Habitat preferences of common grassland nesting birds. 1 While species marked avoid areas with woody vegetation, most can tolerate some woody vegetation

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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Grassland Birds•October 1999 Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet Number 8 General Information Grassland birds, or those birds that rely on grassland habitats for nesting, are found in each of the 50 United States and worldwide. Various species of waterfowl, raptors, shorebirds, upland gamebirds and songbirds rely on grasslands for nesting and other habitat func-tions. Historical population fluctuations in grassland-nesting bird species have coincided with changes in land uses and agricultural practices. Many North American grassland-nesting birds species have experienced marked population reductions in recent decades. Continued nationwide declines in some grassland-nesting bird species have increased awareness for the need to preserve, manage, and re-store grassland habitat in order to recover and maintain viable grass- land-nesting bird populations. This leaflet is designed to serve as an introduction to the habitat re-quirements of grassland birds and to assist landowners and managers Western meadowlark in developing comprehensive grassland bird management plans for their properties. The success of grassland bird management in a given area requires that managers consider the present habitat conditions in the area and the surrounding landscape and identify management actions to enhance habitat quality for local grassland birds. Grasslands of the United States Native grasslands in the United States have experienced many changes since the arrival of Europeans to North America. There is little doubt that the predominately forested northeastern United States originally contained parcels of open grasslands, including those cleared by native Americans. These grassland areas undoubtedly supported populations of grassland birds. By the 1800s, grasslands were widespread in the northeast due to the forest clearing activity of European settlers to create pastures and hayfields. The establishment of these agricultural grasslands was associated with increases in some grassland bird species populations. In the Midwest and Great Plains regions, settlers found vast expanses of native grassland that had covered much of the landscape. Most of these grasslands were con-verted to agricultural fields and livestock pas-tures in the late 1800Õs and early 1900Õs as farmsteads and European settlement expanded westward. Breeding Range of 27 grassland birds. Species include upland sandpiper, long-billed curlew, mountain plover, greater prairie-chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, northern harrier, ferruginous hawk, common barn-owl, short-eared owl, horned lark, bobolink, eastern meadowlark, western meadowlark, chestnut-collared longspur, McCown’s longspur, vesper sparrow, savannah sparrow, Baird’s sparrow, grasshopper sparrow, Henslow’s sparrow, Le conte’s sparrow, Cassin’s sparrow, dickcissel, lark bunting, Sprague’s pipit, and sedge wren.

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Grassland Birds•The 1900s also brought major changes to the character of grasslands in both eastern and midwestern/Great Plains regions. Changes in agricultural practices with the advancement of modern machinery and an increasing demand for agricultural products continued to reduce native grassland acreage in the west. Plowing of fields, removal of native grazers (bison), loss of wetlands, implementation of plantation forestry practices, and invasion of woody vegetation resulting from fire suppression have all contributed to significant losses of native grassland habitats. As farms moved westward, many once-large expanses of eastern grasslands became fragmented and began to disappear as idle farmland reverted back to old field and second-growth forest. Development of large farming operations in the Midwest and Great Plains has significantly changed the composition of grasslands; in-tensively managed crop fields and improved pastures have largely displaced native grasslands on most of the agricultural landscape. In the Midwest, pasture and hayland is also being replaced by more intensively-managed row crops. On the high plains and other areas of the west, a larger percentage of the landscape remains grassland habitat. Many of these rangelands are used extensively for grazing livestock. Declines in Grassland Bird Populations Breeding Bird Surveys (BBS) conducted by the Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey•and volunteers throughout the country reveal that grassland birds, as a group, have declined more than other•groups, such as forest and wetland birds. There are many examples of population decline in grassland birds,•most notably the extinction of the heath hen from the northeastern United States. Over the 25-year period 1966-•1991, New England upland sandpiper and eastern meadowlark populations declined by 84 and 97 percent, re-•spectively. The greater prairie-chicken has experienced an average annual rate of decline of over 10 percent•during this same 25-year period. These examples and others illustrate the decline in grassland birds on a conti-•nental scale.•The figure at the right illustrates how widespread•the decline in grassland birds has been in recent•decades. Only 23 percent of the species tracked•showed an average annual positive trend in popula-•tion size, while the remainder either had no change• or declined. As the figure illustrates, most areas•have experienced long-term declines in grassland•bird populations.•While loss of grassland breeding habitat is likely•the largest factor contributing to the decline in•many grassland bird species, other factors have•played a role. Brood parasitism by brown-headed•cowbirds, increased use of pesticides and other ag-•ricultural chemicals toxic to birds, mortality during Average annual population changes in 28•migration, and loss of wintering habitats may have grassland bird species from 1966 to 1996.•contributed to population declines in many species.•Habitat Requirements General Each grassland-nesting bird species has a unique set of habitat requirements. Table 1 illustrates some of the habitat preferences of many grassland-nesting bird species. While there are similarities among many species habitat requirements, habitat management to meet the specific needs of one species may or may not benefit other species. It is beyond the scope of this leaflet to identify detailed habitat requirements for each individual grass-land-nesting bird species inhabiting various regions throughout the United States. However, generalizations can be made for the grassland-nesting bird habitat guild, and broad concepts can be addressed and considered in de-veloping habitat management plans for grassland-nesting birds. 2•

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Grassland Birds•Grassland birds are naturally adapted to native grasslands and prairie ecosystems throughout North America. While these communities offer some of the highest quality nesting habitats, they are now extremely rare, especially east of the Great Plains. Fortunately, many grassland birds do not require native vegetation for breeding habitat. ÒSurrogate grasslandsÓ on agricultural landscapes, in the form of hayfields, small grains, fallow and old fields, pastures, and idled croplands provide most of the important nesting habitats for grassland-nesting birds. Strip habitats such as right-of ways for util-ity lines, highways, railroads, and secondary roads; and field borders, grassed waterways, filter strips and similar linear habitats maintained in early suc-cessional communities provide valuable nesting and foraging habitats as well. On landscapes where intensive row crop agriculture is the dominant land use, these strip habitats are extremely important habitats for grassland birds and other wildlife. Grassland bird assemblages vary with the physical habitat structure, disturbance patterns and other factors. For each species or group of species, these habitats provide protective cover for nesting and brood-rearing activities. Adequate cover of undisturbed grassland is among the greatest factors affecting grassland bird populations, and the continued loss and conversion of grassland breeding and nesting habitat remains the largest Table 1. Habitat preferences of common grassland nesting birds. 1 While species marked avoid areas with woody vegetation, most can tolerate some woody vegetation within areas dominated by grassland. Species Preferred grassland growth form Avoids woody vegetation1Short Med. Tall Upland Sandpiper X X X Long-billed Curlew X Mountain Plover X Greater Prairie-chicken X X X Sharp-tailed Grouse X Ring-necked pheasant X X Northern Harrier X X Ferruginous Hawk X X Common Barn Owl X X X X Short-eared Owl X X Horned Lark X X Sedge Wren X SpragueÕs Pipit X Bobolink X X Eastern Meadowlark X Western Meadowlark X X Chestnut-collared longspur X X McCownÕs longspur X Vesper Sparrow X Savannah Sparrow X X X BairdÕs Sparrow X X Grasshopper Sparrow X X HenslowÕs Sparrow X X X Le ConteÕs sparrow X X Dickcissel X X Lark Bunting X X threat to the future of many grassland bird species. Preserving and properly managing grassland communities can help maintain and increase local grassland bird populations, as well as populations of other wildlife species that use these habitats. Food Resources The foods eaten by grassland birds are as diverse as the types of birds that inhabit grassland ecosystems. While insects are likely the most common food source, a wide variety of plant and animal matter is consumed. The box below lists some of the many food items of grassland birds. Important grassland-nesting bird food items. Insects and other invertebrates: grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, dragonflies, caterpillars, ants, katydids, alfalfa weevils, cutworms, wasps, spiders, snails, earthworms, sow bugs, others. Raptor prey items: mice, gophers, voles, shrews, moles, prairie dogs, rabbits, snakes, lizards, songbirds, others. Fruits, seeds and cultivated crops: wild berries, seeds of sedges, weed seeds, tame grass seeds, corn, oats, wheat, barley, other small grains Native grass seeds: big bluestem, little bluestem, switchgrass, Indiangrass, green needlegrass, western wheatgrass, side- oats grama. 3•

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Grassland Birds•The Importance of Grassland Cover While all grassland birds rely on herbaceous cover for nesting or foraging, there are many differences in cover requirements among individual species and groups of species. In addition, some spe-cies are area-sensitive, requiring large blocks of unbroken grass-land habitat for nesting (see minimum habitat area section below). Some species, such as the barn owl, require woody vegetation or other non-grassland structures in which to nest (e.g., tree cavities or nest boxes), while the presence of woody vegetation can be detrimental to other species. Some species require the presence of nearby water or wetlands. Both the vegetation density and growth form Ð short, medium height, or tall grass Ð as well as surrounding land use also influences the assemblage of birds that may occur in a given area. In general, where large blocks of undisturbed grassland occur, grassland birds are able to fulfill most courtship, nesting, brood-rearing, feeding, escape, and loafing cover re-quirements during the nesting season. For many bird species, these habitats provide winter and migration cover as well. Grasslands in eastern North America provide habitat for grassland-nesting birds within a predominantly forested landscape. In agricultural landscapes, pastures and crop fields provide cover attractive to many grassland birds. However, in many situations, cultural practices and harvesting operations may destroy nests and adults that attempt to nest in these areas. Although these impacts are unavoidable in many instances, measures discussed in this leaflet can be taken to minimize impacts to nesting birds during field operations. Landscape Factors Habitat value for grassland birds is greatly affected by the condition of the landscape in the area and surrounding land uses. Small, isolated parcels of grasslands in landscapes that are heavily wooded have limited potential to support grassland birds. On the other hand, blocks of grassland habitat that occur within landscapes dominated by open grass cover are much more likely to attract and support grassland birds. Interspersion of various types of grassland can maximize habitat quality for some species. However, interspersion of grassland habitat with woody vegetation and other land uses that fragment grassland habitats may be detrimental. Some area-sensitive obligate grassland species (and also some habitat specialists) require large unbroken blocks of grassland habitat with little or no interspersion with other habitat types. For this reason, it is crucial to consider landowner objec-tives, local landscape features and management potential, and area-wide population goals of target grassland species in the area when planning management actions for grassland birds. Consultation with state and Federal wildlife agencies and review of established grassland bird priorities for the region (e.g., Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plans Ð see www.partnersinflight.org) can assist in this process. The greater the variety of grassland growth forms available and successional growth stages that occur within grassland landscapes, the greater the number of grassland bird species they can support. In addition, the more grassland that is available in an area, particularly in large unbroken blocks, the greater the number of area-sensi-tive grassland birds the area is able to support. Area-sensitivity and Minimum Habitat Area Many Òarea-sensitiveÓ grassland bird species require a certain amount of habitat to be present, usually in con-tiguous patches or unbroken blocks, before individuals will use a given site. Estimates of the minimum size of suitable nesting and breeding habitat required to support breeding populations of grassland birds vary greatly among species. Species-specific area requirements may also vary among geographic regions and landscape characteristics. For example, the size of habitat patches needed to attract individuals of a given species may be smaller in landscapes that contain a large amount of grassland and open habitats compared to areas with little grassland habitat. 4•

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Grassland Birds•In order to support an array of grassland-nesting bird species within an area, contiguous grassland blocks of at least 500 acres provide the greatest potential. However, smaller grassland blocks provide viable habitat patches for many grassland bird species. A general rule may be to maximize the size and interconnectedness of grass-land habitat patches available, while conducting management actions that maximize the habitat quality within these habitat patches. Grassland and Rangeland Management for Grassland Birds Grassland bird habitats in existing grasslands, whether unbroken native prairie, retired farmlands, improved• pasture, or other grassland systems, can be maintained and improved through various management actions.•Rotational mowing: Rotational mowing can be used to•maintain grassland communities in various stages of•growth and vegetation diversity. This management prac-•tice is conducted by dividing an area into 15 to 25-foot•wide strips (depending on the areaÕs size) that are sepa-•rated from one another by 50 to 85 feet (see Fig. 1).• Wider strips can be established to provide larger habitat•blocks as well. A single strip is mown to a height of four•to eight inches either once or twice a year depending on•the species of grassland-nesting birds present in the area.•Smaller areas can be divided into three strips; mow one•strip in early spring (mid-March to mid-April, depending•on the region) before grassland birds commence nesting Fig. 1. Rotational mowing configuration to provide•activities, and again in late summer after nesting activities various grassland growth forms for grassland birds.•are completed. The following year, the second strip•would be mowed in the same months. The third strip•would be mowed in year three, and the process begins again in year four. Larger areas evenly divided into six•or more strips can be rotationally mown in pairs, so that strip one is worked with strip three, strip two with strip•four, strip three with strip six, and so forth. Note: Landowners should work closely with local NRCS field offi-•cers, state department of natural resource officers, and other wildlife professionals when planning grassland• management to determine mowing dates and techniques that minimize impacts to nesting birds. Knowing the•types and habits of species for which an area is managed will also help to determine whether or not residual•cover should be provided for nesting birds, and thus whether or not the area should be mowed a second time•within the same year in late fall.•Prescribed grazing: Rotational, deferred, or continuous gazing can be conducted to benefit both forage quality•and grassland bird habitat. Grazing by bison in the west was once a natural means of grassland management,•and grassland birds may benefit today from controlled livestock grazing in many areas. Depending on the•region, grassland composition, and the bird species managed for, grazing types and practices may vary. Range-•lands can be maintained in good condition, providing quality forage and suitable grassland bird habitat for many• species by one or more of the following measures:•· Provide 30 to 50 days of rest between grazing periods in each paddock . · Defer grazing in some nesting areas until late in the nesting season. ·Restrict livestock from sensitive nesting areas. ·Graze the entire pasture at a light rate (allowing grass height to be maintained at least 10 inches tall) all summer and put the entire herd on just one half of the pasture during the late season. 5•

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Grassland Birds•· Avoid heavy continuous grazing. ·Rotationally graze cool season grasses in spring and fall and warm season grasses in mid-summer to maxi-mize productivity while minimizing habitat disturbance. Prescribed burning: Prescribed burning is used to maintain grassland communities in various stages of growth and vegetation diversity similar to rotational mowing and managed grazing. Burning returns valuable nutrients to the soil and maintains grasslands as open habitat, thus preventing conversion of grasslands to wooded com-munities through invasion or natural plant succession. Most native grasslands benefit from fire. The suppres-sion of natural wildfires in the United States has reduced the quality of many remaining grassland communities. Although beneficial, prescribed burning is a highly regulated technique and should only be conducted in com-pliance with all state and local laws and with appropriate technical assistance. Agencies and qualified individu-als can help develop burn plans and provide necessary tools, equipment, and supervision, and can assist in ob-taining required burning permits. Prescribed burns should be conducted on a three- to five-year rotational basis, but shorter rotations may be used to benefit some species. Most prescribed burning should be done in the early spring (March-April, depending on the region), but late-summer and fall burns may also be appropriate in some circumstances. Dividing the burn area into strips or plots is important in order to leave undisturbed nesting habitat adjacent to burned plots. Adequate firebreaks should be planned for prescribed burn areas. Woody vegetation removal: In areas managed for birds that are intolerant of woody vegetation, grassland man-agement through prescribed burning, mowing and grazing can help maintain grassland habitats. Manual re-moval of trees and shrubs may be necessary where these practices have not been conducted or where scattered trees and shrubs become established in odd areas. However, some species of grassland birds are benefited by scattered trees, shrubs, and woody fencerows (e.g., loggerhead shrike, BellÕs vireo, field sparrow, clay-colored sparrow, and vesper sparrow, as well as savanna birds such as red-headed woodpecker and orchard oriole). In addition, in some areas, birds that use scrub habitats (e.g., yellow-breasted chat, indigo bunting) may be in greater decline than grassland birds, making maintenance of some scrub habitats (non-forest) a priority. Linear woody cover that fragments large blocks of grassland habitat may be more detrimental to grassland birds than scattered patches, due to their use as travel corridors by nest predators. Landowners and managers should care-fully consider bird species habitat objectives before proceeding with woody vegetation removal actions. Cropland Management for Grassland Birds Hay fields: Ideally, hay mowing activities should be delayed until mid-July or early August to allow grassland birds to complete most nesting activities. However, in many instances this is not feasible for farmers who need to harvest high quality forage. In these circumstances, birds may be drawn to nest in the cover provided by the hay crop only to lose the nest or be killed by hay mowing operations. How-ever, the following measures can be taken to mini-mize impacts on birds nesting in production hay fields. 1)Hay fields should be mowed from the field cen-Fig. 2. Hay fields should be mowed from the center ter outward to provide cover that allows fledg-outward to allow birds to escape to adjacent habitats. ling birds to escape to the edge of the field (see Fig. 2). 2)Fields can be broken into sub-units and mowed on a rotational basis to allow for some useable habitat to be available at all times. 3)Adult nesting birds and roosting individuals are less likely to flush from cover during the night. Therefore, night mowing should be avoided to prevent adult bird mortality. 4)Flushing bars should be mounted on harvesting equipment to minimize bird mortality during mowing op-erations. 6•

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Grassland Birds8Habitat Inventory and AssessmentManaging habitats for grassland birds relies on assessing the management potential of each area within the sur-rounding landscape and deciding which species or groups of grassland birds should be targeted. purposes, use the table below to inventory the site to subjectively rate the availability, quality, and potential of grasslands and surrounding habitats, as well as their proximity to one another, based on the above narrativehabitat requirement descriptions. some species and poor habitat for others. expanses of grassland such as the northern harrier, greater prairie chicken, upland sandpiper, and grasshoppersparrow may be limited in areas with high interspersion with woody habitat types. ate or require some woody vegetation such as the eastern bluebird, loggerhead shrike and field sparrow benefitfrom high interspersion among grassland and woody habitat types. tives must be considered in determining limiting factors and management objectives for an area.Availability/Quality/PotentialHabitat ComponentHighMediumLowAbsentNesting cover:Short grass nesting speciesMedium grass height nesting speciesTall grass nesting speciesFoodDiversity of surrounding habitatInterspersion:Large grassland blocks available (circle one)>250 ac.25-250 ac.<25 ac.Grassland fragmented by forest/other land usesManagement PrescriptionsManagement treatments should be designed to matchthe planning area with grassland bird habitat condi-tions and objectives for the local landscape and ad-dress the habitat components that are determined tobe limiting habitat potential for the target grasslandbird species. the possible action items listed below to raise thequality or availability of each habitat componentdetermined to be limiting. Practices and various programs that may providefinancial or technical assistance to carry out specificmanagement practices are listed where applicable.U. S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceSavannah sparrowFor planningKeep in mind that site conditions may provide good habitat conditions forFor example, habitat quality for species that rely on large unbrokenHowever, species that toler-Therefore, grassland bird community objec-For planning purposes, select amongNRCS Conservation PAGE - 9 ============ Grassland Birds9HabitatComponentManagement options for increasing Habitat quality or availabilityCons. Practices & As- sistance Programs· Preserve and maintain grassland/forb communities by conducting pre-scribed burning, rotational mowing, and prescribed grazing (especially during drought) when and where appropriate. nent in grasslands.327, 338, 528A, 645, 647WHIP, EQIP, PFW, CRP· Plant native warm season grasses adapted to the site such as bigbluestem, little bluestem, switchgrass, eastern gama, and Indiangrass, and native cool season grassses such as green needlegrass, western wheatgrass, and side-oats grama.327, 390, 643, 645, 647WHIP, EQIP, PFW, CRP· In areas where fragmentation of large grassland blocks is not a concern,preserve overgrown fence-, tree-, and establish hedgerows that provide a diversity of plant and insect life and wild fruits and seeds.380, 391, 422, 650WHIP· Leave waste corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, sorghum, and other smallgrain crops on ground after harvest activities. 329Food· Limit herbicide and insecticide use on range- and other grasslands to small areas or use mechanical means so as to reduce reduction of forbs, invertebrates (insects), or mast (seeds) used as food.329· Preserve and maintain grassland/forb communities by conducting pre- scribed burning, rotational mowing, and prescribed grazing (especially during drought) when and where appropriate. nent in grasslands.327, 338, 528A, 645, 647WHIP, EQIP, PFW, CRP· Plant native warm season grasses adapted to the site such as bigbluestem, little bluestem, switchgrass, eastern gama, and Indiangrass, and native cool season grassses such as green needlegrass, western wheatgrass, and side-oats grama.327, 390, 643, 645, 647WHIP, EQIP, PFW, CRP· Restore hydrology and vegetation in herbaceous wetlands and establishadjacent grassland buffers657 PFW, WRP· Establish field borders, hedgerows, shelterbelts, and other habitat corri- dors on agricultural land (may harm some area-sensitive species while benefiting other species). grassland species by fragmenting open grassland; the exception may be in row crop-dominated systems.380, 386, 390, 391, 422WHIP, EQIP. PFW. CRP· Conduct haying activities in a manner that minimizes bird mortality andallows for some nesting success where feasible.Nesting cover· Reduce herbicide use when application results in loss of nesting and winter cover provided by grasses and forbs.Interspersion& minimumhabitat size· Combine above prescriptions to increase interspersion of habitat com-ponents or amount of suitable grassland bird habitat.· Provide large (500 acres if possible), diverse grassland blocks or con- nect smaller grassland blocks with adjacent grassland areas.NRCS Conservation Practices that may be useful in undertaking the above management actions.Conservation PracticeCodeConservation PracticeCodeConservation Cover327Hedgerow Planting422Residue Management329Prescribed Grazing528APrescribed Burning338Restoration of Declining Habitats643Windbreak/Shelterbelt Establishment380Upland Wildlife Habitat Management645Field Border386Early Successional Habitat Development647Riparian Herbaceous Cover390Windbreak/Shelterbelt Renovation650Riparian Forest Buffer391AWetland Restoration657Encourage a forb compo-Avoid fall tillage.Encourage a forb compo-This can conflict with management for open PAGE - 10 ============ Grassland Birds•Available Assistance Landowners interested in making their individual efforts more valuable to the community can work with WHC and NRCS to involve school, scout, and community groups and their families in habitat projects when possible. On-site education programs demonstrating the necessity of grassland-nesting bird habitat management can greatly increase the value of your individual management project as well. Corporate-owned land should encour-age interested employees to become involved. Involving federal, state and non-profit conservation agencies and organizations in the planning and operation of a grassland-nesting bird management plan can greatly improve the projectÕs success. Assistance programs available through various sources are listed below. Programs that provide technical and financial assistance to develop habitat on private lands. Program Land Eligibility Type of Assistance Contact Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Highly erodible land, wetland, and certain other lands with crop- ping history. Stream-side areas in pasture land 50% cost-share for establishing permanent cover and conservation practices, and annual rental pay-ments for land enrolled in 10 to 15-year contracts. Additional financial incentives are available for some practices NRCS or FSA State or local Office Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) Cropland, range, grazing land & other agricultural land in need of treatment Up to 75% cost-share for conservation practices in accordance with 5 to 10-year contracts. Incentive payments for certain management practices NRCS State or local Office Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (PFW) Most degraded fish and/or wildlife habitat Up to 100% financial and technical assistance to restore wildlife habitat under minimum 10-year cooperative agreements Local office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterways for Wildlife Private land Technical and program development assistance to coalesce habitat efforts of corporations and private landowners to meet common watershed level goals Wildlife Habitat Council (301-588-8994) Wetlands Reserve Pro- gram (WRP) Previously degraded wetland and adjacent upland buffer, with lim-ited amount of natural wetland, and existing or restorable riparian areas. 75% cost-share for wetland restoration under 10- year contracts and 30-year easements, and 100% cost share on restoration under permanent ease-ments. Payments for purchase of 30-year or per-manent conservation easements. NRCS State or local Office Wildlife at Work Corporate land Technical assistance on developing habitat projects into a program that will allow companies to involve employees and the community Wildlife Habitat Council (301-588-8994) Wildlife Habitat Incen-tives Program (WHIP) High-priority fish and wildlife habitats Up to 75% cost-share for conservation practices under 5 to 10-year contracts NRCS State or local Office State fish and wildlife agencies and private groups such as Pheasants Forever and Prairie Grouse Technical Council may have assistance programs or other useful tools in your state. State or local contacts References and Suggested Readings Askins, R. A. 1994. History of grasslands in the northeastern United States: Implications for bird conservation. Pages 119-136 in P. D. Vickery and P. W. Dunwiddle, eds. Grasslands of Northeastern North America: Ecology and conservation of native and agricultural landscapes. Mass. Audubon Soc. Best, L. B. 1986. Conservation tillage: Ecological traps for nesting birds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:308-317. Best, L. B., K. E. Freemark, J. .J. Dinsmore, and M. Camp. 1995. A review and synthesis of bird habitat use in agricultural landscapes of Iowa. Am. Midl.Nat. 134:1-29. Castrale, J. S. 1985. Responses of wildlife to various tillage conditions. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. and Nat. Resour. Conf. 50:142-156. George, R. R., A. L. Farris, C. C. Schwartz, D. D. Humburg, and J. C. Coffey. 1979. Native prairie grass pastures as nest cover for upland birds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:4-9. 10• PAGE - 11 ============ Grassland Birds•Herkert, J. R., D. W. Sample, and R. E. Warner. 1996. Management of midwestern grassland landscapes for the conservation of migratory birds. Pages 89-116 in F. R. Thompson III, ed., Management of midwestern landscapes for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds, USDA For. Serv. North Central Forest Exper. Stat. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-187, St. Paul, MN. Herkert, J. R., R. E. Szafoni, V. M. Kleen, and J. E. Schwegman. 1993. Habitat establishment, enhancement and management for forest and grassland birds in Illinois. Ill. Dep. Conserv., Natural Heritage Tech. Pub. 1. 20 pp. Higgins, K. F., T. W. Arnold, and R. M. Barta. 1984. Breeding bird community colonization of sown stands of native grasses in North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 16:177-182. Jones, A. J. and P. D. Vickery. 1997. Conserving grassland birds: Managing large grasslands including conservation lands, airports, and landfills over 75 acres for grassland birds. Mass. Audobon Soc. 17pp. Jones, A. J. and P. D. Vickery. 1997. Conserving grassland birds: Managing small grasslands including conservation lands, corporate headquarters, recreation fields, and small landfills for grassland birds. Mass. Audobon Soc. 16pp. Jones, A. J. and P. D. Vickery. 1997. Conserving grassland birds: Managing agricultural lands including hayfields, crop fields, and pastures for grassland birds. Mass. Audobon Soc. 15pp. Knopf, F. L. 1994. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands. Studies in Avian Biol. 15:247-257. Koford, R. R., and L. B. Best. 1996. Management of agricultural landscapes for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds. Pages 68-88 in F. R. Thompson III, ed., Management of midwestern landscapes for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds, USDA For. Serv. North Central Forest Experiment Station Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-187, St. Paul, MN. Rodenhouse, N. L., L. B. Best, R. .J. OÕConnor, and E. K. Bollinger. 1995. Effects of agricultural practices and farmland structures. Pages 269-293 in T. E. Martin and D. M. Finch, eds. Ecology and management of neotropical migra-tory birds. Oxford University Press, New York. 489 pp. Ryan, M. R. 1986. Nongame management in grassland and agricultural ecosystems. Pages 117-136 in J. B. Hale, L. B. Best, and R. L. Clawson, eds. Management of nongame wildlife in the Midwest: a developing art. North Central Section, The Wildlife Society. 171 pp. Sample, D. W., and M. J. Mossman. 1997. Managing habitat for grassland birds: A guide for Wisconsin. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. PUBL-SS-925-97. 154 pp. Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, I. Thomas, J. Fallon, and G. Gough. 2000. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-1999. Version 98.1, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center,Laurel, MD. Swanson, D. A. 1996. Nesting ecology and nesting habitat requirements of OhioÕs grassland-nesting birds: a literature review. Ohio Dep. Nat. Resour. , Ohio Fish and Wildlife Report 13. 60 pp. 11• 259 KB – 12 Pages