Feb 4, 2013 — In Arabic, Dar al-Islam means house or abode of. Islam /images/reports/Muslimpopulation/Muslimpopulation.pdf (accessed July 19, 2012).
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Copyright © 2013 Human Rights Watch All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 1-56432-992-5 Cover design by Rafael Jimenez Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecti ng the human rights of people around the world. We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane co nduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice. We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable. We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law. We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all. Human Rights Watch is an international organization with staff in more than 40 countries, and offices in Amsterdam, Beir ut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Goma, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Nairobi, New Yo rk, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo, Toronto, Tunis, Washington DC, and Zurich. For more information, please visi t our website: http://www.hrw.org
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FEBRUARY 2013 1-56432-992-5 In Religion’s Name Abuses against Religious Minorities in Indonesia Map i Glossary . . ii Summary 1 Key Recommendations . 6 Methodology . 8 I. Religion and the Stat e since Independence . 9 Post-Independe nce Debates . 9 Religion under Suharto .. 12 Post-Suharto De velopments 1 4 Religious Diversity in Indonesia . 16 Sunni Muslims and Sunni Groups . 17 Shia Muslims 20 Christians . 21 Hindus .. 23 Buddhists. 23 Ahmadiyah .. 24 II. Laws and Institutions that Faci litate Discrimination and Abuse 26 The 2000 Constituti onal Amendment .. 27 The 1965 Blasphemy Law . 28 Decrees on Houses of Worship 3 2 1969 Decree on Hous es of Worship . 33 2006 Decree on Hous es of Worship . 34 2008 Anti-Ahmadi yah Decree . 36 Religious Harmony Bill 39 Religious Institutions in Indonesia 39 Ministry of Religious Affairs . 39 Bakor Pakem . . 42
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Indonesian Ulama Council (Majelis Ulama Indonesia, MUI) .. 43 Religious Harmony Forum . 47 III. House of Worship Difficulties, Discrimination, and Violen ce . 50 Attacks on Houses of Worship 5 0 GKI Yasmin, Bogor . .. 51 HKBP Filadelf ia, Bekasi . . 53 From Java to Timor, Closures of Houses of Worship 54 Attack on Shia Boarding School . 5 8 Prosecutions under Blasphemy and Conversi on Laws 60 Prosecutions under the 2008 Anti-Ahmadiyah Decree 62 Harassment of Ahmadiyah School Children .. 65 Discriminatory Administrative Policies .. 66 IV. State Failure to Protect Religious Minorities fr om Violence . 71 Police Siding with Islamist Militants . 73 Police Failure to Prevent Viol ence Despite Warning Signs .. 75 Blaming Religious Minorities .. 81 Failure to Investigate Violence .. 84 Arson Attacks in Sumatra . 86 Judicial System Failures 88 Recent Attacks on Freed om of Expr ession 90 V. Role of the International Community .. 93 The United States, European Union, Australia, and Other Trade Partners and Donors .. 94 VI. Recommendations . 98 To the Government of Indonesia .. 98 To the Pr esident .. 98 To the House of Representatives. 100 To the National Police . 100 To the Ministry of Religious Affairs . 101 To the Ministry of Home Affairs 102 To the United States, European Union Memb er States, Australia, Japan, and other Concerned Governments . 1 02 Appendix I: Population in Indo nesia by Religion 2010 .. 103 Appendix II: Number of Houses of Worship in Indo nesia 2010 105 Acknowledgme nts .. 107
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III GKI Yasmin Indonesian Christian Church in the Jasmine Garden housing complex (Gereja Kristen Indonesia Taman Yasmin) in Bogor, a town just south of Jakarta. Golkar Golongan Karya (Functional Group), a p olitical party founded in 1964 with the backing of senior army officers. It was the ruling party during President Suharto’s 33-year rule (1965-1998). HKBP Batak Protestant Christian Church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestan) KPK Corruption Eradication Commission (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi) KWI Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia (Konferensi Waligereja Indonesia) Masyumi Consultative Council of Indonesian Muslims (Majelis Syuro Muslim in Indonesia), a coalition of Muslim groups set up during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia during World War II. It was banned by Sukarno in August 1960. MPR People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR) Muhammadiyah A Sunni Muslim reformist organization established in 1912 in Yogyakarta, Central Java. One of the largest mass organizations in Indonesia. It has hundreds of hospitals and schools ( pesantren) throughout Indonesia. In Arabic, Muhammadiyah means “followers of Muhammad.” MUI Indonesian Ulama Council (Majelis Ulama Indonesia) Nahdlatul Ulama A traditionalist Sunni Islam organizati on, established in 1926 in Jombang, East Java. It claims to have 45-50 mi llion members, making it the largest Muslim social organization in the world. It has hundreds of Islamic boarding schools mostly in Java but also on other islands. Pancasila An Indonesian statement of political pr inciple or philosophy (literally, “five principles”), articulated at independence in 1945, consisting of five “inseparable” principles: belief in the One and Only God (thereby legitimizing several world religions and not just Islam), a just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy, and so cial justice. It became the state
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IV ideology under President Suharto and promotion of alternative ideologies was considered subversion. While now more rarely invoked by officials in such a blatantly ideological fashion, it cont inues to be a key reference point in discussions of religions and religious pluralism in Indonesia today. PDIP Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan) PGI Communion of Churches in Indonesia (Persekutuan Gereja-gereja di Indonesia) PHDI Indonesian Hindu Dharma Community (Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia) PK, later PKS Justice Party (Partai Keadilan), a politi cal party in Indonesia modeled on the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. The party name later was changed to Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera). PPP United Development Party (Partai Pembangunan Indonesia) Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Founder of Darul Islam (1905-1962) Shia Islam The second largest denomination of Islam. In Arabic, Shia is the short form atu Almeaning “followers of Ali” a reference to Ali ibn AbiTalib (656–661), the son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammad. Shia members believe that Ali was the most legitimate successor to Mohammad. Sunni Islam The largest branch of Islam. In Arabic it is known as unnah wal- ah or “people of the tradition of Mohammad and the consensus of the Ummah.” Sunni members believe that Mohammad’s successors were successively four caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn AbiTalib. Most of Indonesian Muslims are Sunni followers. YAPI Islamic Pesantren Foundation (Yayasan Pesantren Islam), a Shia school in Bangil, East Java.
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IN RELIGION ’S NAME 1 Summary We get nervous every time we go to the mosque, especially those with children. We’re afraid to bring them. We also have Sunday school which now is done [in private homes]. We are very afraid. The women often don’t come to pray if we see people in white robes [worn by several militant Islamist groups in West Java]. Titik Sartika, the head of an Ahma diyah women’s group in Bekasi, West Java, on intimidation that her community faces from Islamist militants, November 2011. On February 6, 2011, in Cikeusik, a village in western Java, around 1,500 Islamist militants attacked two dozen members of the Ahmadiyah religious community with stones, sticks, and machetes. The mob shouted, “You are infidels! Yo u are heretics!” As captured on video, local police were present at the scene but many left when the crowd began descending on the Ahmadiyah house. By the ti me the attack was over, th ree Ahmadiyah men had been bludgeoned to death. Ahmad Masihuddin, a 25 -year-old Ahmadiyah student, reca lled, “They held my hands and cut my belt with a machete. They cut my shir t, pants, and undershirt. I was only in my underwear. They took 2.5 million rupiah (US$270) and my Blackb erry [cell phone]. They tried to take off my underwear and cut my penis. I was laying in the fe tal position. I tried to protect my face, but my left eye was stabbed. Then I heard them say, ‘He is dead, he is dead.’” While the Cikeusik attack was particularly gr uesome, it is part of a growing trend of religious intolerance and violence in Indonesia. Targets have included Ahmadis (the Ahmadiyah), Baha’is, Christians, and Shias, among others. There have also been cases of Christians in Christian-majority areas preven ting Sunni Muslim mosques from being built. Affected individuals have ranged from people with permits to build houses of worship to those seeking to have their actual religion listed on their ID cards, to children bullied by teachers and other pupils at school.
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2 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH | FEBRUARY 2013 In important respects, Indonesia is rightly touted for its reli gious diversity and tolerance. Since President Suharto was forced to step do wn in 1998, after more than three decades in power, inaugurating an era of greater freed om in Indonesia, viewpoints long repressed have emerged into the open. A strong thread of religious militancy is among them. As detailed in this report, the government has not responded decisively when that intolerance is expressed through acts of ha rassment, intimidation, and violence, which often affect freedom of expression and asso ciation, creating a climate in which more such attacks can be expected. According to the Jakarta-based Setara Instit ute, which monitors religious freedom in Indonesia, there were 216 cases of violent attacks on religious minorities in 2010, 244 cases in 2011, and 264 cases in 2012. 1 The Wahid Institute, anothe r Jakarta-based monitoring group, documented 92 violations of religi ous freedom and 184 incidents of religious intolerance in 2011, up from 64 violations and 134 incidents of intolerance in 2010. 2 In researching this report, Human Rights Watch interviewed 16 members of religious minorities who had been physically assaulted by Islamist militants in seven separate incidentsfour of them sustaining serious injuries. Twenty-two others had their houses of worship or own houses burned down in six se parate incidents. We also summarize here many more incidents reported in the press or documented by other investigators. In addition to intimidation and physical assaults, houses of worship have been closed, construction of new worship facilities halted, and adherents of minority faiths subjected to arbitrary arrest on blasphemy and other charges. In most cases, the perpetrators of the in timidation and violence have been Sunni militant groups described throughout this report as Islamist groups at times acting with the tacit, or occasionally open, support of government officials and police. Groups that have participated in or supported the targetin g of minority religions include: the Islamic People’s Forum (Forum Umat Islam, FUI), the Indonesian Muslim Communication Forum (Forum Komunikasi Muslim Indonesia, know n as Forkami), the Islamic Defenders Front (Front Pembela Islam, FPI), Hizbut-Tahrir Indonesia, and th e Islamic Reformist Movement 1 Setara Institute, “Reports on Freedom of Religion and Belief 2007-2009” April 2, 2010, http://www.setara- institute.org/en/content/report-freedom-religion-and-belief-2007-2009 (accessed January 20, 2012). 2 Wahid Institute, Power Point presentation during news conference, Wahid Institute Jakarta office, December 29, 2011, attended by Human Righ ts Watch researcher.
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