E-ISBN 978-92-5-107596-8 (PDF) 3. culture, religion and the history of entomophagy . accessibility, simple rearing techniques and quick growth.

510 KB – 201 Pages

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1.04cm spine for 208pg on 90g eco paper ISSN 0258-6150 Edible insects have always been a part of human diets, but in some societies there remains a degree of disdain and disgust for their consumption. Although the majority of consumed insects are gathered in forest habitats, mass-rearing systems are being developed in many countries. Insects offer a signi˜cant opportunity to merge traditional knowledge and modern science to improve human food security worldwide. This publication describes the contribution of insects to food security and examines future prospects for raising insects at a commercial scale to improve food and feed production, diversify diets, and support livelihoods in both developing and developed countries. It shows the many traditional and potential new uses of insects for direct human consumption and the opportunities for and constraints to farming them for food and feed. It examines the body of research on issues such as insect nutrition and food safety, the use of insects as animal feed, and the processing and preservation of insects and their products. It highlights the need to develop a regulatory framework to govern the use of insects for food security. And it presents case studies and examples from around the world. Edible insects are a promising alternative to the conventional production of meat, either for direct human consumption or for indirect use as feedstock. To fully realize this potential, much work needs to be done by a wide range of stakeholders. This publication will boost awareness of the many valuable roles that insects play in sustaining nature and human life, and it will stimulate debate on the expansion of the use of insects as food and feed. FAO FORESTRY PAPER FAO FORESTRY PAPER 171 171FAO Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security171Edible insects Future prospects for food and feed security Edible insects Future prospects for food and feed security Edible insectsFuture prospects for food and feed security I3253E/1/04.13ISBN 978-92-5-107595-1ISSN 0258-61509789251075951

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1.04cm spine for 208pg on 90g eco paper Cover photos, clockwise from top left: Women selling caterpillars in Bangui, Central African Republic (P. Vantomme) Gold-painted crickets on top of Belgian chocolates (P. Vantomme) Black soldier ˜y in a mass-rearing unit (L. Heaton) Appetizers prepared with insects (T. Calame) Coleoptera species used as a food colorant (A. Halloran) Palm weevil larvae (O. Ndoye)

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by Arnold van Huis Joost Van Itterbeeck Harmke Klunder Esther Mertens Afton Halloran Giulia Muir and Paul Vantomme Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security FOOD AND AG RICULTUR E OR GA NIZATION OF T HE UN ITED NATIONS Rome, 2013 FAO FORESTRY PAPER 171

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The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-107595-1 (print)E-ISBN 978-92-5-107596-8 (PDF)© FAO 2013 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO™s endorsement of users™ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence- request or addressed to copyright@fao.org. FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/ publications) and can be purchased through publications-sales@fao.org.

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iiiContents Foreword .ixAbbreviations .xAuthors™ preface .xiAcknowledgements .xii Executive Summary . xiii 1. Introduction .11.1 Why eat insects? ..21.2 Why FAO? .22. The role of insects 52.1 Beneficial roles of insects for nature and humans ..52.2 Entomophagy around the world 92.3 Examples of important insect species consumed ..202.4 Important insect products ..293. Culture, religion and the history of entomophagy ..353.1 Why are insects not eaten in Western countries? .353.2 Why were insects never domesticated for food? ..373.3 Negative attitudes towards insects 393.4 History of entomophagy ..404. Edible insects as a natural resource ..454.1 Edible insect ecology ..454.2 Collecting from the wild: potential threats and solutions 454.3 Conservation and management of edible insect resources 484.4 Semi-cultivation of edible insects 514.5 Pest management .555. Environmental opportunities of insect rearing for food and feed .595.1 Feed conversion .605.2 Organic side streams ..605.3 Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions ..625.4 Water use ..645.5 Life cycle analysis ..645.6 Animal welfare ..655.7 Risk of zoonotic infections ..655.8 fiOne Healthfl concept 666. Nutritional value of insects for human consumption ..676.1 Nutritional composition 676.2 Beef versus insects: an example of the mealworm ..746.3 Insects as part of diets ..766.4 Sustainable diets 796.5 Edible insects in emergency relief programmes .79

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iv7. Insects as animal feed .897.1 Overview 897.2 Poultry and fish fed with insects .907.3 Key insect species used as feed 93 8. Farming insects ..998.1 Definitions and concepts .998.2 Insect farming .998.3 Insect farming for human consumption ..1018.4 Insect farming for feed ..103 8.5 Recommendations on insect farming 103 9. Processing edible insects for food and feed 107 9.1 Different types of consumable products .107 9.2 Industrial scale processing ..110 10. Food safety and preservation 117 10.1 Preservation and storage 117 10.2 Insect features, food safety and antimicrobial compounds ..119 10.3 Allergies 123 11. Edible insects as an engine for improving livelihoods 125 11.1 Insects as a part of the minilivestock sector ..125 11.2 Improving local diets 126 11.3 Access, tenure and rights to natural capital ..127 11.4 Inclusion of women ..128 12. Economics: cash income, enterprise development, markets and trade .131 12.1 Cash income 131 12.2 Enterprise development .133 12.3 Developing markets for insect products ..135 12.4 Market strategies 137 12.5 Trade ..138 13. Promoting insects as feed and food ..141 13.1 The disgust factor 141 13.2 Drawing on traditional knowledge .147 13.3 Role of stakeholders .149 14. Regulatory frameworks governing the use of insects for food security .153 14.1 Major barriers faced .154 14.2 Legal framework and standardization ..156 15. The way forward ..161 References .163 Further reading .187

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vi7.4 Chicken consumption leading to human infection with highly drug-resistant ESBL strains ..917.5 Increasing the sustainability of freshwater prawn production in Ohio .94 8.1 Dual production systems (fibre and food): the example of the silkworm .998.2 Biological control and natural pollination 100 8.3 Insect proteins in space 102 8.4 Difficulties in rearing crickets in the Netherlands 104 9.1 Termites: processing techniques in East and West Africa 109 9.2 Environmental economics 113 9.3 Application of edible insects: insects as the missing link in designing a circular economy 114 10.1 Processing the mopane caterpillar for human consumption .118 10.2 The stink bug Nezara robusta in southern Africa .121 10.3 Bogong moths in Australia 122 10.4 The allergyŒhygiene hypothesis .124 11.1 The red palm weevil ( Rynchophorous ferrugineus ) as an important source of nutrition and livelihood in New Guinea ..127 11.2 Cambodian spiders .128 11.3 Edible insect consumption and indigenous peoples .129 12.1 Harvesting, processing and trade of mopane caterpillars .132 12.2 Wholesale markets in Thailand ..133 12.3 Feasibility study before starting a street-food business ..133 12.4 The Dutch Insect Farmers Association 134 12.5 FAO Diversification Booklet 18, Selling Street and Snack Food ..136 12.6 Ethnic foods through migration: the export of caterpillars from Africa to France and Belgium ..139 12.7 Japanese trade in wasps .139 13.1 How can people with an aversion to insects understand and accept that insects are palatable? ..141 13.2 Edible insect cookbooks .142 13.3 Established approaches used in education for sustainable development ..143 13.4 The Food Insects Newsletter 144 13.5 International knowledge-sharing between developing countries on the use of edible insects in diets .148 13.6 The Nordic Food Lab .150 13.7 Konchu Ryori Kenkyukai ..151 14.1 FAOLEX ..153 14.2 Barriers to market establishment in the European Union ..155 14.3 Codex Alimentarius 156 14.4 Definition of novel food by the European Commission ..158

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viiFigures 2.1 Recorded number of edible insect species, by country .92.2 Number of insect species, by order, consumed worldwide ..102.3 Monthly rainfall (top) and monthly occurrence of meals of fish, caterpillars and game in 15 consecutive months in the Lake Tumba region, Democratic Republic of the Congo 162.4 Temporal availability of edible insects, wild plants and subsistence crops for the Popoloca people of Los Reyes Metzontla Puebla, Mexico ..204.1 Distribution of insects, by order, Brazil 504.2 Geographic distribution of Oecophylla species ..575.1 Efficiencies of production of conventional meat and crickets 605.2 Use of insects in the animal feed chain 615.3 Relative GHG contributions along the livestock food chain .625.4 Production of GHGs and ammonia per kg of mass gain for three insect species, pigs and beef cattle .635.5 Greenhouse gas production (global warming potential), energy use and land use due to the production of 1 kg of protein from mealworms, milk, pork, chicken and beef ..647.1 International wholesale market price for fish oil and fishmeal, CIF Hamburg .907.2 The proportional use of different types of feed by Ugandan fish farmers 929.1 Agriprotein fly protein production process ..1119.2 Agriprotein value/production chain .112 9.3 Insects as the missing link: ecology designs a circular economy ..115 Tables 2.1 Abundance of caterpillars in Central Africa ..172.2 Availability of edible insects, Lao People™s Democratic Republic, by month .172.3 Availability of edible insects in Thailand, by month .182.4 Available insect and insect products for the Popoloca people of Los Reyes Metzontla Puebla, Mexico .19 4.1 Edible species considered as pests of global or local importance in agro-ecosystems, which could be controlled through strategies of alternative management and used widely for human consumption .565.1 The animal sector‚s contribution to GHG emissions .626.1 Examples of energy content of differently processed insect species, by region .686.2 Crude protein content, by insect order 696.3 Comparison of average protein content among insects, reptiles, fish and mammals .696.4 Variation in insect protein along subsequent metamorphosis phases of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (raw), Ogun state, Nigeria 706.5 Fat content and randomly selected fatty acids of several edible insect species consumed in Cameroon .72

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viii6.6 Recommended intake of essential minerals per day compared with the mopane caterpillar ( Imbrasia belina ) 736.7 Average approximate analysis of selected Tenebrio molitor and beef as a percentage of dry matter except for moisture content 756.8 Average amino acid content of Tenebrio molitor and beef (amounts in g/kg dry matter unless stated otherwise) ..756.9 Fatty acid content of Tenebrio molitor and beef on a dry matter basis ..766.10 Annual consumption of invertebrates in the Tukanoan village of Iapu (Rio Papuri, Vaupes, Columbia), composed of about 100 people .786.11 Traditional food items of four indigenous communities from different parts of the world: the Awajun (Peru), the Ingano (Colombia), the Karen (Thailand) and the Igbo (Nigeria) 798.1 Favourable characteristics of insects for automated production systems 103 9.1 Important aspects of large-scale production of edible insects 110 14.1 Maximum permissible levels of insect contamination in food products .154

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ixForeword It is widely accepted that by 2050 the world will host 9 billion people. To accomodate this number, current food production will need to almost double. Land is scarce and expanding the area devoted to farming is rarely a viable or sustainable option. Oceans are overfished and climate change and related water shortages could have profound implications for food production. To meet the food and nutrition challenges of today Œ there are nearly 1 billion chronically hungry people worldwide Œ and tomorrow, what we eat and how we produce it needs to be re-evaluated. Inefficiencies need to be rectified and food waste reduced. We need to find new ways of growing food. Edible insects have always been a part of human diets, but in some societies there is a degree of distaste for their consumption. Although the majority of edible insects are gathered from forest habitats, innovation in mass-rearing systems has begun in many countries. Insects offer a significant opportunity to merge traditional knowledge and modern science in both developed and developing countries. This publication has its beginnings in an effort in FAO™s Forestry Department to recognize the traditional practices of gathering insects for food and income, and to document the related ecological impacts on forest habitats. Thereafter, FAO embraced the opportunity to collaborate with the Laboratory of Entomology at Wageningen University in the Netherlands Œ an institution at the forefront of fundamental and applied research on insects as food and feed. This combined effort has since gained momentum and is unfolding into a broad-based effort at FAO to examine the multiple dimensions of insect gathering and rearing as a viable option for alleviating food insecurity. This book draws on a wide range of scientific research on the contribution that insects make to ecosystems, diets, food security and livelihoods in both developed and developing countries. We hope that it will help raise the profile of insects as sources of food and feed in national and international food agencies. We also hope that it attracts the attention of farmers, the media, the public at large and decision-makers in governments, multilateral and bilateral donor agencies, investment firms, research centres, aid agencies and the food and feed industries. Above all, it is our hope that this publication will raise awareness of the many valuable roles that insects play in sustaining nature and human life and will also serve to document the contribution insects already make to diversifying diets and improving food security. Eduardo Rojas-Briales Ernst van den Ende Assistant Director-General Managing Director FAO Forestry Department Department of Plant Sciences Group Wageningen University and Research Centre

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