The 2018-2019 revision process of the AERO Social Studies Framework has maintained the original K-12 standards and learning progressions based on the
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2 Table of Contents Introduction and Explanation of Framew ork Components 3 Longstanding Ideas, Renewed Emphasis 3 Inquiry and Social Studies Practices 4 C3 and AERO Framework 5 Table 1: AERO Practices and C3 Dimensions 6 Assessing the Social Studies Practices 6 Table 2: AERO Social Studies Practices and Literacy Connections 7 AERO, International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, and Advanced Placement 12 K-12 Framework Components 13 Standards, and Performance Indicators 13 K-12 Components of the Framework. 14 Grades K-2 Standards and Learning Progressions 15 Grades 3-5 Standards and Learning Progressions 24 Grades 6-8 Standards and Learning Progressions 33 Grades 9-12 Standards and Learning Progressions 41 High School Elective Courses 56 Appendix A: Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 66 References 80

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3 Introduction and Explanation of Framework Components Project AERO views social studies as a critical school subject that allows students to gain a comprehensive body of knowledge, understandings, and skills that will enable them to better understand the world as it was and currently is and provide them with the tools necessary to become critical and crea tive thinkers that can solve complex wo rld problems now and in the future. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) defines social studies as: –the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systema tic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociolo gy, as well as appropriate content fro m the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependen t world. The purpose of the AERO Social Studies Curriculum Framework is to provide schools with the foundational components for designing a Kindergarten through Grade 12 aligned curriculum and assessment program that prep ares students with the knowledge and intellectual processes, practices, and dispositions to be active, informed, engage d participants in public life. Longstanding Ideas, Renewed Emphasis The authors of the original AERO Social Studies Framework (2002) design ed standards which represented enduring ideas in the field and were international in scope. The first ve rsion of the Framework included eight K-12 st andards with learning progressions in grade bands: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. The fundamental premise was that the standa rds remain consistent grade-to-grade, while evidence of lear ning progresses over time. By design, specific c ontent or course topics were not included, thus allowing schools maximum flexibility to build curricula consistent with their missi ons and/or specific program needs. During the revision process in 2012, the eight standards remained intact, but in response to requests from schools, the learnin g progressions were identified for each grade level. This expansion resulted in tighter sequential alignment of skills and related content acr oss the grades. Schools also requested the addition of suggested course and/or content topics to be added. This was done; for example, Grade 1 focused on

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4 family as context and grades six and seven on world regions. In addition, Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions were added for each standard to provide focus for stude nt inquiry to be central to the clas sroom teaching and learning experiences. The 2018-2019 revision process of the AERO Social Studies Framew ork has maintained the original K-12 standards and learning progressions based on the strength of their substance and thei r continued viability as the f oundation for a robust and rigorous Social Studies curriculum. The Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions for each standard have also remained intact; however, the suggested course study or topics were removed to once again provide school s with greater flexibility when designing curriculum. The proc ess has also recognized the merits of the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Fr amework for Social Studies State Standards (NCSS, 2013), specifically, as it relates to the pedagogical shift to greater emphasis on inquiry in the classr oom. Though the focus on inquiry is not new to AERO social studies, this iteration of the framework gi ves it explicit emphasis. Questioning is key to learning, and by its nature, social studies promotes the use of questions throughout the learning process. As noted in the Scholarly Rationale for the C3 Framework, fiA growing body of research on how students learn school subjects such as social studies repeatedly teaches us that students ne ed opportunities to ask questio ns, pursue answers to those questions under the tutelage of expert teachers who can show them ho w to discipline their thinking processes, and take part in opportunities to communicate and act on their understandings.fl (NCSS, 20). Inquiry and Social Studies Practices In the AERO Social Studies Curriculum Framework, questions play a key role in curriculum desi gn. These questions aid students in the exploration of the disciplines in relation to the standards, while others transcend individual disciplinary categories and allow students to develop the habits of mind require d of a social scientist. Social scientists share similar practices which refer to those habi ts of mind that cross the disciplines of social studies. The term practices is used instead of skills to stress that engaging in social studies inquiry requires coordination of knowledge and skills (NRC, 2012). During the 2018-19 review process, five AERO Social St udies practices were developed, requiring students to: 1. Develop Questions and Plan Inquiries 2. Evaluate the Credibility of the Sources and Relevance of the Information to the Inquiry 3. Construct Coherent, Reasoned Arguments and Explanations 4. Communicate Conclusions From an Inquiry 5. Take Informed Action for the Common Good

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5 C3 and AERO Framework The C3 Framework resulted from the collabor ation between representatives from several state educ ational agencies in the United States and various professional organizations. The process was coordinated by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). The objectives of the effort were to: The C3 Framework contains four dimensions: Dimension 1: Developing Ques tions and Planning Inquiries Dimension 2: Applying Disc iplinary Tools and Concepts Dimension 3: Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence Dimension 4: Communicating Conc lusions and Taking Informed Action It should be noted that the res ponsibility for education in the United States fa lls to the 50 individual states; there is no na tional curriculum per se. The developers recognized that fact and thus C3 fiintentionally preserves the critical choices around the curricular content taught at each grade level as a decision best made by each state. It aims to support states crea ting standards that prepare young people for e ffective and successful participation in college, careers, and civic life.fl (C3, p. 6.) Dimension 2 includes descriptions of foundational concepts and disciplinary knowledge and tools associated with civics, economics, geography and hist ory. The concepts illustrate the disciplinary ideas, such as political structures, economic decision making, spatial pattern s, chronological seque ncing, that help organize the curriculu m and content states select. (C3, p.6) Dimension 2 does not, however, include content standards, leaving that responsibility to the states . In lieu of individual state standards, the AERO Social Studies Framework with its deliberately developed and vetted standards and learning progressions provides the necessary content standards that C3 does not. Dimensions 1,3, and 4 are linked to the AERO Social Studies practices outlined abov e. These practices reflect the Inquiry Literacies noted in the C3 Framework (2013). They describe the habits of mind that are criti cal for students to engage with disciplinary content, concepts, and skills. They are designed to enable students to acquire the necessary competencies to become informed global citizens who take constructive action for the common good. Table 1 shows the alignment of the AERO Social Studies Practices and the C3 Dimensions:

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6 AERO Social Studies Practices C3 Dimensions 1.Develop Questions and Plan Inquiries Dimension 1: Developing Ques tions and Planning Inquiries ______________________________________________ 2.Evaluate the Credibility of the Sources and Relevance of the Information to the Inquiry 3.Construct Coherent, Reasoned Arguments and Explanations Note: AERO Social Studies Standards replace Dimension 2 ____________________________________________________ Dimension 3: Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence 4. Communicate Conclusions from an Inquiry 5. Take Informed Action for the Common Good Dimension 4: Communicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action Assessing the Social Studies Practices In order to integrate the planning and assessment of the practices within the social studies units, the AERO Framework has link ed them to existing reading, writing, speaking and listening standards. This linkage emphasizes thos e skills that explicitly connect to inquiry, and recognizes the responsibility that social studies plays in honing those skills, such as determining explicit information, drawi ng logical inferences, citing evidence, etc. The practi ces can be assessed in Grad es K-5 using the AERO English/Language Arts Standards in reading, writing, speaking and listening. For Grades 6-12, the practices can be assessed by way of the English/Language Arts Literacy in History /Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects for Reading and Writing (see Appendix A) , and in the AERO English/Language Arts Standards for Speaking, Listening, and Writi ng. The following table illustra tes the connections betwee n the AERO Social Studies Practices and those standards for Grades 6-12. The literacy standards for History/Social Studies (H/SS) are highlighted in yellow; the English/Language Arts Standards for Listening and Speaking are highlighted in green; the Writing Standards are highlighted in gray.

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8 and relevance of the sources in order to refine the inquiry Use relevant evidence from credible sources in order to formulate claims and counterclaims and further develop logically sequenced, reasoned arguments and explanations. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. H/SS Reading 1.3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. H/SS Reading 1.4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. H/SS Reading 1.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. H/SS Reading 1.6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. H/SS Reading 1.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and qua ntitatively, as well as in words. H/SS Reading 8.1 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoni ng as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. H/SS Reading 1.9

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9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. H/SS Reading 1.10 Read and comprehend complex lit erary and informational texts independently and proficiently. H/SS Writing 1.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization. H/SS Writing 1.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. ELA Writing Standard W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. H/SS Writing 1.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. H/SS Writing 1.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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10 H/SS Writing 1.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. ELA Listening and Speaking LS.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. Communicate conclusions from an inquiry. Take informed action for the common good. Share the results of the inquiry with others. Choose appropriate methods and media based on purpose and audience. Use the conclusions from an inquiry to determine appropriate. responses to issues, challenges, and concerns in society. Take informed action based on results of an inquiry. H/SS Reading 1.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. ELA Writing W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. H/SS Writing 1.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. H/SS Writing 1.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. H/SS Writing 1.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

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11 H/SS Writing 1.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. H/SS Writing 1.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. ELA Writing W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. H/SS Writing 1.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. ELA Listening and Speaking LS.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. ELA Listening and Speaking LS.2 Integrate and evaluate informati on presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. ELA Listening and Speaking LS.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of vi ew, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

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