we review existing models of trauma-informed Which definitions best fit with the vision and suspension and expulsion of young children and do.

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 1 Creating Trauma -Informed Policies : A Practice Guide for School and Mental Health Leadership By Leora Wolf -Prusan, EdD Cre ating compassionate policies is a cornerstone strategy of educational leadership. Recently, teachers, school counselors, school -based health center directors, nurses, mental health providers, and district and state administrators have embraced trauma -informed care in education. Policies are just written practices. If policies, practices, and programs do not align with practitioners™ core principles, a policy is simply words on pa per. When developing policies , leaders have many distinct opportunities to be thoughtful, strategic , and intentional about the what, why, how, with , and for whom. This guide provides an overview of four leadership fichoice pointsfl that influence the creation, development , and impactful implementation of school practices and approaches that align with trauma -informed and compassionate school principles. 1 We use the term choice point to reflect the options leaders have to consider , including the costs and benefits of each option. We offer leadership and practice suggestions for state , LEA , school site , and other student mental health organizations to strengthen leadership approaches . The guide presents these suggestions organized around four key policy choice points : 1. Names & Definitions: What is the intended outcome of the trauma -informed work, and how might you choose policy language that reflects the mission and vision of the work? 2. Platform & Levers: What is the right policy entry point? Which avenue will allow the policy to carry the most impact? 3. Approach: Is it most effective, impactful, and sustaining to add to existing policies ; amend current policies to include trauma -informed principles ; align concurrent initiatives with a trauma informed focus ; drop policies that are trauma unin formed, or add a new policy altogether? 1 Note that for the purposes of this issue brief, we use the term fitrauma -informed schoolsfl to reference policies that develop, ensure, and promote personalized learning environments informed by brain science and centered on positive school climates with re lationships as the main driver. See Table 1 for more choices regarding the name or term to use for this pedagogical policy and practice approach. How might school mental health leadership leverage educational and mental health policies to improve the experience and outcomes for students and those who serve them?

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 2 4. Match Process to Product: how might the process of developing the policy embody trauma -informed principles? Although t his guide is intended to be useful for education leaders and practitioners nationwide, special consideration is given to the Pacific Southwest states and islands: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, American Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. Throughout this guide, we review existing models of trauma -informed policy and legislation , with a focus on examples from the Pacific Southwest . Choice Point 1: Names & Definitions Identify the outcome, name the practice, inform the policy Language matters. The term fitrauma -informed schoolsfl can hold a wide range of meanings to different practitioners. Clarifying key concepts and definitions at the outset ensures that practices and programs are aligned with shared values and visions for the work. Good policies are built upon shared understanding, concepts, and research. The definitions we choose and the way we name practices informs our core principles and subsequent action steps. When choosing a defin ition, name, or term, consider how this language will resonate with your stakeholders. How would your proposed policy look, sound, and feel like to all community members ? Is it strengths -based? How might a teacher, administrator, funder, partner, parent, or student hear or understand the definition similarly or differently ? For example, in some communities it may be vital to integrate principles of equity and empowerment (including the impacts of historical trauma, community and system oppression, and mi cro -aggressions) into a definition of trauma. The meaning of fitrauma -informed schoolsfl can include multiple definitions and can hold many different names. One of the core intentions behind the trauma -informed school movement is to create safety by building secure relationships. Blodgett and Dorado observe that fithe foundational concepts of good trauma response Šthat compassion has the power to heal, that placing a priority on the power of relationships is essential for change, and that assuring safety should be a right of childhood Šall create hope for better outcomes and point to the kinds of immediate actions that make change a realistic possibility for many.fl The first choice that mental health and educational leaders face is to identify the intended out come of the work. Appendix I highlights diverse definitions of trauma and trauma -informed. Use these concepts to create consensus for your organization on the meaning of trauma and to develop a shared understanding of the change your policy seeks to ac hieve. CHOICE POINT 1 PRACTICE SUGGESTIONS 1. Explore the definitions provided in Appendix I . What do you notice in the language differences? What language resonates, and what language is not culturally aligned? Draft a definition and get feedback from students, parents/guardians, educators, and other stakeholders. 2. Ask each other: with this policy name, what practices would stay the same? What practices and belief systems might need to shift? Who benefits from th e chosen language? Who might not? Who may feel challenged? 3. Finalize the definition for school/agency/organizational practice. 4. Review the policy™s name frequently: are there new terms used? New science to inform policy and practice? How might new organization members or students re -inform the name of the work? CHOICE POINT 1 LEADERSHIP QUESTIONS 1. What values and beliefs are you trying to communicate? What is the outcome of this work? 2. Which definitions best fit with the vision and mission of your organization and community?

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 3 3. Is there language that your community (constituents, stakeholders, students, families, school employees, partnerships) would like to add to these definitions? 4. What language do your partners, funders, or other stakeholders use? How can you ensure alignment? Choice Point 2: Platforms & Levers Select the p latform (s) for optimal p olicy change and advocacy A policy needs a platform. Platform options include large platforms (large federal or state systems) and/or local platforms (individual community, school , or district -based). When designing policies, it is important to choose the platform that will most impact practice shift in a sustainable, equitable manner. It is critical for leadership teams to understand the policy levers unique to their own environment. Some states, like California and Nevada, have adopted local control agreements that provide the individual schools or district s a degree of autonomous decision making. These states may be more inclined to craft trauma -informed school policies at the local policy level, especially if the policies are written by and for students and teachers. Hawaii is the only state in the country to have a single statewide school district (Hawaii’s public schools are 100% funded by the state); it may be more effective for Hawaii to approach policy at the large systems platform level. CHOICE POINT 2 LEADERSHIP QUESTIONS 1. Which platform will maximize the culture shift desired? 2. Is it more sustainable to create and establish a policy from the top down or bottom up? 3. How m ight leadership from both levels collaborate to create policies that are aligned and mutually informing at the state and systems levels, as well as the school and classroom levels? CHOICE POINT 2 PRACTICE SUGGESTIONS Before choosing a platform, conduct a landscape analysis to assess the platform that will be most impactful, efficient , and effective. Suggested practice steps: 1. Gather a team together to begin a policy platform landscape analysis. 2. Ask: w hat policies at both platform levels are already in place ? 3. Ask : w hich partners (political groups, leaders, agencies) promoted the policy™s construction? 4. Determine the trajectory and outcomes of previous policy efforts. Were there efforts to enact new policies that never get off the ground? With whom might you connect to assess th e challenges of these previous efforts? 5. What are the benefits and challenges to choosing to establish a trauma -informed policy through large systems versus through a local contingency? Platforms- Large (Systems -based) ŒPolicies at the federal government, state mental health care or education system, LEA or ISD board levels ŒDriven by recom mendations of the school, district, or membership of an organization (e.g., the National School Board Association, the NEA) ŒHelpful to put in place when there is a need to mandate practices and procedures for the greater health of a school population or community; greatly informs funding streams and accountability Platforms- Local (C ommunity- school based) ŒSchool – or district -level practices, procedures, and policies ŒCan be collectively constructed by students, families, and staff (e.g., PBIS norms, student codes of conduct, school mental health referral pathway policies) ŒCan either inform or be informed by the systems -level platform policies Adapted from fiTrauma -Informedfl Student Codes Of Conduct (Walters, 2018)

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 4 Choice Point 3: Add, Drop, Amend, Adapt, or Align? Assess where you are to inform the most effective and efficient approach Creating trauma -informed school policies doesn™t always have to start with draft ing new policies . Mental health and education leaders can add, drop, amen d, adap t, or align trauma -informed policies for school systems, districts, LEAs, ISDs, or school communities. See Appendix II for sample trauma -informed , school -related policy at various levels for examples of existing policies in action. The following are five practical approaches to the ado ption or adaptation of trauma -informed policies. ADD a commitment to trauma -informed care to existing policies. Y our school community may be already committed to social -emotional learning, grief -sensitive schools, school mental health referral pathways, or a multi -tiered system of support. N ew research and evidence -based practices can support additions to existing policies for students who have experienced trauma. For example, Child Trends recommends local and statewide agencies add a specific focus o n early childhood development as the main pathway to developing trauma -responsive school environments . The report suggests creating fipolicies that promote the placement of young children who have experienced trauma in high -quality ECE programs [and] policies that severely limit or prohibit the suspension and expulsion of young children .fl 2 By adding trauma -specific provisions to already existing policies, practitioners may be more successful at implementation. DROP policies that are recognized as tra uma -uninformed (or trauma -inducing or retraumatizing) . These policies include those that promote the suspension and expulsion of young children and do not provide appropriate interventions for children 2 Bartlett, J., Smith, S., & Bringewatt, E. (2017). Helping Young Children Who Have Experienced Trauma: Policies and Strategies for Early Care and Education (Rep.). Child Trends. who have experienced trauma and have social -emotional or behavioral difficulties. AMEND policies that can™t be dropped because they are required by law. It can be transformational to review policies that are already in place and assess areas in which these policies can be augmented with a trauma -informed len s. Note that this may include policies that are seemingly unrelated to student mental health but have great potential to impact and contribute to trauma (e.g., immigration policy, housing policy). One place to start is with a school™s code of conduct. Yo ur team should ask, fiHow does your student code of conduct reflect a trauma -informed lens?fl The following link provides concrete examples of trauma -informed policies that can help your team begin to assess your current code of conduct: “Trauma -Informed” Student Codes of Conduct .3 ADAPT trauma -informed legislation that exists in another system (juvenile justice, mental health) and re -tool legislation that has been successful in other school systems. For example, an eight -state initiative was led by SAMHSA and the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) to eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in residential facilities and hospitals. Through that initiative, Hawaii changed its statewide culture in mental health facilities. The same learnings could be applied to school systems in the Pacific Southwest region. ALIGN trauma -informed policy with existing policies. Too often, trauma -informed policy development is seen as fione more thing fl to implement rather than a paradigm shift in the way an organizatio n operates ; this feeling of burden can lead to resistance. Schools and districts already have policies and practices in place that may align with a trauma -informed approach. Using an assets -based lens , teams can complete a survey of policies and practices that are already in place. Examining and identifying these connecting points can ensure a 3 https://drjim -walters -jt4a.squarespace.com/my -blog/trauma -informed -stu dent -codes -of-conduct (Date of access: 1/10/19)

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 5 school system and communit y™s adherence and support. Below is sample policy content that can inform, align , and augment trauma -informed school policy: School expulsion and disciplinary policy .2 The US Departments of Education and Justice ha ve recently released guidance on trauma -informed school discipline policies (see Rethinking School Discipline ). Highlighted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the guide defines trauma -informed school discipline as that in which fi accountability is balanced with an understanding of traumatic behavior; positive behavioral support is emphasized; clear and firm limits are set for behavior; logical Šinstead of punitive Šconsequences are developed; consistent rules and consequences are created; and n on -violent and respectful relationships are modelledfl (see more at the Administration for Children and Families Resources Specific to Schools page) School climate and culture policy . School climate and culture policies include restorative practices and whole child approaches. When aligned to trauma – informed principles, school climate policy explicitly name s the wellness factor (burnout prevention, compassionate fatigue intervention) for school employees (including support staff, cafeteria , and maintenance staff). See more specific examples in How Trauma -Informed Schools Help Every Student Succe ed by the Crisis Prevention Institute. Educator (teachers, counselors, school site leaders) professional development policy . Educator professional development policy can be aligned to a trauma -informed approach. These professional development mandates mi ght encourage both educators and community leaders to take lead roles in the professional development delivery. They can offer opportunities that are relationship -focused and relational, and include ongoing coaching to support workforce capacity building . Opportunities should be appropriately sequenced (meaning they are long – term and ongoing). For example, t rauma -informed professional development opportunities might require training on adverse childhood experiences or the brain and its impact on behavior. Social and emotional health school policy or wellness policies . Wellness policies often focus on nutritional and physical health for school and district communities. These wellness policies can be augmented by adding language that invites the s ame approach to healthy living, but with a socio -emotional and/or resiliency lens (e.g. , San Diego Unified School District™s 2017 Wellness Policy ). Another approach is to align trauma -informed policy with the human relations/resources department to maximize a commitment to workforce development (e.g. , Trauma -Informed Oregon™s human resource policies assess and address the training, onboarding, and supervision of personnel 4). Crisis response , readiness, and recovery policy . Many school districts have crisis response policies in place. If aligned to a trauma -informed school practice, these policies can explicitly name what constitutes a crisis (e.g., school shooting, death of a student, community violence); describe what equi table and peer -led crisis response practices can be instituted; and focus on recovery and repair after a critical incident. To be aligned with trauma – informed practice, crisis response policy would assume the crisis has universal impact and anticipate that the event may activate students™ and staff members™ trauma response. For example, the promotion of restorative circles would be a trauma -informed response to crisis. Violence prevention policy . Many states, counties, cities , and school districts have p olicies that address violence prevention. For example, California convened a multidisciplinary group of stakeholders and consumer s in June 2018 to discuss the needs and future direction of violence prevention in California . Examples of how the attendees envisioned an alignment between violence prevention and trauma -informed policy included fiengage communities and youth,fl fifoster community engagement and increase social cohesion ,fl and pursue a ficoordinated approach to funding .fl Details can be found in the Violence Prevention Initiative Public Health Convening Summary and Notes . 4 See http://traumainformedoregon.org/wp -content/uploads/2016/01/Human -Resources -Practices -to-Support -TIC.pdf and https://traumainformedoregon.org/standards -practice -trauma -informed -care/#standard3

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 6 CHOICE POINT 3 LEADERSHIP QUESTIONS 1. What current policies and practices need to be added? 2. What current policies and practices need to be dropped? 3. What current policies and practices can™t be dropped but can be amended? 4. What role does the school board play in this process? 5. Are there other systems from which you might adapt policy or legislation? 6. What is your process for identifying and aligning current policy? CHOICE POINT 3 PRACTICE SUGGESTIONS When choosing whether to add, drop, amend, adapt , or align, it™s useful to conduct a landscape analysis to asse ss what policies currently exist. Suggested practice steps: 1. Gather a team together to begin a policy landscape analysis. 2. Identify the data that will inform your decision -making and support understanding of the impact of a currently existing policy . 3. Choose a data inquiry protocol Ša structured method to review data and help structure your data -driven decision making .5 4. Appendix II offers examples to reference when adapting , adopting, or aligning trauma -informed policy (general and school -focused). Across the country, entities at the national, state, and local level have been creating both systems – and local -level policies that bolster trauma -informed school practice. There are many examples to draw from in the structure, content, and language of existing po licy to contextualize for your own needs. 5 See nsrfharmony.org for sample data inquiry protocols for practitioners. Choice Point 4: Matching Process to Product Mirror a trauma -informed approach in the development of the policy The way in which we approach policy development and the establishment of a trauma -informed school community, building, or system is most impactful when the process itself model s trauma -informed principles and values . The fihow fl deeply impacts the fiwhat. fl SAMHSA™s six trauma informed principles 6 (s ee box ) can ground leadership choices that shape the policy™s development and implementation. The following are examples of three ways in which the process of trauma -informed policy development can embody the principles it espouses: Cross -sector collaboration : Policies are most successfully integrated and implemented when developed across sectors. If the policy platform is a local mental health department of a local education agency, try developing the policy with early childhood, college and career, curriculum and instr uction, physical education, and other departments to ensure a true community of practice. The work of developing the policy can be collective and collaborative, with an emphasis on peer work and equity. This helps eliminate potential barriers and avoid common pitfalls of complex change. Transparent communication : Ensure that stakeholders and partners know throughout every stage of the process where the policy is in its development, the arising challenges, the 6 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA™s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma Informed Approach. HHS Publica tion No. (SMA) 14 -4884. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014. SAMHSA™s Six Trauma Informed Principles 1. Safety 2. Transparency and Trustworthiness 3. Choice and Collaboration 4. Peer Support 5. Mutuality and Empowerment 6. Attunement to Cultural, Historical, and Ge nder Issues

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 8 CLOSE This guide for education and mental health leaders examined the four choice points to consider in the development of policies that support trauma -informed school practice, programs, and pedagogy. These four choice points are foundational steps to building policy and practice structures that support sustainable implementation of a trauma -informed approach. The establishment of clear and coherent policy is essential to ensure fidelity, adherence, sustainability, and, most importantly, overall improved outcomes for students and staff. RESOURCES Measuring Progress Towards Becoming a Trauma -Informed School (Now is the Time TA Center for SAMHSA, 2017) Restorative Practices: Approaches at the Intersection of School Discipline and School Mental Health (Now is the Time TA Center for SAMHSA, 2015) How Trauma -Informed Schools Help Every Student Succeed (Eilers, Crisis Prevention Institute, 2018 ) Guide to Trauma -Informed Organizational Development (THRIVE, 2010) Trauma -Informed Social Policy: A Conceptual Framework for Policy Analysis and Advocacy ( Bowen & Murshid, 2016) Trauma Sensitive Schools Training Package (Na tional Center of Safe Supportive Learning Environments) Šincludes training modules on discipline practices, communication with students and families, and safety procedures (alignment with trauma -informed principles and guiding questions for school leaders) Trauma -Informed Schools for Children in K -12: A System Framework ( The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2017) Yatchmenoff, D. (2015). Creat ing the Conditions for Change: Emerging Policies to Promote and Support Trauma -Informed Care (Vol. 29, Trauma Informed Care, pp. 28 -31, Issue brief). Focal Point: Youth, Young Adults, & Mental Health. Warshaw, C., Tinnon, E., & Cave, C. (2018 ). Tools for Transformation: Becoming Accessible, Culturally Responsive, and Trauma -Informed Organizations An Organizational Reflection Toolkit (Publication). National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health. Wisconsin Department of Instruction™s Tool: Review Tool for School Policies, Protocols, Procedures & Documents: Examination Using a Trauma -Sensitive School Lens REFERENCES Bartlett, J., Smith, S., & Bringewatt, E. (2017). Helping Young Children Who Have Experienced Trauma: Policies and Strategies for Early Care and Education (Rep.). Child Trends. Blodgett, C., & Dorado, J. (2015). A Selected Review of Trauma -Informed School Practice and Alignment with Educational Practice (White paper). CLEAR Trauma Center Washington State University. Connors -Tadros, L., & Hammond, J. (2017). Information and resources to assist states in developing policy on early childhood suspension and expulsion (CEELO Policy Report). New Brunswick, NJ: Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes. Cooper, J., Masi, R., Dababnah, S., Aratani, Y., & Knitzer, J. (2007). Strengthening Policies to Support Children, Youth, and Families Who Experience Trauma (Vol. 2, U nclaimed Children Revisited, pp. 1 -102, Rep.). National Center for Children in Poverty. Ginwright, S. (2018, May 31). The Future of Healing: Shifting From Trauma Informed Care to Healing Centered Engagement [Web log post]. Retrieved December 13, 2018, fro m https://medium.com/@ginwright/the -future -of-healing -shifting -from -trauma -informed -care -to-healing -centered -engagement -634f557ce69 Jennings, P. A., & Siegel, D. J. (2019). The trauma -sensitive classroom: Building resilience with compassionate teaching . New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Pickens, I.B., & Tschopp, N. (2017). Trauma -Informed Classrooms . National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA™s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma -Informed Approach . HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14 – 4884. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014.

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 9 APPENDIX I: Naming the Practice; Informing the Policy Below are various terms and definitions that those involved with policy development and implementation can use, adapt, or glean from when choosing the language to describe the desired outcomes of the policy. TRAUMA: CHOOSING A DEFINITIO N THAT MATCHES YOUR CULTURE, CLIMATE , AND OUTCOMES EXAMPLES OF DEFINITI ON VARIATIONS WITHIN A TERM Historically, the concept of trauma has focused on individual trauma Šchildhood abuse and neglect, adult or adolescent sexual assault, an d abuse by an intimate partner, as well as the individual effects of combat trauma and military sexual assault. Yet many people experience collective forms of trauma, as well Štrauma that affects people as part of a particular community, culture, or group. These experiences continue to affect individuals and communities across generations, including the ongoing legacies of trauma resulting from structural violence, slavery, and colonization; the trauma of war, poverty, displacement, a nd persecution; the trau ma of transphobic, homophobic, and gender -based violence; as well as the insidious, microaggressive trauma of objectification, dehumanization, and marginalization that many people experience daily. | National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental He alth, 2018, p. 48 -49 Individual trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual™s functioning an d mental , physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well -being. | SAMHSA , 2014, p. 7 Experiences or situations that are emotionally painful and distressing, and that overwhelm people™s ability to cope, leaving them powerless. | Center for Nonviolence and Social Justice , Drexel University TRAUMA -INFORMED CARE AND PRA CTICES Trauma -informed practices may reflect the application of a deeper knowledge of trauma and recovery, include specific practices and policies, and typically involves systemic integration of trauma knowledge and skills into all asp ects of organizational practices. | SAMHSA, 2014 All adults able to recognize and respond to the impact of trauma on young children, and to infuse trauma awareness, knowledge, and skills into program culture, practices, and policies. | Child Trends , 2017 TRAUMA -INFORMED ORGANIZATIO NS AND AGENCIES Trauma -informed describes an approach that recognizes the pervasiveness and impact of trauma on survivors, staff, organizations, and comm unities, and ensures that this understanding is incorporated into every aspect of an organization™s administration, culture, environment, and service delivery. A trauma -informed organization actively works to decrease re -traumatization and support resilien ce, healing, and well -being. Additionally, trauma -informed organizations recognize ongoing and historical experiences of discrimination and oppression, and are committed to changing the conditions that contribute to the existence of abuse and violence in p eople™s lives. A trauma -informed approach involves providing access to a range of healing modalities and practices, and creating community partnerships to ensure survivors and their children have access to trauma, mental health, and substance use services. Trauma -informed organizations support survivors to feel more connected and empowered as they prepare for situations that are potentially retraumatizing. A trauma -informed approach fosters an awareness of what we, as service providers, bring to ou r interactions, including our own experiences of trauma as well as the ways we are affected when we are truly open to the experiences of other people. | National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health , 2018, p. 8 TRAUMA -INFORMED CLASSROOMS A learning environment infused [with] an understanding of the impact of trauma and adverse life experiences on stude nts into the classroom culture and promote a physically and psychologically safe environment to foster student growth. Classroom structure[s] promote safety, appropriately use disciplinary action and helps students manage overwhelming responses to stress. | National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health , 2018, p. 8

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Pacific Southwest MHTTC 10 TRAUMA -INFORMED SCHOOLS Trauma response moves from trauma awareness, to trauma sensitivity, to trauma -informed practice with progressive shifts the depth of understanding and level of formal change efforts. | Blodgett & Dorado , 2015, p. 46 Trauma -informed schools acknowledge the prevalence of traumatic occurrence in students™ lives and create a flexible framework that provides universal supports, is sensitive to unique n eeds of students, and is mindful of avoiding re -traumatization. | Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction TRAUMA -INFORMED SYSTEM A trauma -informed child – and family -service syst em is one in which all parties recognize and respond to the impact of traumatic stress on those who have contact with the system, including children, caregivers, and service providers. Programs and agencies within such a system infuse and sustain trauma aw areness, knowledge, and skills into their organizational cultures, practices, and policies. They act in collaboration with all those who are involved with the child, using the best available science, to facilitate and support the recovery and resiliency of the child and family. | National Child Traumatic Stress Network RESILIENT -ORIENTED SCHOOLS [OR ] RESILIENCE IN SCHO OL ENVIRONMENTS Teachers routinely work with c hildren who experience traumatic life events ranging from abuse and neglect, natural disasters, and the death of someone close. The effects of others™ trauma can negatively impact life at work and home. Like first responders who respond to critical incide nts, teachers need training and coping skills to protect their own physical, emotional, and mental health. Resilient school environments not only focus on student well -being, but also on school employee wellness. | Kaiser Permanente Southern California COMPASSIONATE SCHOOL S Compassionate schools support all students and are focused ultimately on helping teachers understand fundamental brain development and function, learning pedagogy, recognize a mandate for self -care, correctly interpret behaviors, manage negative behaviors successfully with compassionate and effective strategies, and engage students, families, and the com munity. | Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction TRAUMA -RESPONSIVE/SENSITIVE SCHOOLS Trauma sensitive practices may involve a more general appreciation of the impact of t rauma and global supportive strategies such as encouraging quality of relationships and promoting safety. | Blodgett & Dorado , 2015, p. 46 A trauma -sensitive and trauma -informed school provide increased access to behavioral and mental health services, effective community collaboration, an increased feeling of physical, social, and emotional safety among students, and positive and culturally res ponsive discipline policies and practices that increase school connectedness. | National Resilience Institute HEALING -CENTERED ENGAGEMENT A healing -cent ered approach is holistic involving culture, spirituality, civic action, and collective healing. A healing -centered approach views trauma not simply as an individual isolated experience, but rather highlights the ways in which trauma and healing are experi enced collectively. The term fihealing -centered engagementfl expands how we think about responses to trauma and offers more holistic approach to fostering well -being. | Ginwright , 2018

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