Davies and Jeremy Bruer IC Endorsed by AIC: NA Quality Assurance (QA) Completed: Independent Appraisal Delegate approving design at post: Fleur Davies Delegate approving design at desk/in Canberra: Tom Connor A: Investment Design Title : Australia Indonesia Partnership in Disaster Risk Management Start date: March 2019 End Date: March 202 4 Total proposed funding allocation:

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8 The Managing Contractor will require the personnel and sy stems to deliver flexible, adaptive programming that remains focused on the four end -of-program outcomes (three pillars and cross -cutting themes) . The Managing Contractor will use a range of methods to test and adapt strategy and action in order to build o n what is working and locally embedded, rather than rolling out an externally created blueprint for organisational reform and DRM. A close partnership between GoI, GoA and the Managing Contractor will enable the program to navigate complex dynamics of DRM policy development and public sector reform implementation. If the option to extend is exercised, new end of program outcomes will be agreed by the Steering Committee. C: Analysis and Strategic Context Country/Regional and Sector Issues Disaster Risk Management Preventing, reducing and managing disaster risks can protect economies from unexpected shocks, safeguards assets and infrastructure to help rapid economic and social recovery, and protects human capital from loss of life, injury and long -term vu lnerability. Investing in disaster risk management (DRM) is good economics : fiEven the most conservative estimates suggest that $1 invested in disaster risk reduction activities saves up to $15 in response and recovery in the aftermath of a disasterfl DFAT Humanitarian Strategy 2016 pg. 12 DRM can be understood as the plans and actions taken to prevent new disaster risk ( e.g. better land -use planning or disaster resistant water supply systems), reduce existing disaster risk ( e.g. retrofitting critical infrastructure or relocation of exposed populations or assets) and manage residual risk (strengthen resilience of individuals and societies, including preparedness, response and recovery activities and a range of financing instruments such as contingency fu nds, insurance and social safety nets ). The goal, or end result of DRM , is disaster risk reduction (DRR) 4. Indonesia Disaster Profile Indonesia is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire and at the meeting points of three tectonic plates. This means Indones ia is one of the most volcano, earthquake and tsunami prone regions in the world. Over 90% of Indonesia™s 262 million people exposed to a range of hazards including earthquakes, flooding, tsunami, volcanoes, forest fire, drought, epidemics and disease outb reaks. As of October 2018, t here were 21 active volcanoes listed at caution level or higher and hundreds of earthquake above magnitude 5 .0 have been recorde d in 2018 alone. Up to mid -September 2018, BNPB had recorded 1,230 natural disaster in 2018 that aff ected more than 777,000 people (note these figures do not account for Central Sulawesi disaster). The period 2013 Œ 2017 saw on average almost 3 million people affected by disasters each year. Managing disaster risks and responding to disasters has been a national priority since the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami which resulted in approximately 160,000 deaths, over 5 00,000 people displaced, and economic loss estimated at US4.5billion .5 Following the Indian Ocean Tsunami experience, Indonesia rapidly developed its own DRM and response capacities and become a global and regional advocate in the Asia Pacific region for better policy and action to reduce disaster risks. The boxing -day tsunami experience also reshaped the global approach to disasters with a new recognition of the value of DRR , expressed in the first global action plan for DRR in 2005: the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005 Œ 2015. This has been reinforced and developed further through the second global action plan, the Sendai Framework for DR R 2015 – 2030. The Sendai Framework highlights the significance of effective DRM for a country™s development. Development gains are reversed by disasters Œ in Aceh post -tsunami the poverty rate increased from 28.4% to 32.6% while in the rest of the country the poverty rate was decreasing 6. By reducing disaster risks and improving preparedness for hazards , countries can protect social and economic development. As a middle -income country and member of the G20, Indonesia is taking an increasingly prominent int ernational role including through providing international humanitarian assistance. 4 Definitions adopted by the UNGA 71 st Session, 1 December 2016 fiReport of the open -ended i ntergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reductionfl 5 BNPB, Indonesia™s Disaster Risk Management Baseline Status Report 2015 at p9; ADB (2012) Validation Report: Indonesia Earthquake an d Tsunami Emergenc y Support Project https://www.adb.org/documents/indonesia -earthquake -and -tsunami -emergency -support -project 6 Aceh Poverty Assessment 2008: The Impact of the Conflict, the Tsunami and Reconstruction on Poverty in Aceh. World Bank Jakarta 2008

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9 In 2011 , the then Indonesian President (Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono ) was recognised as the UNISDR Global Champ ion for DRR 7. In recent years , in the Asia -Pacific region Indonesia has responded to the Rohingya humanitarian crisis, Fiji and Vanuatu cyclones, and engaged in peace negotiations in Afghanistan. Indonesia has also provided assistance to Australia in response to fires and floods. Indonesia hosted the Asian Minist erial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) in 2012 and currently hosts the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assista nce on Disaster Management (AHA Centre ). The AHA Centre facilitates coordinated disaster response and disaster managemen t amongst ASEAN member countries. Indonesia influenced the development of the Hyogo and Sendai Framework s and leads the Asia Pacific region in domestic implementation and reporting on the Sendai Framework. It was the first country in the region to present its baseline status report on implementation of the Sendai Framework at the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2016 8. While significant progress has been made since 2004, Indonesia™s ambition to significantly reduce the disaster ri sk across the country is still to be realised. While the country has grown its economic resources, translating these resources into effective DRM across the archipelago remains a challenge. According to Indonesia™s Disaster Risk Index (IRBI 2013) eighty pe r cent of the total 513 districts and municipalities have high to medium levels of disaster risk . Within these populations vulnerability to disaster is intensified for some people due to poverty and existing inequalities such as those based on gender, disa bility, age (elderly and children) and other factors such as sexual orientation. The disaster risk index does not yet account for these specific population vulnerabilities . Indonesia regularly manages small scale disaster. Up to mid -September BNPB recorded 1,230 natural disasters in 2018 that affected around 777,000 people (note: these figures do not account for the Central Sulawesi disaster). Indonesia™s DRM Architecture Much effort has been made over the last 14 years to establish the DRM architecture in Indonesia. The Indonesia Disaster Management Law in 2007 9 saw the establishment of the N ational Disaster Management Authority ( Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana – BNPB) in 2008. Preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from disasters is articulated as a national priority across government in the National Medium -Term Development Plan Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJM N) 2015 Œ 2019. The plan recognises the links b etween DRR and mitigating and adapting to climate change .10 This plan identifies 136 high disaster risk municipalities and districts with high economic value, with a target of 30% reduction in high risk municipalities between 2015 and 2019. This is to be achieved through improved contingency planning based on accu rate risk data, improving public awareness, school and hospital safety and increasing DRR capacity . DRM agencies have now 7 Indonesian President recognized as fiUNISDR Global Champion for Disaster Risk Reductionfl at Global Platform opening ceremony . Available at https://www.unisdr.org/archive/19883 8 https://www.preventionweb.net/publications/view/50832 9 Law Number 24 of 2007 Concerning Disaster Management Part One 10 RJPMN 2015 -2019 General Policies (4)

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10 been established in each province ( BPBD ) and in a majority of districts /municipalities . Achievement of other elements of the RPJMN 2015 Π2019 are to be evaluated, however there is consensus that DRM will need to continue to feature as a priority in the next National Medium -Term Development Plan (R PJMN 2020 Π2024). A 3 0-year Master Plan for Indonesian Resilience (2015 Р2045) is under d evelopment to coincide with the 100 th anniversary of the creation of the unitary state of Indonesia in 2045. The focus of current and future efforts is on implementation of the legal and policy DRM framework, with a focus on protecting high economic growth areas from disaster risk. This will mean increased attention on risks associated with urbanisation, including planning, and the large population of urban poor with high levels of vulnerability during natural hazards. Integration of climate related risks i nto the DRM system is articulated in Indonesian policy, as illustrated by the prioritisation of climate related hazards such as forest fire and drought. Integration of climate projections into disaster risk mitigation and planning is envisaged in policy bu t needs to be translated into practice in many locations. Indonesia has been successful in creating a culture of disaster awareness and response; Indonesians have some of the highest levels of personal giving in the world for disaster response. Faith base d orga nisations such as NU and Muhammadiyah and those under the Humanitarian Forum Indonesia (HFI) as well as the Indonesian Red Cross ( PMI ) play a significant role in harnessing public support, delivering responses across the country and also building community resilience to disasters and climate c hange. These organisations operate both in Indonesia as well as in responding to international crises such as with the Rohingya Crisis or in Syria. Within Indonesia these organisations (and other domestic CSOs ) are able to rapidly respond to disasters base d on community need, rather than bureaucratic approval or declaration of emergency. 11 They demonstrate good practices for community engagement, such as PMI village information boards that improved accountability during the Pidie Jaya response. 12 Over the ye ars Indonesia has regularly managed small scale disaster s such as the Pidi e Jaya earthquake and Mt Agung v olcano crisis , where substantial surge capacity was provided through non -state actors including CSOs, the private sector and universities. While inte rnational funding for humanitarian CSOs in Indonesia has declined in recent years, these domestic organisations are committed to humanitarian response and are an expression of the global humanitarian commitment to filocalisationfl. These strong local actors were key to the responses to disasters in Lombok and Central Sulawesi in 2018. According to its organisational preamble, the National Platform (Planas) for DRR is a forum established to unite DRR stakeholders. Its function s include DRR campaign s, research, policy and advocacy, information management, and sharing and learning. The members include non -governmental organisation s, universities, private sector , mass media, PMI, and other professional association s as well as min istries/agencies including BNPB . Since being formally established in 2009, Planas has facilitated the national action plan (NAP) for DRR. The NAP -DRR document for 2010 -2012 was developed jointly by Planas, BNPB and Bappenas. From 2013 onward the NAP for DRR was integrated into RPJM N as a part of mainstreaming of DRR into government planning. This way Indonesia will only have 1 DRR document, instead of 2 separate ones. 11 Learning from Pidie Jaya Earthquake Response, Aceh Province (2017) IFRC, in support of the Indone sia Humanitarian Country Team 12 Ibid Climate change and DRR in Indonesia A national policy agenda on climate change adaptation is outlined in the National Medium Term Development Plan for 2015-2019 (RPJMN 2015 -2019). 1 In 2016 Indonesia ratified the Paris Agreement (The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) through the endorsement of Law 16/2016. In 2017 Indonesia completed its National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (NAP -CCA) in 2017. The N AP-CCA planning process has involved 17 ministries such as Public Works, BNPB, BMKG, Bappenas, MoHA and MoH. The action plan focuses on five priorities: economic resilience (food and energy) ; sustainable livelihoods system ; ecosystem resilience ; specific v ulnerable places such as cities, small islands and coastal areas ; and supporting system. 1 At this stage the proposed interventions have not been prioritised, and pilot projects are underway with local level intervention dominated by international support. There is limited awareness of climate change tasks, or linkages with DRR , amongst many national and local government officials, and NGOs. 2 A National Climate Change Council was established in 2008 and reported directly to the Indonesia President. This was dissolved in 2015 and mitigation and adaptation tasks have been migrated to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. 1. Nugraha and Lassa 2018. fiTowards endogenous disasters and climate adaptation policy making in Indonesiafl Disaster Prevention and Manag ement: An International Journal Vol 27 Issue 2 pp 228 Π242. https://doi.org/10.1108/DPM -04-2017-0084 2. Lassa and Nugraha 2015. fiFrom Shared Learning to Shared Action towards sustainability: Experie nce from Building Urban Resilience in the City of Bandar Lampung, Indonesiafl Environment and Urbanisation 27(1):161 -180 Sage

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11 While universities are engaged in the platform, there is limited information about Planas research activities and i nformation management or knowledge sharing . Operational funding for P lanas is insecure which makes it difficult to deliver fully on its functions. However, as a forum, Planas has been operating with regular regeneration of executive staff . At the provinci al and district levels, there is lack of clarity on how local DRR platforms are formed and sustained , with a variety of organisational structures. Research shows that most platforms have been established in high -risk and frequently disaster -affected areas including NTT, Aceh, Padang and Yogyakarta. 13 Individual leadership is often the key to the success of a platform™s program. As a national development priority DRM has been embedded across government planning . 36 ministries and agencies have roles in DRM . Some of the key m inistries, apart from BNPB , are: Bappenas with overall responsibility for national development planning and evaluation, including progress to reduce disaster risk ; Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA ) with responsibility for sub -national admin istration including BP BDs; Ministry of Social Affairs ( MoSA) responsible for protection a nd welfare, and with substantial humanitarian stores and a volunteer workforce; Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) for f ire management, including firefighters around the country ; Ministry of Health (MoH) responsible for disease outbreak management with a dedicated emergency health response unit ; and MoFA responsible for helping manag e international and bilateral offers and requests for assistance . The Indonesia n military (TNI ), is also a key actor during emergencies. This demonstrates the importance of DRM for GoI , as w ell as the challenge of coordina tion across different parts of government . Development Problem/Issue Analysis Given the high levels of disaster risk for Indonesia DRM continues to be a critical development issue. While Indonesia has m ade progress in developing its DRM capacity there is still the need to strengthen DRM government structures and coordination between state and non -state actors , in particular during the period of disaster response . This becomes a real challenge when the country fac es medium -scale disasters such as earthquakes in Lombok and Central Sulawesi in 2018 . The Indonesian President and Head of BNPB were reported by the media following the Central Sulawesi and Lombok disasters as saying that further work was re quired in Indonesia™s disaster response standard operating procedures and agency coordination. Indonesia™s exposure to a wide range of natural hazards coupled with capacity constraints in disaster management mean that the risk of major disasters remains hi gh. Capacity of organisations and key stakeholders BNPB is a relatively new organisation that has focused on building itself up and developing expertise in disaster response, and disaster data and information systems over the last 10 years. While mandated to coordinate and lead DRM and set policy framework s, standards and training, in practice disaster response has take n priority . BNPB resources and senior management attention have been regularly drawn into directly responding 13 Djalante, R. 2012. Adaptive governance and resilience: the role of multi -stakeholder platforms in disaster risk reductionfl Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2923 Œ2942. Disaster risk management ecosystem: A framework which promotes DRM as a network of organisms that interact in an ecosystem ranging from local to national levels and across state and non -state actors, rather than a more conventional approach cent ering on disaster management agencies. The ecos ystems approach allows policy makers to view all stakeholders as a connected system where each component interacts with other components. Every organism or organisation in that ecosystem has a role to play in reducing disaster risk. Government organisation s and institutions (such as relevant national ministries and disaster management authority) are equally important as other stakeholders including civil society, sub -national governments, the private sector and other parties including international humanita rian communities. Ultimately, grassroots organisations are in tegral part of a DRM ecosystem .

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