by NT Widarwati · 2015 · Cited by 11 — kemerahan acak-acakan, matanya merah, dengan kantong mata menggelayut, membuat penampilannya mirip anjing basset yang sedih. Dia juga mencengkeram gumpalan
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.30, 2015 126 An Analysis of Rank-Shift of Compound Complex Sentence Translation Nunun Tri Widarwati English Department, Faculty of Teacher and Training Education, University of Veteran Bangun Nusantara Sukoharjo-Indonesia Abstract The focus of the research is to describe the rank-shift of compound complex sentence translation in Harry Potter and the Orde of the Phoenix novel translation by Li stiana Srisanti and also to describe the accuracy o f those translation. This research belongs to qualitative d escriptive research which document and informants a re being the main sources data. The research findings are as follow. First, the form of rank-shift in the translation of compound complex sentences are: simple sentence, co mpound sentence, complex sentence and compound complex sentence. Second, the accuracy of translati on is classified into three, namely: very accurate translation, accurate translation and inaccurate translation wit h percentage 31 sentences (62%) belong to very accu rate translation, 16 sentences (32%) belong to accurate translation and 3 sentences (6%) belong to inaccura te translation. Keywords: translation, rank-shift , compound complex sentence, accuracy 1. Introduction There are many translators who translate English bo oks into Indonesian ones although they are aware th at it is not easy to translate them. Machali (2000) says tha t translation deals with meaning renders from sourc e language (SL) into target language (TL). Further she also sa ys that ‚meaning™ is the main aspect in translation . It means that to render the meaning of SL (source language) into TL (target language), a translator must focus that meaning is a central issue of SL that would be tran sferred into TL. Whereas Larson (1989) says that tr anslation means (1) learning the lexical, grammatical struct ure, communication situation and culture situation of TL (target language), (2) analyzing the SL (source la nguage) text to find out its meaning, and (3) restr ucturing the equivalent meaning into TL (target language) with a ppropriate its lexical and grammatical structure an d also its cultural context. Further Larson (1989) also states that translation is transferring the meaning of th e source language into the receptor language. This is done b y going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must be hel d constant. Whereas Nida and Taber (1969) also similarly states that translating consists of reproducing the recep tor language to the closest natural equivalent of the s ource language message, first in the term of meanin g and secondly in the term of style. Catford (1978) says that translation is the replacement of textual mat erial in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in ano ther language (TL). Another translation expert, New mark (1988) states that translation is rendering the me aning of a text into another language in the way th at the author intended the text. From the above explanation, it can be drawn a concl usion that the main focus in translation work deal s with the rendering of meaning from source language (SL) into target language (TL). In rendering the meaning, of course, the translator must consider the form of language, whether SL language or TL to get the meaning equiva lent in translating sentences or texts. Dealing with translation work, translation strategi es have important role in translating sentences or texts. Widyamartaya in Rudi Hartono (2009) says that there are some strategies in having translation work. On e of them is by breaking down SL sentences into some sen tences in target language (TL). Suryawinata and Har yanto (2003) says that this translation strategies is cal led transposition whereas Machali (2000) calls it ‚ rank shift™. Example 1:
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.30, 2015 127 Source Language (SL) : Some species are very large indeed and the blue whales, which can exceed 30 m i n length, is the largest animal to have lived on eart h. Target Language (TL) : Beberapa spesies sangatlah besar. Ikan paus biru, yang bisa mencapai panjang lebih dari 30 meter, adalah binatang terbesar yang pernah hidup di bumi. (Suryawinata & Haryanto (2003) In the above example, source language (SL) contains one sentence consists of one compound sentence wit h conjunction ‚ and™ and one compound complex sentence with conjunction which. Then the translator translates this sentence by breaking down the SL into two se ntences, namely: one simple sentence that is ‚ Beberapa spesies sangatlah besar™ and one complex sentence that is ‚ Ikan paus biru, yang bisa mencapai panjang lebih dari 30 meter, adalah binatang terbesar yang pernah hidup di bumi™ . It means that the translator uses rank-shift strategy to translate SL sentences. Example 2: Source Language (SL): Superficially, the whale look s rather like a fish, but there are important diffe rences in its external structure: its tail consists of a pair of broad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tail of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on th e top of its large, broad head. Target Language (TL): Sepintas ikan paus tampak mirip ikan biasa, namun bila dicermati terdapat perbedaan pokok pada struktur luarnya. Ekornya terdiri sepa sang ﬁsiripﬂ lebar, pipih, dan mendatar (sementara ekor ikan biasa tegak). Ikan pa us mempunyai satu lubang hidung di atas kepalanya yang besar dan lebar. (Suryawinata & Haryanto, 2003) It is not so different from the first example that rank-shift also appears in the above translation. We can see t hat source language (SL) consists of one compound compl ex sentence with conjunction ‚ but™ and conjunction ‚and™. Meanwhile in the target language (TL), the source language is translated by breaking down SL into th ree sentences which consist of one compound complex sen tence that is ‚ Sepintas ikan paus tampak mirip ikan biasa, namun bila dicermati terdapat perbedaan poko k pada struktur luarnya™ and two simple sentences, the first is ‚ Ekornya terdiri sepasang ﬁsiripﬂ lebar, pipih, dan mendatar (sementara ekor ikan biasa tegak)™ and the second is ‚ Ikan paus mempunyai satu lubang hidung di atas kepa lanya yang besar dan lebar, . From those phenomenon the writer thinks that it is necessary to conduct a research which focus on the analysis of rank-shift of compound complex sentence translation in Harry P otter and the Orde of the Phoenix novel by Listiana Srisanti. The main reason why the writer c onducts this research due to the fact that this no vel is one of the masterpieces of literary works written by J.K. Rowling which translated into Indonesian by Listian a Srisanti with the same title. Besides, there is an interesti ng one from this novel especially in the translatio n of compound complex sentences. Rank-shift strategy is the most dominant strategy applied by the translator in translating compound complex sentences. Rank-shift appears when one sentence is translated into two o r more sentences in target language (TL). Specifically, this research is conducted to describ e the form of rank-shift in the translation of compound complex sentence in Harry Potter and the Orde of the Phoeni x novel by Listiana Srisanti and to describe the ac curacy of those translation. 2. Theoretical Framework 2.1. The Definition of Translation There are some experts proposed the definition of t ranslation. Ordudari (2007) said that translation is used to transfer written or spoken SL texts to equivalent w ritten or spoken TL texts. Further Ordudari said th at the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kind s of texts including religious, literary, scientifi c, and philosophical texts in another language and thus ma king them available to wider readers. The language that is to be translated is called source language (SL), where as the text to be translated is called the source t ext (ST). The language that is to be translated into is called th e target language (TL); while the final product is called the target text (TT).
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.30, 2015 128 According to Brislin (1976) translation is a genera l term referring to the transfer of thoughts and id eas from one language to another, whether the language is in wri tten or oral form, whether the languages have estab lished orthographies or not; or whether one or both langua ges is based on signs, as with signs of the deaf. A nother expert, Wilss in Rudi Hartono (2009), states that t ranslation is a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a written source language text (S LT) into an optimally equivalent target language te xt (TLT), and which requires the syntactic, the semantic, and the pragmatic understanding and analytical process ing of the source text. Syntactic understanding is related to style and meaning. Understanding of semantics is me aning related activity. Finally, pragmatic understanding is related to the message or implication of a sente nce. This definition does not states what is transferred. Rat her, it states the requirement of the process. Nida and Taber (1982) see translating as a process of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equiva lent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. In other words, tra nslation is a transfer of meaning, message, and style from one SLT to the TLT. In the order of priority, style is put the last. Here the things to reproduce (transfer) is stated, message. From those definitions above, it can be inferred th at translation is the process of transferring meani ng from source language into target language, for example, from English into Indonesian or Indonesian into Eng lish. The translator must be careful in transferring the mean ing due to the fact that meaning is very important in translation activity. If the translator cannot get the right me aning from source language, the result of the trans lation will be misled. According to the purpose, translation is divided in to four types, namely: (a) pragmatic, (b) aesthetic -poetic, (c) ethnographic, and (d) linguistic translation (Brisl in, 1976). Pragmatic translation is the translation of a message with an interest in accuracy of the information mea nt to be communicated in the target language form. Belonging to such translation is the translation of technical information, such as repairing instructions. The s econd type is aesthetic-poetic translation that does not only foc us on the information, but also the emotion, feelin g, beauty involved in the original writing. The third is ethn ographic translation that explicates the cultural c ontext of the source and second language versions. The last type is linguistic translation, the one that is concerne d with equivalent meanings of the constituent morphemes of the second language and with grammatical form. See n from this classification, the translation of litera ry work should be the aesthetic-poetic one. There are some kinds of translation, among them are : dynamic translation, semantic translation, commun icative translation, and artistic translation. Dynamic tran slation tries to transfer the messages or ideas int o a target language and to evoke in the target language reader s the responses that are substantially equivalent t o those experienced by the source text readers (Nida and Ta ber, 1982). Hohulin in Rudi Hartono (2009) states t hat dynamic translation contains three essential terms: (a) equivalent, which points toward the source lan guage message, (b) natural, which points toward the recep tor language, and (3) closest, which binds the two orientations together on the basis of the highest d egree of approximation. Dynamic equivalence approac h can be used in the level of translating sentences or group of sentences, because the whole message lies here. Newmark (1991) states that semantic translation emp hasizes the ﬁloyaltyﬂ to the original text. It is more semantic and syntactic oriented and, therefore, als o author-centered. On the other hand, communicative translation emphasizes the loyalty to the ﬁreadersﬂ and more reader-centered. The two concepts are not to be contrasted with literal word-for-word translation w hich is criticized in the concept of formal transla tion and literal translation. He sees it as a translation pr ocedure. He states that literal word-for-word trans lation is not only the best in both communicative and semantic transla tion, but it is the only valid method of translatio n if equivalent effect is secured. He further maintains that, in fact, there is no pure communicative or pu re semantic method of translating a text. There are overlapping bands of methods. A translation can be more or les s semantic as well as more or less communicative. Even a part of a sentence can be treated more communicatively o r more semantically. Chukovsky (1984) offers the concept of artistic tra nslation. Like the other types of translation, mean ing is a very important point to consider. Yet, style is taken as importantly as the other aspects for style is the portrait of the author; so when a translator distorts his style he also distorts ‚his face™. Besides the meaning, impr ession on the readers should also be kept the same. This translat ion expert states that it is essential that the rea ders of the
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.30, 2015 129 translation should be carried into the very same sp here as the readers of the original, and the transl ation must act in the very same nerves. 2.2. Translation Shift Shift deals some changes occurring in a translation process. Translation shifts occur both at the lowe r level of language, i.e. the lexicogrammar, and at the higher thematic level of text. Catford (1978) states that by shift we mean the departure from formal correspondence in the process of going from the source language to the target language. Further, he states that basically, in shi ft of translation, or transposition he says, it is only the form that is changed. In addition, he urges the translation s hift is done to get the natural equivalent of the s ource text message into the target text. Translation shifts al so occur when there is no formal correspondence to the syntactic item to be translated (Machali, 2000). According to Bell (1991), to shift from one language to another is, by definition, to alter the forms. Catford (1978) divides the shift in translation int o two major types, level/rank shift and category shift. Level/rank shift refers to a source language item at one linguistic level that has a target language translation equiva lent at a different level. In other words, it is simply a shi ft from grammar to lexis. Category shift refers to departures from formal correspondence in translation. What is meant by formal correspondence is any grammatical category in the target language which can be said to occupy the same position in the system of the target language as th e given source language category in the source lang uage system (Machali, 2000). The category shift is divided again into structure shifts, class shifts, unit shift, and intra- system shifts. Structure shift is the changing of words sequence in a sentence. Cl ass shift occurs when the translation equivalent of a source language item is a member of a different class from the original it em. Unit shift is the changes of rank; that is, departures from fo rmal correspondence in which the translation equiva lent of a unit at one rank in the source language is a unit a t a different rank in the target language. Intra-sy stem shift refers to the shifts that occurs internally, within the sy stem; that is for those cases where the source and the target language possess systems which approximately corres pond formally as to their constitution, but when tr anslation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in t he target language system. Machali (2000) also proposes the kinds of translati on shift. She divides the shift in translation into two kinds: obligatory shift and optional shift. An obligatory shift refers to the kinds of shift that occurs when no fo rmal correspondence occurs in the translation. It is the shift that its occurrence is dictated by the gramm ar. The other kind of shift is the optional shift . It refers to a case of shift that is caused by the translator’s discretion It is called optional shift since the translator could have chosen the more equ ivalent clauses with the readers™ orientation in the target language text. In addition, Machali (2000) states that there are t wo basic sources of translation shifts: source language text- centered shift and target language text-centered shift. The source language text-centered shifts are of three kinds, namely, grammatical shift, which mainly concerns particle markedness, foregrou nding, and tenses; shifts related to cohesion, which mainly concern ellipsis; and textual shifts, which mainly concern genetic ambivalence, and embodiment of interpersonal meaning. The target lan guage text-centered shift causes the main problem concerned with achieving effectiveness, pragmatic a ppropriateness (including the cultural one), and in formation (referential) explicitness. Nida and Taber (1969) say that some of the most com mon shifts in meaning found in the transfer process are modifications which involve specific and generic meaning . Such shifts may go in either direction from gener ic to specific or specific to generic. A shift may result from a difference of the system in both languages. The difference can be in the form of vocabulary or stru cture, the shift caused by the vocabulary results i n a shift in meaning. It can be concluded that there are two kin ds of shifts in meaning. The first is the meaning s hift from general to specific meaning. The second is the mean ing shift from specific to general meaning. These k inds of shifts often cause incorrect translation. The shift of structure, however, usually does not change the meaning or the message of the original text. 2.3. Compound Complex Sentence
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.30, 2015 130 A compound-complex sentence combines the compound a nd the complex sentence. The ‘compound’ part means that it has two or more complete sentences. The ‘co mplex’ part means that it has at least one incomple te sentence. One of the easiest ways to understand compound-comp lex sentences is to first take a look at the compou nd sentence and the complex sentence separately. A compound sentence contains two or more complete s entences joined by one or more of the following wor ds: ‘for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.’ For example, in the sentence, ‘He left, and I never saw him again,’ the two complete sentences ‘He left’ and ‘I never saw him a gain’ are joined by the word ‘and,’ making it a com pound sentence. A complex sentence contains a complete sentence joi ned by one or more incomplete sentences. For exampl e, in the sentence, ‘Juan and Maria went to the movies af ter they finished studying,’ the complete sentence, ‘Juan and Maria went to the movies’ is joined by the incomple te sentence, ‘after they finished studying,’ making it a complex sentence. A compound-complex sentence combines the compound a nd the complex sentence. It contains two or more complete sentences joined by one or more of the fol lowing words: ‘for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so,’ an d at least one incomplete sentence. For example, in the sentence, ‘Marie reads novels and Megan reads poetry, but Hea ther reads magazines because novels and poetry are too d ifficult,’ we have the complete sentences, ‘Marie r eads novels,’ and ‘Megan reads poetry’ and ‘Heather read s magazines’, which are joined by the words ‘and ‘ and ‘but’, and the incomplete sentence, ‘because novels and po etry are too difficult.’ 2.4. The Criterions of Good Translation T. David Andersen in Iyer Larsen (2010) suggested ﬁ perceived authenticityﬂ as a fourth criterion of a good translation. The other three criteria are the most well known as: accuracy, naturalness, and clarity. They are concerned with the use of translation principles, l inguistics, theology, and communication theory in t he exegesis of the source text and the production and testing o f the translated text. They can be used to measure the quality of a translation in a reasonably objective way. Whe reas the fourth criterion is different in that beca use it is concerned with how the intended receptor audience e valuates the text without necessarily having been t rained in translation principles. It is relevant for measurin g the subjective quality of a translation in the se nse of how the audience feels about the translation. The most comm on questions are: Do they accept it as a good, qual ity translation? What intuitive criteria do they use to accept or reject it? They probably expect an ﬂaccu rateﬂ translation, but what do they understand by that te rm? Many people equate accuracy with literalness. Becau se of a tradition of literal translations, some peo ple feel that an accurate translation cannot also be natural and clear. Further Iyer Larsen (2010) says that undersc ored the need to consider carefully the expectations the int ended audience has concerning the type of translati on they would be ready to accept and use. 3. Research Methodology This research belongs to descriptive qualitative re search. The main reason in choosing this kind of re search because descriptive qualitative research is able to show interactive correlation between the researche r and what™s being researched. The data of this research are doc ument and informant. There are two strategies applied in collecting the data, namely: interactive method and non interacti ve method. Interactive method includes dept interview, partici pate observation, and focus group discussion (FGD). Whereas non interactive method covers questionnaires, docum ent and non-participate observation. To apply inter active method, the researcher interviews and gives quest ionnaire to informants with the purpose to get some data needed. Meanwhile non interactive method is applied with the purpose to be able to write and analyze d ata related to meaning shift caused by the use of rank shift strategy in translating compound complex sentence in Harry Potter and the Orde of the Phoenix novel. Sampling technique used in the research is selectiv e random sampling which™s based on theoretical conc ept, personal researcher desire, empirical characteristi cs, etc. In other word it can be said that the rese archer applied purposive sampling or purposive with criterion-base d selection. There are there steps in doing data an alysis technique, namely: data reduction, data presentatio n, and drawing conclusion or verification.
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