by JJA Janssen · 2000 · Cited by 346 — bamboo and its processing do create several jobs in the area, but it is an unstable need for heavy machinery for felling and transportation.

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designing and building with bamboo 2© International Network for Bamboo and Rattan 2000 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. The presentation of material in this publication and in maps that appear herein does notimply the expression of any opinion on the part of INBAR concerning the legal status of any country, or the delineation of frontiers or boundaries. ISBN 81-86247-46-7EditorArun KumarDesign and productionArt Options

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3iIn the 26 years of working with bamboo, I have met several good people, working in thefield of bamboo, from all over the world. Many of them have become my cherished friends. First among these are those from the National Bamboo Project (later Funbambu) in Costa Rica; I could list enough names to fill up this page. Apart from these Costa Rican friends, I will mention here only four people: Wim Huisman, my professor and first promoter; Walter Liese, who was a member of my Ph.D. committee and with whom I have spent many enriching hours working on bamboo in several places; Ramanuja Rao, with whom I have had as close a working relationship as two scientists can have; and Arun Kumar, who has done a tremendous editing work on the typescript of this book. I would also mention here that this book would never have been written but for the understanding and support of my wife Loek.J.J.A. Janssen Acknowledgements

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5oOver the past few years, several friends and peers had suggested that I write a book onbuilding with bamboo. Each time such a suggestion was made, I used to recall the wise words of a professor who was famous for his lectures. Whenever pressured to write a book based on his brilliant lectures, he used to decline, saying: fiIf I present my lectures, my students will hear also my uncertainties, my doubts, the limits of science; but if Iwere to write them down, then these are exactly what would become invisible.fl Then, why did I write this book now? There were some very persuasive argumentsfrom certain quarters in favor of writing it. One was that the insights and knowledge onbamboo collected during my 25 years of research, guidance of projects and visits to bamboo-growing countries all over the world should not be allowed to go unrecorded. Another was that other areas Œ timber, for example Œ too started in a similar way with one author writing a book while the area was still small enough to be captured by the efforts of one. Finally, I thought that some information contained in my large collection of gray literature should be revealed to all interested researchers.This book has its origin in an e-mail I received in December 1996 from the HawaiiChapter of the American Bamboo Society, with an invitation to present a series of lectures on all aspects of bamboo. An exchange of ideas followed through several e-mails about the scope of the lectures, the topics to be covered and the time to be spent on each. It was decided that an emphasis should be laid on bamboo™s mechanical properties, joints and structures. I spent a considerable part of January-June 1997 preparing lecture materials and charting out the course.Preface

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designing and building with bamboo 6I reached Hawaii in July, and spent the first two weeks presenting summaries of the lectures in three minor islands. On the third week, on the Big Island, the tempo really picked up. The event started with a demonstration on bamboo jointing to a large audience. This was followed by a three-day seminar, with six hours of lectures each day, involving a large group of participants whose enthusiasm and dedication were contagious. Over 150 people had assembled there, paying on their own for travel and accommodation, and listening to lectures on bamboo six hours a day for three days!The effort that went into the preparation of that lecture series culminated in this book.It took some time to bring the lectures into the shape of chapters, but doing that has given me a great sense of satisfaction. I hope the readers will find this result of my endeavors useful and interesting. I thank the Hawaiian Chapter of the American bamboo Society without whose invitation to lecture this book might never have been. Although the emphasis here is on designing and building with bamboo, I have includedtwo chapters Πon Technology Transfer and Job Creation Πso that the publication provides a wider perspective on bamboo. I believe that this should be so because bamboo is not just a plant or a material; in many parts of the world, bamboo is a vital part of the living heritage that links yesterday with tomorrow. Jules J.A. Janssen

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designing and building with bamboo 85.Modelling and Calculations79 The Art of Modelling80 Allowable Stresses81 Design of Joints83 Building on Tradition87 6.Joints89 Classification of Joints90 Some Examples108 Theory of Joints112 7.International Standards117 The Relevance of Standards118 Towards an International Standard120 8.Bamboo as Reinforcement127 Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortar128 Bamboo Reinforcing in Concrete130 Bamboo for Formwork133 Soil Reinforcement133 9.Bamboo Housing137 Social Aspects138 Technical Aspects145 Guidelines for a Housing Project163 10.Transfer of Technology165 The Context166 The Means166 11.Job Creation171 Bamboo Craft173 Bamboo and Sustainable Development175 Bamboo and Employment176 12.Costs and Benefits181 Bamboo Plantation182 Bamboo Enterprise185 References189 Further Reading197

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designing and building with bamboo 10tThe Bamboo PlantIn their natural habitat, bamboo plants grow from seeds or rhizomes. The rhizomesystem is very important to bamboo. As bamboo does not have a central trunk as in trees, the rhizomes provide the foundation. McClure (1966) has described the bamboo rhizome as a segmented (with nodes), complex subterranean system. Bamboo rhizomescan be broadly classified as pachymorph (sympodial) or leptomorph (monopodial). Inpachymorph rhizome system, the apex of a rhizome gives rise to a shoot that grows into a culm, the woody stem of bamboo. Such culms grow close together as a clump. Inleptomorph rhizome system, the lateral bud from each internode develops into a culmor a rhizome. As the apex of the rhizome grows horizontal to the ground, the clump of monopodial bamboos has a spreading habit, with each culm growing at a distance from the other. Fig. 1 shows on the left a young shoot, protected by a series of sheaths, which will falloff as the shoot grows into a mature culm. In many cases, these protective culm sheathsare covered with tiny hairs sharp enough to pierce human skin and, in several species,toxic enough to cause skin irritation. Most bamboos are hollow, as can be seen in Fig. 1 (on the right). In the hollow inner area, some horizontal partitions called fidiaphragmsfl can be seen (towards the bottom on the right-side picture). On the outside, these partitions are denoted by a ring around the culm. A diaphragm and the ring on the outside together form a finodefl. Branches grow from these nodes. The partbetween two nodes is called an fiinternodefl. The internodes of most bamboos arehollow; that is, they have a ficavityfl. The wall of the culm is called simply the ficulm wallfl (Fig. 2).In general, bamboo species have luxuriant foliage: the plant is one of the top producersof biomass, producing about 10 tons per hectare. According to an estimate, bamboo accounts for one-quarter of the biomass in tropical regions and one-fifth in sub-tropicalregions.

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11Fig. 1: A young bamboo shoot Πoutside (left) and inside (right) (From CIBA Review, 1969, No. 3, p. 7; by permission of the Company Archive of Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland )Fig. 2: The parts of a culm(1 = diaphragm; 2 = ring; 3 = node; 4 = internode; 5 = culm wall; 6 = cavity)1234456

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