by R Abd Jelani — Keywords: Islamic Worldview, Moral Education, Fiṭrah, Īmān. 1 Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Islam and Secularism, (Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Youth Movement of Malaysia 6 Al-Ghazali, Ihya ‘Ulum al-Din (Egypt, 1346 A.H., 4 v), vol. III.

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Dirasat: Jurnal Studi Islam & Peradaban, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 | | © 2018 STAI Indonesia Jakarta Press A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW AS THE MANIFESTATION OF AL-TAW Roslan Abd Jelani Peneliti Senior International Foundation, Malaysia Abstract Islamic Worldview as an embodiment of aw is the main foundation of man in pursuing a goal that leads to perfect happiness ( al – ). It provides concepts that complement and prepare the way for this li fe and after. This research concerns the idea of worldview as a manifestation of aw . Using library research methods, it was found that: (1) Islamic Worldview provides an overview of two dimensions of life: the world and the hereafter; (2) Islamic Worldview emphasizes the importance of moral education which could produce in the human soul various emotions and sentiments that ensure the operation of the moral criteria by inspiration from the self. Keywords A. The Worldview of Islam: An Introduction values pertain ultimately to it alone. Any endeavour towards perfection by Muslim, individually and collectively, is invariably determined by the worl dview that projects 1 The One Reality has different modes. It cause the actualization of other diverse and multiple and evanescent realities. The affirmation of existence and distin ction between the One Reality i.e. Being ( or God) and external existent ( ); between unity ( wadah) and 1 Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Islam and Secularism, (Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM), 1978) , 84.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 14 Multiplicity ( katsrah ); between Subsistence ( ) and Evanescence ( ) doe s not mean a dualistic worldview for the two are not of equal in status metaphysically and ontologically. Rather, one is Existence necessary by Itself, pertains to absolute Existence, while the other is existent that is made necessary by the Existence of the absolute, i.e. concrete existence of the world of empirical things which pertains to pure non-existence; on e is independent and subsistent while the other is dependent upon i t; the one is absolute and the other relative; the one is by Himself manifest and b rings others into manifestation; and one by Himself visible makes other things visible. 2 With this understanding, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas observes that: In this way in practice Muslims have been able to live their lives in accordance with the belief without suffering any change to be wrought that would disrupt the harmony of Islam and of their own selves; without succumbing to the devastating touch of time, or to the attendant challenges in the vicissitudes of worldly existence. 3 In order to attain the vision of the One Reality, we must have correct attitude towards God by knowing His nature (i.e. an aspect of God when He is related to His creation) and knowing how to behave towards Him. We must accordingly practice a proper moral introspection ( -qalb ), and progress from mere letter of the profession of faith to its complete understanding through a deeper reflection on its meaning. These will inner self disposition, which becomes the principle of movement to the bo dy and give derive to a proper virtue. In this manner, Muslims have dealt, and 2 Al -Attas, Islam and Secularism, 81- 84. 3 Al -Attas, Islam and Secularism, 84 -85.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 15 continue to deal with the issues of intellectual, linguistic, cul tural and religious pluralism; with real tolerance and justice, while maintaining their values that cannot be weakened by relativism. 4 As the result, Muslims can be sure of the place and function of the spiritual vis a vis the material, this world vis a vis the next, of man vis a vis woman in religion and society, of individual and collective responsibility. This is due to the nature of the worldvie w of Islam 5 which is: (1) authentic and final that points to what is ul timate; (2) its fundamental elements are permanently established; and (3) encompass existence and life altogether in total perspective. The worldview of Islam is not expectations or speculations. It is something that had been implanted by God in our heart. We cannot construct it, neither to steer it with our intellect. The method to realize it is through the enlightened heart (i.e. the heart that had been enligh tened by the divine light ( nur al- al – ) from the world of dominion ( al -mulk ) to the spiritual world of sovereignty ( al – ). The heart is an aspect of the soul ( al -nafs ) which occurs in it the firm believing which characterized , and which confirms and affirms the truth by tasdiq . The heart is also the spiritual organ of cognition by which the soul perceives spiritual truth. It has been endowed with a character that can intuitively recognize the right and wrong through the guidance of Revelat ion. It is also the intellect ( al – ) operating at a higher spiritual level of 4 Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, An Outline of the Educational Philosophy and Methodology of al -Attas , p. 40. 5 For an excellent elaboration on the fundamental elements of the wo rldview of Islam, see Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of the Fundamental Elements of the Worldview of Islam (Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC), 1995), 1, 39.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 16 experience. 6 In this case, the heart adheres to that which it knows, and full y grasps it, and is of such nature so as to exclude all possibility of the opposite. The journey leading to transcendental reality could be possible if we subjugate the ego self with sincere exertion and continuously performing transformative spiritual actions ( amal al- ali ). At certain stage, the man will becomes absent to himself and experiences the intuition of existenc e (dzauq ) when his heart presence ( ) to God whom he ever contemplates in deep meditation. When the heart agitated ( wajd ) by the vision of God, the heart will expand ( bas) and it calms the heart by way of contemplation ( of being, or cognition ( ), or vision ( ) that enables one to feel, to know, and to see the reality and truth. Therefore, the worldview of Islam that forms the value system and projects the vision of the One Reality and confirms the affirmation o f the same Truth is, according to al-Attas: mainly from observation of the data of sensible experience, of what is visible to the eye; nor is it restricted to kawn , which is the world of sensible experience, the world of created things. 7 It is contrary to secular worldview which must of necessity be changed in correspondence with changing circumstances because it is not base d on revelation but on philosophical speculations which are syakk, uncertain , and doubtful. 8 In this manner, secular worldview was a result of 6 Al -Ghazali, Ihya -Din (Egypt, 1346 A.H., 4 v), vol. III. 7 Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam , 1. 8 For further enlightening explanation and elaboration on Western secular worl dview, see Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam, 1 -39.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 17 misunderstanding of al -Taw . In his elaboration on the worldview of Islam, al -Attas expounds that: The worldview of Islam is characterized by an authenticity that points to what is ultimate, and it projects a view of reality and truth that encompasses existence and life altogether in total perspective whose fundamental elements are permanently established. 9 With regard to the system of value, he asserts that: philosophical elements aided by science, but one whose original source is Revelation, confirmed by religion, affirmed by intellectual and intuitive principles. 10 The function of the worldview of Islam is to regulate human activities in accordance to the concept of fi rah manifesting the meaningful, right, correct, and proper actions as against the erroneous and wrong ones. Al- Attas elucidates the meaning of fi rah by saying: Fi rah is the pattern according to which God has created all g, , and everything fits each into its pattern created for it and sets in its proper place. It is the Law of God. Submission to it brings nature; opposition to it brings discord, for it means realization of cosmos as opposed to chaos , justice as opposed to injustice. 11 9 Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam, 4 5. 10Al -Attas, Prolegomena , 4. 11 Al -Attas, Islam and Secularism , 57 58. In synthesizing the idea of fitrah upheld by Ibn al- state of being ( ), affirm the existence, oneness and transcendence of their Creator. Originally, this af firmation consists in the Primordial Covenant between them and God ( al – ), which pertain to the event when He brought forth the Children of A Rabb to which they – al – , 7: 172). See his

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 18 As for man, returning to fi rah means to live up to the requirement of his covenant with God, to render his absolute obedience to God, to fun ction according to His laws, and to strife in full awareness in fulfill ing his duty as the servant of God and the vicegerent of God on earth. He will realize t hat any adverse conditions would spoil the soul and cause spiritual deform. Th is realization could be possible if he is always conscious of his covenant ed self that had bear witness of the Divine Existence and Unity when he is not yet in a material or corporeal sense, when the soul is still in the form of t hing that cannot bei they are. It happened in the world of spirit which was far beyond our ow n power to ever imagining such an affirmation. The primordial covenant is having a moral and religious significance. It binding and determining our purpose, attitude and action with respect to ourselves in our relation with God. This is the binding and determining in religion which entails true submission ( al – ). In this case, knowledge and religion are natural correlates in the nature of man, the original nat ure in which God has created him ( al -fi rah ), and our duty is to be obedience to Him ( ). In accordance to this, man will be suffered the agony if he rejects God. However, he can find peace, salvation, tranquility, ease and satisfacti on through belief in God and if he aspires to always try to remain attach to Him. This is the way of how God explains and expound humanity, and this also th e way how He issues commands and communicate truth in us. – amental Religious Notions: Natural Disposition ( Fitrah ), Divine Law ( ), True Faith ( ) and Disbelief ( Kufr al -Shajarah , vol. 4, no. 1 (1999), 93 121.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 20 individuality is not separate from this light. With respect to the , this light penetrates all of his feeling and consciousness, reason, emotion, an d motive. It infuse and enlighten every faculty of his soul whether rati onal soul or animal soul, and it also control their deed and thought. It will make them devote their mind exclusively to Him, and through the medium of proper a nd right actions, they could become communion with Him. Spiritual communion with God will effects the senses and strengthened the heart. Through this way, the person will be endowed by God with insight which enables him to receive it in the way that Rasulullah did, but beware of the insight of the faithful The resistance to this light is from the elements of visible w orld because what we see are veils whether veils of imagination or veils of preconcept ion. The true and real meanings and understandings of it cannot be attaine d unless the veils are being lifted until divine light penetrate our heart and enable the eye of the heart to see things as they really are. However, the eye of the heart can be blinded by arrogance, egotism, desires, and lust. The person of this nature of heart is like the blind who feel the warmth of the sunshine but unable to see its light. focus of all reverences and gratitude, the only source of values. What Allah desires of man become value for him and become the ultimate end of hi s endeavour. The main implication from is the total, vigorous and positive commitment to His guidance which involves knowing with certitud e, believing without doubt, complete obedience, perfect submission, and

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 21 devotion at level of excellence ( i ). It will bring good effect to the intellect whereby man will be able to think about the consequences and thus subdue the appetites that drive man to seek immediate gratification of his basest instinct. In the same manner, it will protect oneself against the harm ful or . acute sense of religious responsibility. He will always observe the limit established by God that not to be violated and transgressed. Should it been transgressed, he will repent and redress the imbalance in his personality. In so far as the aspect of certitude is concerned, the degree of must be to the extent of rejecting totally the possibility of disbelief based on definite and true knowledge, not on delusions and heresies. The soul m ust definitely convinced of the truth, become at rest and confirms it , and by no means feels the possibility of its opposite. This is the only way man ca n possibly receive direct and immediate apprehension of the existence of G od and of religious truth, and accordingly, control over his lower self. When thi s is being achieved, it will form the foundation of pious actions ( amal al- ) which can save man from committing corrupted practices ( ) or any futile actions because he has the ability to think about consequenc es and thus subdue the appetites that drive man to seek immediate gratif ication with all immoral means. According to Rasullulllah, this is the sign of a wise man, the one who able to take control over his self and works for what will comes after death. In due to that, he reminded us not to involve with thi ngs that do not benefit us because this is the sign that Allah has turn ed away from man.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 22 C. The Worldview of Islam and Its Significant Relation with Knowledg e and Virtue Knowledge is not neutral to values. Its true value is based on its significance in the sense of . In order for knowledge to be exact, precise, definite, and right, it must be qualified with a religiou s moral dimension provided by Revelation because the true knowledge is with God alone (see al- -A ). Therefore, true knowledge is certain and secure from any error, and it is absolute and identical with revelation. Truth is disclosed in it in such a manner that no doub t will remains along with it and no way that it could be denied. Those who are endued with true knowledge will observe the correct measure proportionate to his self (fi rah ), and he will stand firm on justice. 13 Further, he will be able to deal with everything in the precisely correct manner in accordance to its real nature so all will maintain in order. On that account, it is necessary for man to differentiate between harmful and useful knowledge in order to avoid error and confusion, especially when it is involving judgment between right and wrong, truth and falsehood. creating ( khalaqa ) signifies the idea of knowledge because through His Will and Power of creating, each of His creation was given the proper measu re and due to that, everything fits into its proper place. In relation to man, his free-will, i.e. his intention and determination to do or not to do somethin g, must base on his power of reason, power of understanding, and power of discernment. In this case, freedom of choice bestowed upon him is true 13 In this case, al- , 3: 18.

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Jelani A Brief Overvieew of Islamic Worldview, 13-28 Dirasat, Vol. 14, No. 01, 2019 23 freedom, not just nominally or apparently true. He is not compelled t o choose, otherwise man cannot be responsible for his actions, nor deserve reward and punishment. In Islam, the choice is not between many alternatives but only two alternatives. In order to make the right and true choice, it requires a person to have the knowledge about what is the best f or the soul. Ultimately the meaning of freedom is submission to God. Para dox of present day is that most people having intelligent about anything bu t they failed to understand the nature of man, his origin, his duty on ear th in accordance with his nature, and his actions and its significant rela tion with akhirat aspect. As a consequent, they have no idea about the limit of trut h and the proper place. By not knowing the limit of truth, it would n ot lead them to proper submission ( aslama ). The person who does not know the limit will incline towards something that is not agreeable to his nature, and lack in anything that cou ld bring perfection appropriate for the self which could bring unpleasant to his soul. Indeed, what can suit and what is being demanded by the soul i s the knowing of God which is not possible unless the person is having knowledge of his real self, and as the result, be able to subjugate and control over his animal soul. Pertaining to this, the Holy Prophet (may God bless and give him Pea ce!) said: Thus spiritual knowledge of God is more pleasant than any other knowledge because the pleasure of the soul is in spiritual insight and spiritual knowledge ( al – ).14 Comparatively, the pleasure which is due to the soul is more powerful and stronger than any other pleasure of the senses. It 14 The spiritual knowledge ( al – ) is the seed of spiritual witnessing ( al – ) which is the highest degree of perfection with regard to the nature of the soul.

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