Islamist groups prevented an overall upgrade for political freedom. urged the government to apply more balance in the distribution of state advertising,.
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Freedom in the World 201The Annual Survey oPolitical Rights & Civil LibertieArch Puddington General Editor Aili Piano Managing Editor Jennifer Dunham, Bret Nelson, Tyler Roylance Associate Editors Freedom House Ł New York, NY and Washington, DRowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Ł Lanham, BoulderNew York, Toronto, Oxfor

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ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC. Published in the United States of America by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PY, United Kingdom Copyright © 2013 by Freedom House All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Freedom in the world / Š1978Š New York : Freedom House, 1978v. : map; 25 cm.Š(Freedom House BookAnnualISSN 0732-6610=Freedom in the World1. Civil rightsŠPeriodicals. I. R. Adrian Karatnycky, et al. I. SeriesJC571 ,F66 323.4’05Šdc 19 82-64204AACR 2 MARC-Library of Congress [84101ISBN: 978-1-4422-0121-7 (cloth : alk. paper ISBN: 978-1-4422-0122-4 (pbk : alk. paperISBN: 978-1-4422-0123-1 (electronic ISSN: 0732-661Printed in the United States of AmericThe paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of AmericaNational Standard for Information SciencesŠPermanence of Paper for Printed LibrarMaterials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992

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Conténts Acknowledgments Freedom in the World 2013Democratic Breakthroughs in the BalancArch Puddington Introduction 1Country Reports 1Related and Disputed Territory Reports 78Survey Methodology 84Tables and Ratings 8585Table of Independent Countries 86Table of Disputed Territories 86Table of Related Territories 86Combined Average Ratings: Independent Countries 86Combined Average Ratings: Related and Disputed Territories 86Table of Electoral DemocracieThe Survey Team 86Selected Sources 87Freedom House Board of Trustees 88

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Freedom in the World 2013 Democratic Breakthroughs in the Balance Arch Puddington As the year 2012 drew to a close, events in the Middle Hast dramatized two competing trends: demands for change pushed forward by popular democratic movements, and an authoritarian response that combines intransigence with strategic adaptability. The ambiguous nature of these developments, combined with either instability or authoritarian retrenchment in other regions, had a significant impact on the state of global freedom. The findings of Freedom in the World 2013, the latest edition of Freedom House’s annual report on political rights and civil liberties, showed that more countries registered declines than exhibited gains over the course of 2012. This marks the seventh consecutive year in which countries with declines outnumbered those with improvements. Yet the number of countries ranked as Free increased by three, and now stands at 90, suggesting that the overall ferment includes a potential for progress as well as deterioration. Developments in Egypt in particular encapsulated a pattern in which gains for freedom in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) were threatened by opposition from governments, security forces, ruling families, or religiously based political factions. In Egypt, the year was notable for a flawed but competitive presidential election, the withdrawal of the military from its self-appointed political supremacy, and a continued assertiveness by popular movements in the face of antidemocratic threats. Despite the energy of civil society and the shift to civilian rule, however, the country was confronted by daunting problems, experiencing at various times a campaign to hobble foreign and local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the dissolution of an elected parliament by the judiciary, a faulty process to draft a new constitution, resistance to change by entrenched elites, and a power grab by newly elected president Mohamed Morsi that was only partially thwarted by mass protests. Finally, at year’s end, the state prosecutor announced plans to investigate leading opposition figures on charges of treason, and political commentators for alleged defamation. As in the world at large, more countries in the MENA region endured declines than made gains in their drive toward freedom in 2012. Aspirations for elections and accountable government were often fiercely suppressed through arrests, imprisonment, police violence, and in Syria, a murderous war waged by the state against its own people. However, there is reason to remain cautiously optimistic about the re gion’s future. Events in Tunisia and Libya, where popular uprisings before and after Egypt’s had also expelled longtime dictators in early 2011, were generally positive in 2012, even if each encountered challenges and setbacks. Moreover, the societal 3

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4 Freedom in the WorldŠ2013 impulse to shake off autocratic rule, pervasive injustice, and rampant corruption has clearly spread from Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt to neighboring countries. Much will depend on the commitment to democracy of the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist groups that now or may soon find themselves in positions of power. But the past year has provided more evidence that Middle Eastern countries long subject to the dictator’s heel are quickly developing resilient and informed civil societies willing to push back against attempts to curb freedom of expression and thought, distort the electoral process, or concentrate power in the hands of military or religious authorities. In this context, factions or governments that seek to reduce freedom could find it increasingly difficult to do so. Meanwhile, the world’s most powerful authoritarian leaders have watched events in the Middle East with concern. The findings of Freedom in the World point to a stepped-up drive by authoritarian governments in other regions to weaken precisely the elements of democratic governance that pose the most serious threats to repressive and corrupt rule: independent civil society groups, a free press, and the rule of law. Indeed, a five-year set of comparative data show that while the in dicators related to competitive elections and political pluralism declined slightly or actually improved on a global scale between 2008 and 2012, there were notable declines for freedom of the press and expression, freedom of assembly and the rights of NGOs, an independent judiciary, and equal protection under the law. Of particular concern is the ongoing campaign in Russia, Venezuela, Iran, and elsewhere to thwart those NGOs whose work is deemed to be political in nature. This can include activism in a wide range of fields, including opposing censorship, environmental protection, women’s rights, gay rights, anticorruption efforts, and fair treatment for minorities. Such repressive campaigns were especially apparent in Eurasia, where a number of already grim settings grew even more constrained. Russia took a decided turn for the worse after Vladimir Putin’s return to the presidency. Having already marginalized the formal political opposition, he pushed through a series of laws meant to squelch a burgeoning societal opposition. The measures imposed severe new penalties on unauthorized political demonstrations, restricted the ability of NGOs to raise funds and conduct their work, and placed new controls on the internet. Among other Eurasian countries, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Ukraine were evaluated as less free than in the previous year, while Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Belarus remained some of the world’s most repressive states. This dismal record was partially offset by peaceful, competitive elections in Armenia and Georgia. Yet even Georgia, which experienced its first orderly transfer of power to the opposi tion through democratic elections, finished the year on a less than satisfying note after the new government quickly arrested some 30 officials of the previous government, raising concerns about politically motivated prosecutions. In China, hopes for meaningful political reform were dealt a serious blow with the selection of a new Communist Party leadership team, whose members have generally built their careers on hard-line policies. As if to emphasize the point that the new leaders are unlikely to usher in an era of political liberalization, the government has taken steps in the last two months to reinforce internet censorship and surveillance. As in the Middle East, developments in Africa reflected a combination of gains and declines, a great deal of volatility, and a disturbing escalation in armed

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Survey of Freedom 5 Freedom in the World-2013 Survey The population of the world as estimated in mid-20l2was 7,036.9 Free: 3,046.2 million (43 percent of the world’s population) live million persons, who reside in 195 sovereign states. The level of in 90 of the states, political rights and civil liberties as shown comparatively by the Freedom House survey is: Partly Free: 1,613.9 million (23 percent of the world’s population) live in 38 of the states. Not Free: 2,376.8 million (34 percent of the world’s population) live in 47 of the states. A Record of the Survey (population In millions) Year under WORLD Review FREE PARTLY FREE NOT FREE POPULATION Mid-1992 1,352.2 (24.83%) 2,403.3 (44.11%) 1,690.4 (31.06%) 5,446.0 Mid-1993 1,046.2 (19.00%) 2,224.4 (40.41%) 2,234.6 (40.59%) 5,505.2 Mid-1994 1,119.7 (19.97%) 2,243.4 (40.01%) 2,243.9 (40.02%) 5,607.0 Mid-1995 1,114.5 (19.55%) 2,365.8 (41.49%) 2,221.2 (38.96%) 5,701.5 Mid-1996 1,250.3 (21.67%) 2,260.1 (39.16%) 2,260.6 (39.17%) 5,771.0 Mid-1997 1,266.0 (21.71%) 2,281.9 (39.12%) 2,284.6 (39.17%) 5,832.5 Mid-1998 2,354.0 (39.84%) 1,570.6 (26.59%) 1,984.1 (33.58%) 5,908.7 Mid-1999 2,324.9 (38.90%) 1,529.0 (25.58%) 2,122.4 (35.51%) 5,976.3 Mid-2000 2,465.2 (40.69%) 1,435.8 (23.70%) 2,157.5 (35.61%) 6,058.5 Mid-2001 2,500.7 (40.79%) 1,462.9 (23.86%) 2,167.1 (35.35%) 6,130.7 Mid-2002 2,717.6 (43.85%) 1,293.1 (20.87%) 2,186.3 (35.28%) 6,197.0 Mid-2003 2,780.1 (44.03%) 1,324.0 (20.97%) 2,209.9 (35.00%) 6,314.0 Mid-2004 2,819.1 (44.08%) 1,189.0 (18.59%) 2,387.3 (37.33%) 6,395.4 Mid-2005 2,968.8 (45.97%) 1,157.7 (17.93%) 2,331.2 (36.10%) 6,457.7 Mid-2006 3,005.0 (46.00%) 1,083.2 (17.00%) 2,448.6 (37.00%) 6,536.8 Mid-2007 3,028.2 (45.85%) 1,185.3 (17.94%) 2,391.4 (36.21%) 6,604.9 Mid-2008 3,055.9 (45.73%) 1,351.0 (20.21%) 2,276.3 (34.06%) 6,683.2 Mid-2009 3,088.7 (45.49%) 1,367.4 (20.14%) 2,333.9 (34.37%) 6,790.0 Mid-2010 2,952.0 (42.95%) 1,487.0 (21.63%) 2,434.3 (35.42%) 6,873.3 Mid-2011 3,016.6 (43.30%) 1,497.4 (21.49%) 2,453.2 (35.21%) 6,967.2 Mid-2012 3,046.2 (43.29%) 1,613.9 (22.93%) 2,376.8 (33.78%) 7,039.9 * The large shift in the population figure between 1997 and 1998 is due to India’s change in status from Partly Free to Free. conflicts. Rebel groups threatened to overrun government forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. Mali, a country with a reputation as a model African democracy, was battered by a reinvigorated Tuareg rebellion, a military coup that overthrew the elected government, and the seizure of its northern provinces by Islamist militants whose crude imitation of Islamic law helped to drive hundreds of thousands of inhabitants into neighboring countries. And in northern Nigeria, the Boko Haram sect has prosecuted a reign of terror that targets Christians, government officials, and security forces. Nevertheless, Africa also accounted for three of the four countries that moved from Partly Free to Free in 2012, highlighting the continent’s remarkable diversity of political environments. FREEDOM’S TRAJECTORY IN 2012 The number of countries exhibiting gains for the past year, 16, lagged behind the number with declines, 28. The most noteworthy gains were in Egypt, Libya, Burma, and Cote d’Ivoire. While the Middle East experienced some of the most significant improvements, it also registered major declines, with a list of worsening countries that includes Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Declines were also noted in a number of countries in Eurasia and sub-Saharan Africa.

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6 Freedom in the WorldŠ2013 An assessment of the Freedom in the World indicators over the past five years shows the greatest gains in the Asia-Pacific and MENA regions, and the most pronounced declines in sub-Saharan Africa. The Eurasia subregion registered the lowest scores for political rights, while MENA had the worst scores for civil liberties categories. The Hispanic America subregion also saw declines in most indicators, especially in the civil liberties categories. MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS INCLUDE: Ł Volatility in West Africa: This section of Africa saw major declines in Mali, which experienced both a military coup and the takeover of its northern section by Islamist militants, and Guinea-Bissau, which has increasingly come to resemble a military narcostate. At the same time, there were important gains. Cote d’Ivoire, which was only recently riven by internal conflict, moved from Not Free to Partly Free due to the peaceful inauguration of a new parliament and the adoption of laws on transparency and corruption. Guinea showed steady improvements in freedom of belief, freedom of association, and the right to own prop erty or engage in private business. Senegal moved from Partly Free to Free owing to free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections that resulted in a peaceful rotation of power, as well as nascent efforts by the president to increase government accountability and transparency. Sierra Leone moved from Partly Free to Free as a result of a free, fair, and peaceful presidential election in November. Ł Gulf States Retreat: The past several years, and the past year in particular, have featured a steady decline in democratic institutions and in some cases an increase in repressive policies among the Persian Gulf states. Kuwait’s political rights rating declined due to a parliamentary crisis and the government’s attempts to undermine the political opposition by revising the electoral law. Oman lost ground due to the ongoing arrests of human rights and reform activists, and the increased suppres sion of free expression in online forums. The United Arab Emirates was downgraded due to stepped-up arrests of activists, lawyers, and judges calling for political reform; the passage of a highly restrictive internet law that punishes online activism and free expression; and the dismissal and deportation of academics who were critical of government policies. For a second year, Bahrain systematically persecuted opposition activists, handing out extremely lengthy prison sentences in some instances. In addition to continuing its domestic repression, Saudi Arabia has sent security forces to help quell protests in Bahrain and provided assistance to other governments and parties in the region to counter the influence of democratic countries. Ł Civil Liberties at Risk in Turkey: During his early years in power, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan pushed through important reforms that enshrined civilian rule, enhanced fairness at the polls, and made halting

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