Metal 3D printing introduces a unique and groundbreaking method to additively manufacture metal parts. Until recently, the technology was too immature to
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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 2Introduction Metal 3D printing introduces a unique and groundbreaking method to additively manufacture metal parts. Until recently, the technology was too immature to broadly utilize in manufacturing Š however, advancement detailing why metal 3D printing is valuable, what technologies and materials are out there, and how you can In this guide, you™ll learn about: Ł Ł Types of printers and groups of printable materials available today. Ł The four key application spaces of metal 3D printing. Ł Ł Three ways to adapt your business to be successful with metal 3D printers. fiTwo-thirds of manufacturers surveyed are currently implementing 3DP in some way. One in four said they plan to adopt 3DP some time in the future.fl PWC 3D Printing and the New Shape of Industrial Manufacturing

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 3 case. 3D printing is a more agile process than other fabrication methods Š allowing you to go from design to complex metal drastically shortening lead times that bog down your product development process, implementing metal 3D printing correctly given our engineers the tools they need to put their thoughts into parts.fl Eric Mertz, CEO Caldwell Manufacturing Why limit your ability to generate revenue with long product development cycles? Manufacturing is expensive Š it requires skilled labor, advanced machines, and custom tooling all working in tandem making new parts.

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 4 come from manufacturing challenges that metal 3D printing is better suited to tackle than conventional fabrication methods. Companies that successfully adopt additive manufacturing apply its unique advantages to the challenges that they face. Why let your designs be limited by traditional manufacturing constraints? parts are cheaper, easier, and faster to produce with a metal 3D printer. can print everything from generatively designed structures to custom cooling channels. Why spend time generating drawings and programming CAM if you don™t have to? fabricating parts. You can go from design to part with shorter lead times and less labor. manufacturing process, occupy manufacturing bandwidth without generating revenue. For low volume production Why commit time and labor to accomplish tasks that are poorly optimized? manufacturers, and extended fabrication queues Š create problems that extend through an entire organization. Simple logistical problems can wreak havoc. Metal additive manufacturing will help you become a more dynamic, responsive organization. Utilizing a metal 3D

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 5 the processes by which these machines transform powder into solid metal parts. From using high energy lasers to extruding In this section, we™ll be covering the four most common types of metal 3D printers. 1. Powder Bed Fusion 2. Direct Energy Deposition 3. Binder Jetting4. Bound Powder Extrusion* Technology Maturity Cost ($)Facility Requirements Part Size Precision Powder Bed Fusion HighPowder management, heat treatment) HighDirect Energy Deposition HighPowder management, equipment (CNC, surface Binder Jetting Powder management, batch processing equipment (surface HighBound Powder Extrusion* MediumBasic ventilation (not for metal depending on use case (CNC, heat treatment, surface Medium*Markforged produces machines that use Bound Powder Extrusion to 3D print parts.

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 7Direct Energy Deposition (DED) machines use metal feedstock (powder or wire) and a laser to fabricate parts. Unlike powder bed fusion, the media is dispensed through a print head as while simultaneously being sintered by a laser. Powder DED is slightly can be used to produce rough shapes of very large parts quickly. Both technologies are relatively niche when compared to Powder Bed Fusion. Pros: Ł Ł Ł DED systems can be mounted on robotic arms and 5 axis gantries, allowing Ł dynamically repair or fihealfl broken parts. Cons: Ł Powder DED machines are less accurate than Powder Bed Fusion machines Ł handle. Ł Expensive to set up and labor intensive to operate. Verdict: still a largely industrial choice appropriate for those with specialized needs, like large Technologies: Powder DED Technology Maturity: High: Proven technology with a Acquisition Cost: Facility Requirements: Powder management, required (CNC, surface Recommended Part Size: Bound Powder Media

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 8 be sintered in batches. Though it has massive potential as a production 3D printing solution, Binder Jetting is still an immature technology Š key questions remain about part accuracy, quality, and repeatability. Pros: Ł The process uses no lasers, meaning it requires less energy and typically Ł Jetting machines can achieve higher throughput than other methods. Ł Process can yield highly complex/intricate geometries, and does not require mechanical separation from build plates. Cons: Ł Ł Ł Verdict: years. Technologies: Binder JettingMetal JettingTechnology Maturity: circulation and key technical questions unanswered Acquisition Cost: Facility Requirements: Powder management, batch processing recommended treatment, etc.) Recommended Part Size: Sintering Binding Polymer Metal Powder Roller

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 9 Powder Extrusion systems use a debinding system and a sintering furnace to turn printed parts fully into metal. Due to their low Pros: Ł Ł Ł Ł Ł Ł Cons: Ł Relatively low throughput relative to other systems. Ł Minimum part size and part intricacy are constrained by nozzle diameter. Ł Verdict: use makes it the most accessible option for a wide variety of industries. Technologies: Metal FFF Technology Maturity: Medium: Technology is proven for many applications and is still maturingAcquisition Cost: Facility Requirements: Ventilation for wash and sinter, parts (heat treatment, CNC, Recommended Part Size: Sintering Bound Powder Media

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Guide to Metal 3D Printing | 10Steel versatility, and broad use in precision manufacturing make it an excellent option for printing high quality parts. Most types of steel can be printed, but the two types most commonly used are stainless steels and tool steels Š metals that are more expensive Stainless steels content (at least 12%, often up to 18%). Two types of stainless steels are commonly printed: austenitic and martensitic. Ł Austenitic stainless steels , the most common type of stainless steels, are corrosion resistant and can be both machined and welded, though they cannot be heat treated. 316L is common 3D printed stainless steel known for its superior corrosion resistance. Ł Martensitic stainless steels are much harder than austenitic steels, but more brittle and less corrosion resistant. 17-4 PH used throughout manufacturing. Tool steels series tool steels. Ł A Series A2 often used to make punches and dies, as well as a wide variety of other applications. Ł D Series used for cold work applications. The most common variety of D Series tool steel is D2 for all kinds of cutting tools, from blades to industrial cutting tools and knives. Ł H Series tool steels cut and shape material at high (or cycling) temperatures. H13 is the most common 3D printed Positive attributes: Ł Ł Ł Heat treatable 3D printed stainless steel grippers are used to operate an automated bending cell.

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