These bamboo silvicultural and processing technologies have greatly Appropriate technology, machinery and technically trained personnel to set up and.

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INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR BAMBOO AND RATTAN(INBAR)TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY MODEL (TOTEM)BAMBOO SHOOT PLANTATIONbyXiao JiangHua an d Yang QingPing Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry 73 Daqiao Rd., Fuyang,Zhejiang Province, 311400, China COREMetadata, citation and similar papers at by CGSpace

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 2CONTENTSTRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY MODELS (TOTEMs) 4BAMBOO SHOOTS PLANTATION AT -A-GLANCE 6PART ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. Bamboo shoots 8 2. History of the development of the bamboo shoots industry in China 8 3. General development attributes and advantages 8 4. Suitable agro-ecological regions 9 5. Target groups 9 6. Requirements for success 9 Concluding remarks 10 PART TWO: THE BAMBOO SHOOTS PLANTATIONA: Establishment and management of a bamboo shoots plantation 12 1. Species and site selection 12 1.1 Species selection for shoot plantations 12 1.2 Site selection 12 2. Field propagation and nursery techniques 13 2.1 Monopodial bamboos 13 2.2 Sympodial bamboos 14 3. Afforestation techniques for shoot plantations 14 3.1 Site preparation 14 3.2 Planting season 15 4. Management of a bamboo shoots plantation 15 4.1 Intercropping 15 4.2 Weeding and soil loosening 16 4.3 Fertilising and earthing up 16 4.4 Shoot harvesting and retaining 16

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 3B. Processing of shoots 17 1. Introduction 17 2. Storage and processing of bamboo shoots 18 2.1 Principle and methods of storing a nd preserving bamboo shoots 18 2.2 Production techniques of canned moso bamboo shoots 18 2.2.1 Raw material requirements 19 2.2.2 Technical process 19 2.3 Processing shoots of Dendrocalamopsis oldhamii 212.3.1 Raw material requirements 21 2.3.2 Preliminary cooking 21 2.3.3 Rinsing 21 2.4 Processing shoots of Dendrocalamus latiflorus 212.5 Production of fermented bamboo shoots 21 2.6 Soft-packaged bamboo shoots 22 3. Input requirements 22 Appendices 23

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 4TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY MODELS (TOTEM S)Transfer of Technology Models (TOTEMs) are focussed educational tools providing relevant information and distance training on one specific area of bamboo/rattan management, processing or utilization. They are a means of technology tr ansfer between similar regions throughout the world, with the emphasis on South-South transfer for livelihood development. They enable those involved in the management and use of bamboo and rattan resources to more efficiently and effectively develop and use skills relating to these resources. TOTEMs are primarily intended as practical information resources and teaching aids for those at the local extension level in their communities, who can utilize them to assist local community development. Each TOTEM consists of a detaile d written report of the technology, a PowerPoint presentation, a video, and, where relevant, a set of technical photographs. They also include information on target users, financial analy ses of sample set-ups from the partner country preparing the report, and information on wher e to source particular technologies (such as equipment). The TOTEM thus provides all the information required for establishing similar technologies within interested countries and regions. The report contains all the technical details of the particular processes involved, as well as other relevant information for establishing the technology such as costs of business establishment, running costs and cash flows. The PowerPoint presentation contains details of th e relevant technologies and their applications, and is intended to provide an overview of the potential of the technology for development. The video provides a visual guide to the processes i nvolved and helps to bring them alive in the minds of the learners. The different parts of the TOTEM are targeted at slightly different audiences, via the local extension workers. The report and film are intende d to be the main means of extension to the individuals and communities who will implement the technology and who will directly benefit from it. The PowerPoint presentation is primarily intended as a tool for the extension worker to sell the technology and its role in development to those who provide the infrastructural, policy and financial support for its im plementation, such as government departments, donors and NGOs. There is considerable flexibility, however. Local extension workers will be able to incorporate the TOTEMs in their own work as they wish, and usi ng the bibliography and list of web-sites will be able to adapt and develop the TOTEM to suit their particular requirements and conditions. This TOTEM on Bamboo Shoot Production has been produced by Xiao JiangHua and his team at the Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry , Fuyang, China. The report part of this TOTEM describes the technology for producing and estab lishing shoot-producing plantations for rural development in regions where bamboo is available as a raw material. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the illustrative vide o included in this TOTEM package The first part of the report introduces the t echnology, discusses its history, its development attributes, its benefits and it™s applicability. The second part of the report provides detailed

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 5information on the technical aspects of estab lishing and managing a bamboo shoots plantation and a shoot-canning factory. Appendix I is a bibliography of publications. Appendix II shows a recommended afforestation model for bamboo shoot plantations. Appendix III gives a briefeconomic analysis of the bamboo shoot canning factory. This TOTEM is one of the first to be produ ced by INBAR/ RISF and your feedback is most welcome – kindly contact INBAR or RISF with your comments or suggestions. Note 1: This TOTEM has been edited at INBAR and differs slightly from the form in which it was received from the authors. Note 2: All financial calculations are in Renminbi. At the time of writing RMB 8.3 = USD$1

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 6BAMBOO SHOOT PLANTATIONS AT-A-GLANCEWhat are bamboo shoots?Bamboo shoots are young bamboo stems (culms). They are very nutritious and have been eaten as a vegetable for thousands of years in many Asian countries. There are three types of shoots; spring or summer shoots, wint er shoots (very tender) and rhizome shoots. How are they produced?Most bamboos produce new culms once each ye ar, usually in the spring or autumn. By careful management of bamboo plantati ons a maximum number of shoots can be encouraged to grow each year. They can then be harvested when they are about 15- 30 cm long, depending on the species. What is the market for bamboo shoots?The market for bamboo shoots is very larg e. Fresh shoots are very popular in many regions, but it is the export market for canned shoots that hold s more potential for growth. Increasing populations of Asian peop les in all countries of the world, and popularity of shoots amongst non traditional cons umers, means that the market for shoots is presently growing at a rapid pace and can be expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future.What is the role of a bamboo shoots plantation in ruraldevelopment?A bamboo shoots plantation can bring degraded lands back into production and provide income-generating options for farmers. It is easily adopted because it builds on the inherent plant cultivation skills of the farm ers. Bamboos grow better with organic inputs, such as fertiliser, so the production of shoots is not harmful to the environment. Additionally, if establis hed in conjunction with a local s hoot-canning unit, benefits to the employees and the wider community will result. How do I establish a bamboo shoots plantation?All that is required to establish a bamboo shoots plantation is land and bamboo propagules. The costs of establishment are thus limited to the cost of the propagules and the labour. Ideally some linkages to shoots pr ocessors would be es tablished to guarantee a market for the shoots. Alte rnatively the plantation may be established in conjunction with a shoot-processing unit. Both could be established as part of one community cooperative and producers and processors would benefit.

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 81.Bamboo shoots Bamboo shoots are a traditiona l vegetable for many people, especially for oriental peoples, and bamboo shoots are becoming more and more popular. However, the availability of fresh edible bamboo shoots is very limited for much of the year and in many places of the world generally lasts for onl y one to four months. In many parts of the world bamboos are not grown for shoots due to unsuitable socio-economic and ecological environments For example, Australia has a pproximately 1.5 million people, or 8% of the population, from an ethnic Asian background. Un til recently it was not realised that Australia is now consuming somewhere between 4, 000 and 12, 000 tonnes of imported canned bamboo shoots each year. The demand for shoots is even larger in the USA and some other countries. 2.History of the development of the bamboo shoots industry in ChinaChina has a long tradition of cultivating, pr ocessing and preserving bamboo shoots as food. In China, mode rn bamboo silvicultural practices for producing shoots started in the 1950™s. A series of syst ematic silvicultural and processing techniques has been developed, which includes high-yielding cultivation and management of natural stands and plantations and es tablishment of factories fo r preserving and processing bamboo shoots. These bamboo silvicultural and processing technologies have greatly promoted the bamboo shoot industry in Chin a. In 1999, bamboo shoot production wasthe largest component of th e exports of bamboo product s from China. The annual export of canned edible bamboo shoot pr oducts is worth n early US$200 million, which is almost 40% of all bamboo exports. 3.General development attributes and advantages The main development attributes of the technology are as follows: Income generation for poor rural people Improves and broadens farmers plant cu ltivation skills base, making the farm enterprise more resilient Increases the area of managed bamboo resources Brings degraded land back into productivityThe main advantages of the technology are: It is builds upon rural farmers own inherent plant-cultivation abilities and hence is easily adopted

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 9 It is extremely environmentally-friendly – or ganic inputs such as fertiliser are better for bamboo growth than inorganic ones 4.Suitable agro-ecological regions A bamboo plantation may be established in most tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. The shoots of many diffe rent species are edible and selection of species adapted to the particul ar climatic conditions prevalen t at a particul ar location is essential. Bamboos may be grown on farm land, hillsides and along riverbanks and a shoot plantation is particularly suitable to he lp restore degraded land s, such as those left after shifting cultivation. The plantation may al so be established in areas of high rainfall and steep topography, where erosion is a problem. 5.Target groups The main target groups are th e cultivators and harvesters of the bamboo plantation and the technology is ideally suited to poor ru ral farmers. Another target group are the employees of the shoot-processing unit that ma y be established conc urrently. The shoot-processing unit would employ unskilled, semi sk illed and technically trained personnel. Ifthe plantation and unit are established as community cooperatives then the community as a whole will benefit. 6.Requirement for success The essential requirements for successful implementation of shoot production technology are: Availability of natural bamboo forest s and plantations for producing bamboo shoots. Availability of manageme nt skills for shoot-producing bamboo plantation.Additionally, if a canning unit is to be es tablished concurrently the following will be required: Appropriate technology, machinery and tec hnically trained personnel to set up and manage a canned shoot production unit. Mechanism to promote the sale of fres h and canned shoots for domestic and export markets. Financial support.

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INBAR – RISF Transfer of Technology Model: Bamboo Shoot Plantation 10Concluding remarks A bamboo shoot plantation is an excellen t means of sustainably developing rural communities in bamboo growing regions. Bamboo cultivators will be the direct beneficiaries but the community as a whole will benefit especially if the processing of shoots remains within the co mmunity through the establishm ent of a community shoot- canning unit.The bamboo shoots industry in China has be en shown in a recent INBAR funded study to preferentially increase inco mes of the poorest members of the society compared to more affluent groups although the incomes of all community participants increase. A bamboo shoots plantation is a proven means of reducing rural poverty.

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