My observation is similar to _’s. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction language change form and are combined into sentences.

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission Kate Kinsella, Ed.D. Center for Teacher Efficacy San Francisco State University katek@sfsu.edu !!Current evidence-based principles to inform English language development across the grade levels !!The linguistic demands of informational text reading, discussion and written response for English learners !!The need for school-wide modeling of academic register !!The role of structured verbal engagement in academic language and literacy acceleration !!Use of response frames and productive error correction to guide accurate oral fluency !!Actionable steps to begin preparing ELs for CCSS !!How can we dramatically increase the quality and quantity of verbal and written engagement each student experiences, through explicit instruction, consistent routines, and structured, accountable responses? 3 www.cde .ca.gov/re/pn/rc A Focused Reading For Secondary PLCs Addressing English Language Instruction For Long-Term ELs http://sccoe.org/depts/ell/ acountability/12thannual/ Starlight_Kinsella_120711.pdf

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission 7 1.!L = Look at your partner. 2.!L = Lean toward your partner. 3.!L = Lower your voice. 4.!L = Listen attentively. 8 Use the 4 Ls: Everyday !!Huh? !!What? !!What do you mean? !!I donÕt get it. Academic English !!Will you please repeat that? !!Will you please restate your idea? !!Can you explain what you mean by ___? !!I donÕt quite understand your ___ (response, suggestion, example) 9 !!Lived most/all of their lives in the U.S. !!Verbally bilingual !!Stalled in English language development !!6+ years in English learner services !!Surrounded by other long-term ELs !!Academic performance: !!Below grade level in reading & writing !!Characteristically passive learners !!Grade retention common !!High-risk for dropping out Olsen. L. (2010). Reparable Harm. !!As you observe the video clip, listen to the four 8th grade long-term English learners discuss their favorite class and most challenging class. !!How would you characterize their vocabulary use? 11 12 I would characterize their vocabulary use as __ (adjective: imprecise)

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission 13 American Idol noun American Idle adjective 14 15 !!Use your public voice if you are called: 3x louder and 2x slower than your partnering private voice. !!Listen for two precise adjectives. Add them to your precise word bank. !!Listen for and point out similarities. My observation is similar to _Õs. 16 17 A precise (verb, adverb, noun, adjective) I added to my list is __. A precise (verb, adverb, noun, adjective) I intend to use is __. !!Write a strong observation using the sentence frame and a precise adjective. !!If time permits write a second observation. 18 I would characterize their vocabulary use as hesitant.

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission !!Lack of precise topic vocabulary (data, citations, calculations, physical fitness) and high-utility academic vocabulary (prefer, analyze, opportunity, discuss, support) !!Run-on simple sentences !!Lack of clarity in the explanation !!An informal conversational register !!Oral Fluency: ease of target language production and listening comprehension “!Accurate Oral Fluency: ease of producing accurate target language forms (vocabulary, syntax, grammar) and ability to follow along and comprehend while listening to more sophisticated language 20 How did I. . . !!introduce, rehearse and guide completion of the frame? !!support use of an academic register and precise words? !!check for comprehension of task expectations? !!establish expectations for discussing, reporting and listening? !!check for comprehension of task expectations? !!monitor partner productivity and language use? !!elicit democratic contributions during the class discussion? Accountable Student Interaction !! Academic Discussion (Think-(Write)-Pair-Share) !! Numbered Heads Review Explicit Vocabulary Instruction !! Target Words (high-utility academic words) !! Daily Do Now (brief bell-ringer assessment) Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction !! Oral Cloze Reading (fluency development) !! Thinking Maps (text summarization) 22 Examples of Instructional Routines !!Evidence based and classroom tested !!Teacher mediated, explicit instruction !!A consistent and recognizable process !!Clearly-delineated student/teacher roles !!Structured, accountable student responses !!Regular use vs. sporadic use 23 !!Efficient lesson delivery and use of time !!Both students and teachers devote Òcognitive capitalÓ to the content rather than the process !!Maximized student engagement and thereby learning 24

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission Word Meaning Examples factor fac¥tor (noun) ___________ one of many things that ___________ or affect a _______________ The weather is often a factor in the Superbowl; If it _____, the athletes donÕt perform as well. A good nightÕs sleep and a nutritious breakfast are factors in a studentÕs performance on ______. SP: factor 26 27 factor (noun) !!Writing Practice: Two ______________ that influence my interest in a book are ________________ and _______________ 1.!Augment core English classes with a dedicated advanced ELD period. 2.!Explicitly teach academic language elements. 3.!Utilize consistent instructional routines. 4.!Orchestrate peer interactions with clear language targets. 5.!Monitor language production conscientiously. 1.!Partner & Group Interactions 2.!Response Frames 3.!Setting Up & Monitoring Tasks 29 !!Vocabulary: topic-specific and high-utility words used across disciplines, moving from more basic to advanced !!Syntax: the way words are arranged in order to form sentences or phrases !!Grammar: the rules according to which the words of a language change form and are combined into sentences !!Register: the style of language use or degree of formality reflected in word choice and grammar

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission !!The words, syntax, style, and grammar used by speakers and writers in a particular situation or in a particular type of writing: !!Writing a text message to invite a friend to a party !!Writing an email message to a teacher requesting an extension on a research report !!Asking a coach for permission to miss practice !!Asking a manager at an internship to clarify expectations for a task 31 What are common challenges faced by U.S. immigrants? StudentsÕ Default Conversational Register Jobs. The language. Learning English. Formal Academic Discussion Register One challenge faced by immigrants is learning a new language. Formal Academic Text One challenge experienced by recent immigrants is learning an entirely different language. English communication and literacy skills are critical for adult immigrants if they want to have jobs that pay well or attend college. 32 !!Everyday !!Casual !!Conversational !!Playground !!General !!Spoken !!Private !!Academic !!Formal !!Official !!Classroom !!Precise !!Written !!Public 33 !!Before reading to build background, activate prior knowledge, and/or make predictions. !!Before reading to teach high-utility words. !!During reading to scaffold academic responses to comprehension questions. !!After reading to complete and/or articulate completed graphic organizers, writing frames. 35 !!Could you please explain_____? !!I donÕt quite understand _______? !!IÕm unsure about ______? !!Will you please explain ___ again? !!I have a question about ______. !!Did you say to _______? !!If I understand you correctly, should I ___________? !!What do you mean by _______? !!Can you provide an example of __? !!the homework directions !!this direction word !!where I should write !!the listening task !!the word synonym !!record or restate my idea !!restate his/her idea before I write it down !!a past-tense verb, a myth !!a bias, a homonym

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission 43 Licensed Lexical Contractors NOT Lexical Decorators Equip your students with high-utility words through explicit, accountable instruction! 44 45 Group 1/10 (Highest Incidence): analyze assume benefit concept consist context economy environment establish estimate factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal major method occur percent principle section significant similar source specific structure . . . word family: assume, v. assumed, adj. assumption, n. Source: (Averil Coxhead, 2000) !!Preselect 1-2 students to initiate class discussion. !!Invite a reticent participant with a strong response to contribute when you ask for volunteers. !!Encourage partner nominations. !!Invite all partner As/Bs 1s/2s to stand and report. !!Randomly select 1-2 students using name cards. !!Allow a reporter to ÒpopcornÓ to the next reporter. !!Ask for volunteers from sections of the classroom. 46 !!IÕd like to call on you to share your perspective at the beginning of our discussion. !!You will jump-start our class discussion with this observation. !!Reread your example sentence several times because I plan to call on you first. 47 !!Explain the reasons for reporting audibly. !!Conduct a ÒPublic Voice Warm-upÓ !!Provide phrased-cued and choral rehearsal of model responses. !!Coach less than audible students. !!DonÕt repeat responses for students. Instead, request audible restatements. !!Award participation points. 48

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission 50 Three strategies I will definitely use to maximize verbal participation are !!Create a supportive range in ability (e.g., high with fairly high or average) rather than pairing extremes. !!Include a newcomer or exceptionally low reader in a trio with capable students. !!Include a chronically absent student in a trio. !!Assign two ÒfloatersÓ to work with classmates whose partner is absent. 51 !!Pose a clear question or task !!Provide a written response frame !!Model a response (verbally & in writing) !!Clarify language target(s) in frame !!Guide reading of frame (phrase cued, choral) !!Check for understanding of expectations !!Assign a task for fast-finishers !!Specify which partner speaks first !!Share a second idea using the sentence frame. !!Share another idea using a challenge frame. !!Consider how you will justify your answer. !!Write your idea in your notebook. !!Write your partnerÕs idea in your notebook. !!Paraphrase your partnerÕs idea. !!Prepare to formally report your partnerÕs idea. !!Decide together which answer is the strongest. 53 !!Tending to administrative tasks !!Dwelling on a single student, pair or group !!Circulating excessively !!Exclusively policing behavior !!Over-tending to a particular gender/race !!Interrupting interactions !!Chronically repeating directions !!Avoiding feedback that elicits accuracy

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission Word Meaning Examples international in¥ter¥na¥tion¥al (adjective) Rate it: relating to two or more ________ ¥ Child labor is an international _______ It happens all over the world: e.g. _________ __________________ ¥ Michael Jackson was an international __________________ 1 2 3 56 international (adjective) !!Verbal Practice: If I could go on an international vacation, I would go to _________ and __________ !!Have students rate and discuss vocabulary knowledge using sentence frames. !!Build fluency with the frame using your model response: 1st phrase-cued, 2nd chorally. !!Vary your strategies for eliciting reporters: pre-selected(1-2); random(1-2); voluntary(1-2). !!Assign a listening-notetaking task during reporting. !!Have students write their sentences using the target word after practicing verbally. 57 !!3 I am familiar with the word __. It means __. I can use it in a sentence: !!2 I recognize the word __. It has something to do with __. !!1 I am unfamiliar with the word __. Do you know what it means? !!Where would you go on an international vacation? !!If I could go on an international vacation, I would go to Japan and Brazil. 59 !!I go on vacation every spring break. !!I go on vacation with my parents. !!My teacher went on vacation to Hawaii. !!I go to San Diego on spring break because my grandparents live there. !!My family goes to Mexico every summer. !!I went to San Jose last weekend to play soccer with my cousins. 60

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© Kate Kinsella, Ed. D. 2012 ~ All rights reserved. Do not modify or distribute electronically without permission !!English Language Arts Objective: Analyze point of view in a narrative !!English Language Development Objective: Speak in a complete sentence 61 62 A Sentence Starter Alone Does Not Reliably Structure Accurate Oral Fluency or Facilitate Timely, Effective Correction Task: Why does a thief steal? Sentence Starter: A thief steals because __ Student Responses w/o grammatical guidance: A thief steals because they might want what the other people has. A thief steals because they are hungry. A thief steals because he might see somethings he want and steal it. 63 A Sentence Frame Structures Accurate Oral Fluency and Facilitates Productive Error Correction Task: Why does a thief steal? Sentence Frame: A thief steal s because she / he _ (present tense verb + s: believesÉ) Verb Bank: Casual Precise needs requires, lacks wants desires likes prefers, enjoys 64 !!Implicit Feedback (Recasts) The teacher rearticulates what the student was trying to say with an utterance that includes a correction of the error(s) in the studentÕs utterance. !!Explicit Feedback (Prompts) The teacher explicitly draws the studentÕs attention to the error and encourages or requires the student to attempt to repair the utterance. Lyster, R. 2007; Ammar et al. 2007 65 !!perceiving that s/he is being affirmed !!perceiving that the teacher is repeating to verify the response or make it audible !!failing to grasp the implicit error correction Merely repeating the studentÕs utterance correctly predictably results in the learnerÉ !!Sentence starters !!Sentence stems !!Cloze sentences !!(Academic) Sentence frames (Dr. Kinsella) !!(Academic) Response frames (Dr. Kinsella) 66

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