4.2 The objectives of Islamic ethics (Maqasid al-Shari’ah) as essential needs–12. 4.3 Maqasid as “Every child is born in ‘fitrah’ – the natural Adamic spiritual state Nasir al-Din al-Albani (ed.) final_2010_en.pdf (accessed 21 March 2014).
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1. Introduction ContentsAN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 3This paper relies on the primary sources of knowledge in Islam, the Qur™an and Sunnah (practice and sayings of prophet Muhammad: PBUH),* to identify the key principles and core values that underpin Islamic views on development, poverty reduction, human rights and an Islamic point of view and present an outline of some of the tools and approaches that are provided by Islam to address them. The central argument in the paper is that development is primarily about safeguarding and enhancing the dignity of human beings. Human dignity originates from God who has singled out humankind from other creations and favoured it in several ways. We are the only creatures that contain the Divine spirit which was placed in humankind by God during creation (Qur™an, 15:29). God has also distinguished humans from the rest of creation by endowing us with intellect (‚ aql ). Further, God has given humans the custodianship (khalifa ) of the rest of creation on earth. Concomitantly, we have been asked to acknowledge and uphold God™s oneness and unity ( tawhid ) and to establish justice (‚ adl ) amongst ourselves and with other creations. These three related concepts; the oneness and unity of God, human custodianship of the earth and justice amongst human beings; understanding of the universal values that underpin human development are derived. The values discussed in this paper are justice (especially social justice), freedom, human rights, equality and social solidarity. The true test of human development is how to translate these values into practice. 1 Introduction Œ32 Fundamental principles Œ42.1 The dignity of humankind Œ42.2 Islamic holistic worldview (tawhid) Œ42.3 Justice Œ52.4 Freedom Œ62.5 Human rights Œ62.6 Equality Œ72.7 Social solidarity Œ82.8 Sustainability Œ103 Islamic Relief™s core values Œ11 4 Human development Œ124.1 The achievement of well-being ( falah )Œ124.2 The objectives of Islamic ethics ( Maqasid al-Shari™ah ) as essential needs Œ124.3 Maqasid as normative framework of human responsibilities and rights Œ164.4 Protection of the weak and vulnerable Œ18 4.5 Equitable distribution of resources Œ194.6 Governance Œ204.7 Advocacy Œ205 Islamic approaches and mechanisms Œ225.1 Zakat Œ205.2 Islamic law of inheritance Œ205.3 Wills and bequests Œ205.4 Endowment ( Waqf )Œ205.5 Charity of Fitr Œ235.6 Atonements Œ235.7 Informal charity and alms Œ245.8 Feeding the poor Œ245.9 Charity of surplus Œ245.10 Prohibition of hoarding, usury and gambling Œ246 Conclusion Œ25 Appendix Œ26Development science is a relatively new area of knowledge in the Muslim World and is not directly referred to in the Qur™an or Sunnah . We gain an under- standing of it through human interpretation which is subject to variation, through reference to the knowledge of religious and jurisprudential ethics as well as several other areas of knowledge. This paper is based on desk research and consultations with Islamic scholars as well as Islamic Relief™s internal and external stakeholders. We are exploring an approach, rooted in and validated by Islamic teachings, which is most suited to provide guidance to the policy and practice of a contemporary Muslim relief and development agency such as Islamic Relief. The paper therefore recognises that what it proposes and adopts is one amongst other possible approaches to understanding the meaning of human development in Islam. The majority of Muslim academics are of the view that in Islam, the basic goal of development is to create an environment that enables people to enjoy spiritual, moral and socio-economic well-being in this world and success in the Hereafter (they refer to this conception of well-being as falah ).1 The implications of this are that such an environment can only be created in societies that work to remove sources of human deprivation in multiple dimensions. This is contrary to the prevailing view of development focused on economic growth alone. agrees with the view of scholars of the objectives of Islamic ethics and law ( Maqasid al-Shari™ah ) that there namely; spiritual ( faith ), human ( life ), educational (intellect ), social ( posterity ) and economic ( wealth ). It therefore adopts the Maqasid as an Islamic framework for development. However within such an overarching should be derived directly from provisions in the Qur™an and Sunnah which are Islam™s primary sources. * PBUH: Peace Be Upon Him. Inserted wherever Prophet Muhammad™s name is mentioned. © Islamic Relief Worldwide 2014 This publication is subject to copyright. The contained text may be used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education, and research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. Islamic Relief Worldwide request that all such use be registered with us to monitor the impact for advocacy purposes. For usage in any other circumstances, translation or adaptation, permission must be sought and a fee may be charged. For further information please email irw@irworldwide.org

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2.1 The dignity of humankind At the core of Islamic teaching about development is the innate dignity conferred by God on every man, woman and child. The Qur™an unambiguously declares: fiWe have bestowed dignity on the progeny of Adam [–] and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of Our creation.fl al-Isra , 17:70 Thus everyone has the right to live a life worthy of dignity and respect simply by virtue of being human; regardless of race, religion, gender, ability, age or economic status. 2 Humankind possesses this dignity because God has chosen to give us a special place and rank amongst other creations. The Almighty has breathed into humans something of the Divine spirit 3 and manifested many divine attributes in us. Therefore dignity is innate in every human and not acquired. Along with this status God honoured humans with an enormous trust of responsibility and service by giving the human collective a trust as vicegerents (Khalifa), or stewards, of creation. 4 Therefore human beings have close proximity to God as special creations. In fact, the means of developing an ever- closer relationship with God is ultimately what Islam is all about. As revealed in the Qur™an: fiAnd I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.fl adh-Dhariyat , 51:56 of God and the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH). The importance of oneness in Islam has informed the development of a holistic worldview through the principle of unity ( tawhid ). 2.2 Islamic holistic worldview ( tawhid )Tawhid is the foundation of Islam. Islam is a mono- theistic religion and Muslims believe that God is one and the Creator of all. Thus all creation and all knowledge The message of unity is central to Islam- the unity of God, the unity of various revelations, the unity of humanity, the unity of creations and ultimately the unity of all existence. individual™s relationship with their self, human to human relationships and humanity™s relationship with other creations. Islam involves absolute submission to God in a way that the part (an individual human being) comes to know, love and obey the Creator and thereby achieves synergy with the Whole (the universe). However human unity is in no way the same as uniformity. Rather Islam recognises unity in diversity for as God says in the Qur™an: fiOh mankind! We created you from a single pair, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another.fl al-Hujurat , 49:13 Based on tawhid , Islam reconciles seeming opposites and harmonises diversity by exposing the underlying unity of all creation because it originates from the same absolute Will. In this way Islam emphasises the unity of worship and work, of faith and life, of spiritual and material realities, of economic and spiritual values; and of this world and the Hereafter. The principle of tawhid is the complete opposite of the duality in these aspects that is prevalent in the conventional worldview. It sees harmony in body and soul, politics and religion, individual and social interest, freedom and responsibility, and rights and obligations. This presents a holistic and all-encompassing view of human development. tawhid ) governs the hierarchy of values and principles in Islam. The remaining part of this chapter will highlight other foundational principles that underpin an Islamic under- standing of human development. These include justice, freedom, human rights, equality and social solidarity. 2.3 Justice The Islamic principle at the core of preserving the dignity of human beings is justice. In the hierarchy of values, justice is a central universal value and a basic objective of Islam, to the degree that it stands next in order of priority to the belief in God™s exclusive right to worship (tawhid ) and the truth of Muhammad™s prophethood. This is evidenced from the Qur™anic injunction: fiBe just, for this is closest to God-conciousness.fl al-Ma™idah , 5:8 The centrality of justice to the Islamic value system is displayed by the Qur™anic verse that says: fiWe sent our messengers with clear signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong) in order to establish justice among the people [–].fl al-Hadid , 57:25 This shows that justice is a central goal of all revelation and scriptures sent to humanity. The Prophet (PBUH) declared in a hadith that fi– there are seven categories of people whom God will shelter under His shadows on the Day when there will be no shadow except His. [One is] the just leader.fl Bukhari 660, Muslim 1031 5In Islam, justice is the root of all other values- material, moral and spiritual. The Islamic conception of justice is transcendental and based on fairness, for God says in the Qur™an: as witnesses to fair dealing [–].fl al-Ma™idah , 5:8 Islam provides that justice is achieved when proper relationships and balance are established within and among created things. The principle of unity sets the context for these relationships but Islam for individuals, societies and communities, through the teachings of the Qur™an and ahadith . Therefore by revelation and not determined by intellect, desire, intuition or experience derived through the senses. The Islamic conception of justice is also comp- rehensive. It embraces all aspects of life and is con- cerned with the mind and the body as well as the heart and conscience. It is not only a social concept (corrective and distributive aspects) but it is also a personal moral virtue. Justice is also universal in that it cannot be limited by location or time. With respect to human development, the relevant aspect to consider is social justice. Islamic Relief has recognised this as a fundamental value that underpins its work and further examination of the components of social justice will be undertaken in several sections of this paper. Islam views social justice as setting out the balance of rights and obligations, and of freedoms and respons- ibilities within a framework of equality and solidarity. The Islamic moral order calls on the people not only to practice virtue, but also to eradicate evil. It is based on the absolute, just and coherent unity of existence and the general, mutual responsibility of individuals and societies. 6 Hence it is founded on an Islamic understanding of freedom, human rights, equality, solidarity and sustainability. AN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 54 ISLAMIC RELIEF 2. Fundamental principles

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2.4 Freedom Islamic scholarship has approached the subject of freedom from three standpoints: Those engaged in philosophy who have focused on freewill and predestination. Mystics who have devoted their attention to spiritual freedom from the desires and illusions of the self. The study of social freedom in Islam Œ a more recent phenomenon 7 (and more relevant to this paper). Mutahhari distinguished spiritual freedom, based on GodŒhuman relationship that aims to liberate the soul, connection with other individuals in society. 8 But he and other notable scholars 9 have shown that in Islam, the two are inextricably linked. Absolute submission to God, the Most Powerful, liberates the conscience of the believer from servitude to any other power. Among the evidence cited to support this is the Qur™anic verse fiWe worship none but God and we associate no partner with Him, and none of us must be slaves of one another other than God.fl al-Imran , 3:64 Referring to the hadith in which the Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have declared that fiEvery child is born in ‚ ™ Œ the natural Adamic spiritual state of purity.fl Bukhari 1385, Muslim 2658 10 Muhammad al-Ghazali 11 and Fathi Uthma, 12 have individual and makes it an integral part of the dignity of people. However, individuals enjoy this liberty provided they do not violate the liberty of others and the collective interest of the community. As Kamali 13 explains, in Islam freedom is not individualistic. It is egalitarian since freedom is not enjoyed at the expense of causing harm to others and it is also communitarian because where individual interest clashes with that of the community, the resolution is often in favour of the latter within the bounds of social justice. The freedom of the individual must be seen in the context of their community. This discussion and an elaboration of the types of freedoms guaranteed in Islam will be continued in the next section dealing with the related concept of human rights. 2.5 Human rights Human rights are a means to achieving justice and preserving human dignity. They are also directly linked to freedom and equality. At their respective doctrinal levels, both Islam and the UN Bill of Rights are in agreement on human dignity as the foundation of human rights. However, for Muslims, this does not go far enough. In Islam the root of human rights lies within theology and begins with faith in God, who is the source of transcendent value. It is God who bestowed dignity on humankind (Qur™an 17:70) and who makes it unacceptable for anyone to violate human rights and take away a person™s dignity. Rights and duties in Islamic law are derived from the Qur™an and of an individual™s rights will be in our relationship both with God as well as people within the community. According to Islamic teaching, rights are linked with a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which appears to utilise a libertarian notion of an individual divorced from his/her social commitments and/or relationship with the collective. In practice this has two implications. First, the belief that God is the source of human rights leads to the conceptualisation of the rights of others as obligations on all believers. In a Muslim™s understanding, and weighed on the Day of Judgment. Second, these social obligations form both the rights of others and ultimately the rights of God over us, which are actually manifested to us indirectly through creation and society. This is amply explained in the hadith of the Prophet duties to God through granting the rights of others (Sahih Muslim Book 032, hadith no. 6232; see full text in section 4.4). Muslim jurists have accordingly devised a rights framework that attempts to uphold and balance the common good and private interests within society. The framework 14 envisages a continuum, with private rights ( huquq al-ibad or al-nas ) on the one end, and public interest ( huquq Allah ) on the other. Those in which both public and private interests are at stake fall in the middle. In another vein, while UDHR tends to place government as the primary guardian of human rights, Islam emphasises responsibility for all levels and individuals in society. The government, as the national representative of the human family, is the ultimate guarantor of protection and justice. But this does not abrogate or necessarily outweigh individual respons- ibility and the role of family, neighbours or the wider port of call but rather the ultimate guarantor of rights. The Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said: fiThe sultan [government] is the guardian of he who has no guardian.fl Tirmidhi 1102 Another way in which tensions manifest between Islam and human rights is in regards to certain provisions within Shari™ah law, which appear to be, or actually are, in contradiction with the human rights norms primarily led by Northern states including their perceptions that Shari™ah discriminates against women. a rights-based regime based on Islamic principles will have substantial overlap with the conventional concept of a rights-based approach to development as both will seek to bring about social justice. For example, Plan of Action for Women 15 says that fiwomen should be respected, developed, empowered, considered full active participants in social, political, cultural and economic spheres.fl A major objective of the action plan is to fieliminate all forms of discrimination including combating violence against women.fl Such broad con- sensus from an organisation representing Islamic states to arrive at contemporary interpretations of Shari™ah in order to promote greater equality and remove the vestiges of ‚discrimination™. Further, Muslim countries throughout the world have research has shown that as a group their implementation of these covenants is no better or worse than that of non- Islamic teachings that any act that is detrimental to crucial elements of a person™s faith, life, mind, family or of their rights. This is a broader and more comprehensive framework than the rights regime in the UDHR. 2.6 Equality All human beings are equal in Islam in regard to the essence of their dignity and worth. God has declared fiWe have bestowed dignity on the progeny of Adamfl al-Isra , 17:70 6 ISLAMIC RELIEF AN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 72. Fundamental principles

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Islam emphasizes humanity™s unity of origin and the essence of human fraternity and this reinforces the general equality of all human beings language, religion, gender or social status is hungry is not a believer.fl Al-Tabarani 751 in the concept of the brotherhood of humanity and the brotherhood among Muslims which are both recognised in the Qur™an. Al-Qardhawi points out that these are complementary rather than contradictory to each other. 19 First and foremost is the brotherhood among Muslims because they share the same religious belief. God says in the Qur™an fiThe believers are but a single brotherhood.fl Al-Hujurat , 49:10 Also, God says in another chapter of the Holy Book that fiThe Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another.fl At-Tawbah , 9:71 These statements are given graphic illustration in the ahadith where the Prophet (PBUH) said: fiA believer to another believer is like a building whose Bukhari 2446, Muslim 2585 And he also said: fiThe similitude of believers in regard to mutual love, any limb of it aches, the whole body aches, because of sleeplessness and fever.fl Muslim 2586, Bukhari 6011 God created all human beings from Adam and Eve. Therefore the source of creation is the same. Regardless all brothers and sisters in humanity. Imam Ali said: fiPeople are of two kinds: either your brothers in faith or your equals in humanity.fl 8 ISLAMIC RELIEF AN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 9As mentioned in section 2.2, Islam emphasizes humanity™s unity of origin and the essence of human fraternity which reinforces the general equality of all religion, gender or social status (see al-Hujurat , 49:13). This conclusion is also supported by the following hadith :fiOh people! Your Creator is one, and you are all descendants of the same ancestor. There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab, or of the black over the red, except on the basis of righteous conduct.fl Ahmad 23536 16 Jurists are in general agreement on the equal dignity and worth of all human beings. This is despite and in aspects of family law relating to marriage, divorce and inheritance. Some jurists feel that Islamic provisions in these areas have been misinterpreted to the dis- advantage of women as a result of the importation of patriarchal customs and traditions while others hold the view that the apparent gender distinctions do not amount to inequality per se and have provided explanations on how Islam recognises that women Relief is undertaking an analysis of these issues in a separate paper. Some authors have suggested that Islamic teachings promote unequal treatment of non-Muslims. Although Islam, like other faiths, promotes closeness amongst its community of believers, the evidence from its primary sources and from practice in Muslim societies over- whelmingly debunks the notion that it discriminates in extending the fruits of development to non-Muslims. Kamali (2002b) has conducted an analysis of this issue. Qur™anic verses 17 and little evidence can be found in the Sunnah that may be interpreted as supporting unequal treatment of non-Muslims whilst many other passages in the Qur™an 18 and numerous ahadith can be quoted to support equality for non-Muslims. He also surveyed the writings of contemporary Muslim writers and the constitutions of Muslim countries and concluded that there is overwhelming evidence that Islam supports equal treatment for non-Muslims with regards to development issues. 2.7 Social solidarity Islam lays down the principle of social solidarity and mutual responsibility in all its various shapes and forms and the protection and furtherance of society™s welfare. family, between a person and their neighbour, between an individual and society, and between a community and other communities. In Islamic teachings, the institution of the family and marriage is divinely ordained and viewed as the corner- stone of society. Accordingly the rights and obligations a spirit of consultation is promoted so that the family can function as a single harmonious unit. The role of the husband and wife are complementary, rather than competitive, and family relations should be built on the foundation of mutual love, compassion and cooperation. The scope of family solidarity extends beyond the immediate family to include the extended family. In Islam, neighbours have a mutual responsibility to each other. Aisha, the Prophet™s beloved wife, reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: fiJibril (Gabriel, the Angel of Revelation) enjoined me incessantly with the care of my neighbours, to the extent that I thought that God would grant my neighbours the right to inherit me.fl Bukhari 6015, Muslim 2625 The Prophet (PBUH) is also reported to have said: 2. Fundamental principles

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10 ISLAMIC RELIEF fiHe raised the heavens and established the balance. So you would not transgress the balance. Give just weight- do not skimp the balance.fl Ar Rahman , 55: 7Œ9 Finally God has given humanity the heavy trust and responsibility of being his vicegerent ( khalifs ) on earth and thus being the custodians of other creations. The Qur™an states that fiIt is He who appointed you, khalifs on earth.fl Al An™am , 6: 165 in Islam. In summary all of creation is interconnected because it is created by and in submission to God; to maintain the balance of creation; and humanity has a clear role as the custodian of this natural variety and balance. As individuals and collective, humanity will be accountable to the Creator in how it has discharged this responsibility. In a strategy to strengthen its distinct Islamic ethos, Islamic Relief has embarked on a process aimed at promoting the realisation of core Islamic values as fundamental to the organisation are social justice (adl), sincerity ( ikhlas ), excellence ( ihsan ), compassion (rahma ), and custodianship ( amana ). In the words of the Islamic Relief values team: fiThese values focus the individual on their relation- ship with their Creator, with the creation and with themselves and hence provide a holistic and com- prehensive personal development framework which addresses personal and public, worldly and spiritual, and social and professional roles and aligns them all through a set of clear values and guiding principles.fl The team has given a brief explanation on each of these values as follows: AN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 11SOCIAL JUSTICE ( ADL ) to empower the dispossessed towards realising their God-given human potential and developing their capabilities and resources. SINCERITY ( IKHLAS ) obligations to humanity. EXCELLENCE ( IHSAN ) in our operations and conduct which are deserving of the people we serve. COMPASSION ( RAHMA )We believe the protection and well-being of every life is of paramount importance and we shall join with other humanitarian actors to act as one in responding to CUSTODIANSHIP ( AMANA )We uphold our duty of custodianship over the earth, its resources and the trust people place in us as humanitarian and development practitioners to be transparent and accountable. 3. Islamic Relief™s core values 2.8 Sustainability Three previously mentioned Islamic principles Œ unity (tawheed ), creation ( ) and custodianship ( khalifa ) Œ when combined with the balance principle ( mizan ) together form the core of Islamic teachings on environmental sustainability. 20 Tawheed asserts the unity and wholeness of all and Lord of all creation. The Qur™an says: fiAllah is the Creator of all things and He is the guardian over all things.fl Az Zumar , 39:62 This highlights the inter-connectedness of the universe. God™s creation and developing a balanced relationship with it. From the creation principle ( ), we understand that everything has been created in a natural state of purity and is in submission to its Creator. It is said in the Qur™an: fiGod™s natural pattern in which He originated humankind.fl Ar Rum , 30:30 This shows that there is a natural pattern and disposition for goodness in all creation and that the human species was originated as part of that creation and not separate from it. The balance principle ( mizan ) is surmised from several Qur™anic verses that explain the cycles of living and non-living things. They describe the ways in which the laws of creation include elements of order, balance and precision. In one of them, the Qur™an declares that we should not disrupt this natural order: 2. Fundamental principles

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14 ISLAMIC RELIEF fiLet there be no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clear from Error.fl al-Baqarah , 2:256 fiThe truth has come from your Lord. Whoever wishes may believe in it and whoever wishes may reject it.fl al-Kahf , 18:29 fiIf it had been thy Lord™s will, they would all have believed Œ all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will, to believe!fl Yunus , 10:99 LIFE The second dimension of well-being from the Maqasid is life which relates to all aspects of the physical self. This dimension encompasses all the needs of human the human body and also those that are necessary for humans to discharge their role as custodians ( khalifa ) of the earth namely, preserving dignity and good governance. The physical needs include food, shelter the barest needs of the body in the hadith which says: fiThe son of Adam has no better right than that he would have a house wherein he may live, and a piece of cloth whereby he may hide his nakedness, and a piece of bread and some water.fl Tirmidhi 2341 Another important need included in this dimension is health. The rights to life and security, health, healthy environment, food, shelter, clean water are also in- cluded in this objective along with freedom from fear. INTELLECT The third objective is intellect. Humans are endowed with intellect which enables them to gain knowledge the Prophet (PBUH) required him to: fiRead in the name of the Lord – Who taught man through the use of pen what he did not know.fl al-Alaq , 96:1, 4 and 5 The Prophet (PBUH) himself has made it obligatory for every Muslim man and woman to seek knowledge. This objective highlights the importance of freedom of thought and expression in Islam. The development of the intellect and the acquisition of knowledge is universally accepted as foundational in building capabilities, human freedom and removing barriers to human development. This is because education is the vehicle through which individuals can explore their own conception of what it is they have reason to value and thereby work towards the freedom to make valued choices in other spheres of life. The principle of the protection of the intellect has also enabled scholars to respond to contemporary threats to the intellect such as psychotropic drugs. POSTERITY The fourth dimension is posterity. Some scholars have interchanged the name with family or lineage these terms. The focus is on the protection of future generations and the family as the basic unit of society and solidarity. It includes the right to family life and the rights of the child. It can also include honour, freedom from shame, right to privacy, etc. An obvious contemporary issue that is prioritised by this objective is the responsibility to secure future generations through environmental management and protection. WEALTH of well-being. Islam considers wealth as the life blood of the community which must be in constant circulation; therefore its possession excludes the right of hoarding. This implies that wealth must be invested to improve AN ISLAMIC PERSEPECTIVE ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 15not only measured by the monetary gain associated society. The needs of the society must therefore be a consideration for the owner of wealth. The disposition of wealth is subject to certain of others in the wealth. Next follows the payment of appropriate levies ( zakat ) if the amount falls within the as they wish within the bounds of the law. Divine law opposes extravagance, opulence, waste or general abuse of wealth; or its use to harm others. The right to lawfully acquired wealth is strictly protected but the wealthy are regarded as trustees who hold the wealth as a trust on behalf of God fi– and give them from the wealth of Allah which He has given you.fl al-Nur , 24:33 Despite these apparently strict restrictions, Islam encourages the legitimate pursuit of wealth and the Complete abandonment of family life, means and the community in pursuit of closer proximity to God is not a tradition encouraged by Islamic teaching. Indeed, along with one™s personal worship, the growth of one™s spiritual stature as a human being is also related to the through full social engagement. The Qur™an says: fiBut the Monasticism which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them.fl al-Hadid , 57:27 The Prophet (PBUH) also said: fiThere is nothing wrong in wealth for those who are God-concious.fl Ibn Majah 2132 Thus the right to private property is respected. God says: FAITH The Maqasid give prominence to faith as an essential dimension of well-being because it brings meaning and purpose to life and thereby can transform a person in a way that will lead to the actualisation of all other spiritual and material needs. By conferring on believers clear moral and ethical values along with explicit rules of behaviour, faith leads to moral enhancement and social solidarity- key assets in addressing adversity and vulnerability. Faith is also linked to well-being and protection by enabling adherents to take a long-term view of their self-interest through belief in accountability in the Hereafter. Thus Islam recognises the freedom of worship as an essential need for humans. This is the theme of several declarations in the Qur™an. To quote some: FAITH HUMAN DIGNITY LIFE WEALTH INTELLECT POSTERITY 4. Human development

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