by L Weight · 1995 · Cited by 724 — Die große Zahl unterschiedlicher Faktoren, die Appetit und Lebensmittelverzehr beeinflussen, macht Studien auf dem Gebiet von Hunger und Sattheit schwierig.
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The Satiety Index List All of the following foods are compared to white bread, ranked as “100”. Bakery Products Croissant 47% Cake 65% Doughnuts 68% Cookies 120% Crackers 127% Snacks and Confectionary Mars candy bar 70% Peanuts 84% Yogurt 88% Crisps 91% Ice cream 96% Jellybeans 118% Popcorn 154% All – Bran 151% Porridge/Oatmeal 209% Breakfast Cereals with Milk Muesli 100% Sustain 112% Spe cial K 116% Cornflakes 118% Honeysmacks 132% Carbohydrate – Rich Foods White bread 100% French fries 116% White pasta 119% Brown Rice 132% White rice 138% Grain bread 154% Whole meal bread 157% Brown pasta 188% Potatoes, boiled 323% Protein – Rich Foods Lent ils 133% Cheese 146% Eggs 150% Baked beans 168% Beef 176% Ling fish 225% Fruits Bananas 118% Grapes 162% The list with the most filling food at the top Potatoes, boiled 323% Ling fish 225% Porridge/Oatmeal 209% Oranges 202% Apples 197% Brown pasta 188% Beef 176% Baked beans 168% Grapes 162% Whole meal bread 157% Grain bread 154% Popcorn 154% Eggs 150% Cheese 146% White rice 138% Lentils 133% Brown Rice 132% Honeysmacks 132% All – Bran 151% Crackers 127% Cookies 120% White pasta 119% Bananas 118% Jellybeans 118% Cornflakes 118% Special K 116% French fries 116% Sustain 112% White bread 100% Muesli 100% Ice cream 96% Crisps 91% Yogurt 88% Peanuts 84% Mars candy bar 70% Doughnuts 68% Cake 65% Croissant 47% Table adapted from S.H.A. Holt, J.C. Brand Miller, P. Petocz, and E. Farmakalidis, “A Satiety Index of Common Foods,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 1995, pages 675 – 690.
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Apples 197% Oranges 202% Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675 – 90. A satiety index of common foods. Holt SH , Miller JC , Petocz P , Farmakalidis E . Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, Aust ralia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a validated satiety index of common foods. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Isoenergetic 1000 kJ (240 kcal) servings of 38 foods separated into six food categories (fruits, bakery products, snack foods, carbohydra te – rich foods, protein – rich foods, breakfast cereals) were fed to groups of 11 – 13 subjects. Satiety ratings were obtained every 15 min over 120 min after which subjects were free to eat ad libitum from a standard range of foods and drinks. A satiety index (SI) score was calculated by dividing the area under the satiety response curve (AUC) for the test food by the group mean satiety AUC for white bread and multiplying by 100. Thus, white bread had an SI score of 100% and the SI scores of the other foods wer e expressed as a percentage of white bread. RESULTS: There were significant differences in satiety both within and between the six food categories. The highest SI score was produced by boiled potatoes (323 +/ – 51%) which was seven – fold higher than the lowe st SI score of the croissant (47 +/ – 17%). Most foods (76%) had an SI score greater than or equal to white bread. The amount of energy eaten immediately after 120 min correlated negatively with the mean satiety AUC responses (r = – 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 43) t hereby supporting the subjective satiety ratings. SI scores correlated positively with the serving weight of the foods (r = 0.66, P < 0.001, n = 38) and negatively with palatability ratings (r = - 0.64, P < 0.001, n = 38). Protein, fibre, and water contents of the test foods correlated positively with SI scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 38; r = 0.46, P < 0.01; and r = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively) whereas fat content was negatively associated (r = - 0.43, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The results show that isoenerge tic servings of different foods differ greatly in their satiating capacities. This is relevant to the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity. The Satiety Index No Need To Be Hungry When Losing Weight http://www.healthy - weight - loss - made - easy.com/satiety - index.html How long can you stand being hungry before you start eating again? Only you know. PAGE - 3 ============ The satiety index can help you choose slimming food that is filling instead of fattening food that is filling, but to a bad result. There is no need to go hungry just to lose weight and feeding your hunger in a smart way will keep you on target with your diet. Knowing about the satiety index can help you stay on track. If you have ever tried to get rid of excess weight by eating less, you know that ultimately there is no way of winn ing a battle with your hunger. The quest is to find slimming foods with the best ability to satisfy your hunger for as long as possible. Here is where the Satiety Index comes in. What is the Satiety Index? foods for your weight loss food program . It tells you how you can minimize your hunger pangs, making it easier to follow your weight loss intentions. The Satiety I ndex - tool ranks different foods on their ability to satisfy hunger. The index is based on a study performed at the University of Sydney, Australia in which they compared the filling effects of different foods. much better than others. The test was done by giving a group of volunteers portions of 240 calories from different food sources and then measuring how much they ate when they were allowed to eat again after two hours. The index of white bread was set at 100. Foods scoring higher than 100 are more filling than white bread and those under 100 are less filling. The index only takes into consideration for how long a certain food will keep you full, it calorie content . Best "non - hunger" foods Protein is the nutritive substance that satisfies h unger best based on its energy content and ability to make you feel full over the longest period of time. Carbohydrates are also good if you exclude plain sugar and well known fast carbs (white bread, etc.). Fatty foods are surprisingly not filling, even though people expected them to be. Good news for dieters. PAGE - 4 ============ Foods rich in fiber also rank high and contain few calories. Generally speaking, foods that rank high and satis fy your hunger for a longer period of time are foods with high protein, - water - and/or fiber content. These foods will help make you feel full, literally by filling your stomach, and with a full stomach you can more easily avoid nibbling. How To Use The Satiety Index As with any index that measures just one thing, the satiety index has to be put into a context, P lain boiled potatoes showed to be the most satisfying food tested according to energy content, three times more satisfying than white bread. A lot of people, having learned about the Glycemic Index , avoid potatoes during a diet as it From a nutritional point of view plain boiled potatoes are an excellent choice of diet food, full of vitamins and fibers. them with butter, sour cream, cheese etc. brilliant ability to satisfy hunger? As your stomach shrinks you can remove it from your diet if you want t o. Another example: PAGE - 5 ============ Pop corn ranks high and it also contains a greater amount of bulk for each calorie. them without oil or butter!) when you want to snack , like in front of the television or while reading a book. The best thing, of course, is to not snack at all but if you feel you just have to have something, the value of pop c orn as a weight loss food should not be underestimated, it is so much better than potato chips. Conclusions So, a good diet for weight loss should, from the satiety point of view, contain at least some slowly - digested carbs and protein. Good choices are lean meat and chicken without the skin, food rich in fiber, like beans and lentils and whole meal bread. Also preferable are foods rich in water. Vegetables are especially great for weight loss; they contain lots of nutritional value, few calories and they are filling. about the nutritional value of the foo d; only how well a certain food satisfies your hunger. If you look at the list you will see that jellybeans score high. One of the reasons, according to the researchers, is that jellybeans made the test volunteers slightly nauseous and therefore they didn jellybeans. Jellybeans are also high in sugar, making them a bad choice from the perspective of the glycemic index. As you see, the Satiety Index is one of many tools you can use together with your knowledge of nutrition to make your weight loss easier. Learn why omega 3 fats can benefit your overall health and your weight loss program. Please go to Omega 3 and Weight loss . Wo durch fühlen wir uns satt? Die sättigende Kraft von Lebensmitteln PAGE - 6 ============ Was und wieviel wir essen hat Auswirkungen auf unsere Gesundheit und unser Wohlbefinden. Doch welche Lebensmittel sind verantwortlich dafür, dass wir uns satt fühlen und warum neigen so viele von uns dazu, zuviel zu essen? Lebensmittel dienen hauptsächlich dazu den Hunger zu stillen und lebenswichtige Energie, Nährstoffe und andere Substanzen für Wachstu m und Erhalt der Gesundheit zu liefern. Unsere Essensauswahl wird sehr von der Appetitlichkeit der Lebensmittel geprägt, die von Geschmack, Geruch und Textur aber auch vom sozialen Umfeld beeinflusst wird. Unser Appetit ist Ausdruck eines bewussten Hungerg efühls, eines erlernten oder gewohnheitsmäßigen Essmusters zu bestimmten Tageszeiten, unserer Vorliebe für verschiedene Arten von Lebensmitteln und des puren Essvergnügens oder der Genusssucht 'Socke: mit 2 oder 3 "s"?? an bestimmten Lebensmitteln, die wir mögen. Während einer Mahlzeit erweitert sich der Magen und interne Nervenrezeptoren messen die Essensmenge und den Druck auf die Magenwand. Diese Rezeptoren senden über den Vagusnerv Signale an das Gehirn,und lösen so das Völlegefühl aus. Wenn sich der Ma gen zusammenzieht und entleert, fühlt man wieder ein Verlangen nach Essen. Größere Mahlzeiten füllen den Magen für einen längeren Zeitraum und sind sättigender als kleine Mahlzeiten. Die jeweiligen Bestandteile der Mahlzeit und die Temperatur der Lebensmit tel können ebenfalls einen Einfluss auf die Geschwindigkeit der Magenentleerung haben und beeinflussen so ebenfalls das Völlegefühl. Sättigende Kraft Einige Lebensmittel tragen eher zur Sättigung bei als andere, und dies bezeichnet man als ihre Kraft". Die Kalorientabellen, die gängigerweise von Diäthaltenden und Gewichtsbewussten verwendet werden, geben nicht unbedingt diese sättigende Kraft wieder. einer Studie mit 38 gängigen Lebensmitteln nahmen männliche und weibliche Testpersonen Lebensmittel mit gleichem Kaloriengehalt zu sich und ihr Völlegefühl wurde über zwei Stunden alle 15 Minuten aufgezeichnet. Die höchste Sättigungskraft stellte man bei Lebens mitteln mit einem hohen Gehalt an Proteinen, Ballaststoffen und Wasser fest, eine geringere Sättigungskraft verzeichneten fetthaltigere Lebensmittel. Obst und Gemüse - vor allem gekochte Kartoffeln - erwiesen sich als hochsättigend, wogegen Backwaren wie K uchen, Croissants und Kekse die am wenigsten sättigenden Lebensmittel waren. Proteinreiche Lebensmittel (Fisch, Fleisch, Bohnen, Linsen und Eier) sowie kohlenhydratreiche Lebensmittel (Nudeln, Vollkornbrot und Getreide) fanden sich unter den am meisten sät tigenden Lebensmitteln. Während Proteine dem Hunger länger vorzubeugen scheinen als Kohlenhydrate, übt Fett den geringsten Einfluss auf Sättigung und Völlegefühl aus. Dies könnte der Grund sein, warum eine fettreiche Ernährung zu einem passiven Über - essen und somit zur Gewichtszunahme führen kann. Ist also ein Frühstück aus mit magerem Schinken belegtem Vollkornbrot eine gute Wahl, um Hungerattacken bis zum Mittagessen abzuwehren? Es sieht scheinbar so aus - allerdings wissen die Wissenschaftler bisher weni g über die sättigende Kraft ganzer Mahlzeiten aus verschiedenen Nährstoffen. PAGE - 8 ============ As you know, the only way to end hunger is to eat. Eating provides satiety - a pleasant feeling of fullness and the corresponding reduction of hunger. But did you also know that some foods are better than others for satisfying your hunger? A baked potato, for example, will probably "fill you up" much better than a serving of candy that has the same n umber of Calories. Experiments with Satiety For years, researchers have studied satiety. While many things are known to influence satiety - including individual differences in endocrine levels from one person to another - one of the biggest factors is the type of food that you eat. Some foods fill your stomach faster and/or remain in your stomach longer, and therefor do a better job of holding off hunger. One of the most detailed studies that demonstrates this was conducted by Suzanna Holt and her fellow researchers at the University of Sydney. The results of their study, "The Satiety Index of Common Foods", were published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 1995. In this study, the researchers fed human test subjects fi xed - Calorie portions of thirty - eight different foods, and then recorded the subjects' perceived hunger following each feeding. The results of Holt's study, like many similar studies, indicate that satiety is most strongly related to the weight of the food consumed. In other words, the foods that weigh the most, satisfy our hunger best, regardless of the number of Calories they contain. However, higher amounts of certain nutrients, such as protein and dietary fiber, also appear to improve satiety. Can Satiet y Be Predicted? If there was a way of predicting satiety, we'd be able to select foods that satisfied our hunger, but contained fewer Calories. These foods would greatly improve our ability to create meals that were effective for weight loss. Because of th e strong relation between satiety and a food's weight, some researchers have recommended the consumption of foods with low Caloric densities - i.e. foods that have the fewest total Calories per gram. One of the most notable of these researchers is nutritio nist Barbara Rolls, Ph.D., whose prior best - selling diet book, Volumetrics , explained her use of low Caloric density foods for weight loss. A more recent diet that makes use of low Caloric density foods is the Negative Calorie Diet. There are also many spe cialty diets that use a low Caloric density approach. Included among these are the cabbage soup diet and the grapefruit diet. Unfortunately, Caloric density alone is not a reliable predictor of satiety, and it overlooks many enjoyable foods that would make wonderful additions to your diet. What you need is a better way to predict satiety. Back to top - A Better Predictor of Satiety FF=MAX(0.5, MIN(5.0, 41.7/CAL^0.7 + 0.05*PR + 6.17E - 4*DF^3 - 7.25E - 6*TF^3 + 0.617)) where CAL is total Calories per 100g (30 minimum), PR is grams Protein per 100g (30 maximum), PAGE - 9 ============ DF is grams Dietary Fiber per 100g (12 maximum), and TF is grams total Fat per 100g (50 maximum). After studying the results of numerous satiety studies, NutritionData used an advanced multivariate analysis of the existing data to create a new mathematical formula that predicts satiety from the nutrient content of a given food or recipe. This formula yields a value that we call the Fullness Factor (FF): FF values fall within the range of 0 to 5. Foods with high FF's are more likely to satisfy your hunger with fewer Calor ies. Foods with low FF's are less likely to satisfy your hunger. Comparing the Fullness Factor with Existing Satiety Data After creating this formula, ND plotted its predicted values against the experimental data taken from Holt's 1995 study. Below is a gr aph that shows this comparison, and following the graph is some further discussion. Discussion In the above graph, each blue bar represents the range of repor ted satiety values for each experimental food. (Approximately 12 human subjects participated in each food test, and results varied from one subject to another.) The black line represents the calculated Fullness Factors. As you can see, the Fullness Factor does a reasonably good job of predicting the satiety responses, with the possible exception of potatoes. Note, however, that the methodology of this particular study may have contributed to an artificially high satiety value for potatoes. Per the study's d esign, the participants were separately fed 220 - Calorie servings of each food. A 220 - Calorie serving of plain PAGE - 10 ============ potatoes is larger and much less palatable than the other foods studied. The size of this serving may have influenced a repulsion to this test foo d that goes beyond the normal satiating response. Note : As calculated, ND's Fullness Factor falls within the range of 0 to 5. For this comparison, the Fullness Factors were appropriately scaled (60X) to match the range reported in the study. Also, the food s names shown within the above chart are exactly as reported in the study, and do not necessarily match similar named foods from ND's database. To insure validity of this comparison, all nutrient values were taken directly from the study, which used foods primarily of Australian origin. Limitations of the Fullness Factor The Fullness Factor is calculated from the food's nutrient content, using values from those nutrients that have been shown experimentally to have the greatest impact on satiety. There are, however, other things that can influence a food's ability to satisfy our hunger. In particular, a food's specific taste and texture - i.e. its palatability - can encourage or discourage consumption. Palatability of a food is a highly individual and subject ive value, though, that can't be accurately measured. The Fullness Factor, by design, merely provides an estimate of food satiety prior to consumption. Benefits of the Fullness Factor The benefits of the Fullness Factor far outweigh its limitations. The sa tiating effect of a food can now be more accurately predicted, solely from its nutrient content. This means that you can anticipate which foods and recipes will be most supportive of your diet. Values of the Fullness Factor range from 0 to 5, with the Full ness Factor for white bread being 1.8. That means that for servings of equal Calories, those foods with FF's above 1.8 are more likely to fill you up than white bread, and foods with FF's below 1.8 are less likely to fill you up than white bread. Back to top Comparing the Fullness Factor with the Glycemic Index The Fullness Factor and the Glycemic Index are both nondimensional ratings which are used to predict your body's response to particular foods. While the Glyce mic Index applies only to foods containing carbohydrates, the Fullness Factor can be used to evaluate all foods. A very detailed explanation of the Glycemic Index and Fullness Factor, as they relate to diet, can be found on ND's Glycemic Index page. Back to top Fullness Factors for Common Foods Fullness Factors for Common Foods Food FF Bean sprouts 4.6 Watermelon 4.5 PAGE - 11 ============ Grapefruit 4.0 More filling per Calorie Less filling per Calorie Carrots 3.8 Oranges 3.5 Fish, broiled 3.4 Chicken breast, roasted 3.3 Apples 3.3 Sirloin steak, broiled 3.2 Oatmeal 3.0 Popcorn 2.9 Baked potato 2.5 Lowfat yogurt 2.5 Banana 2.5 Macaroni and cheese 2.5 Brown rice 2.3 Spaghetti 2.2 White rice 2.1 Pizza 2.1 Peanuts 2.0 Ice cream 1.8 White bread 1.8 Raisins 1.6 Snickers Bar 1.5 Honey 1.4 Sugar (sucrose) 1.3 Glucose 1.3 Potato chips 1.2 Butter 0.5 118 KB – 13 Pages