Aug 2, 2016 — The 2016 Report and the best of Human Development Report Office The cover reflects the basic message that human development is for.
286 pages

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The 2016 Human Development Report is the latest in the series of global Human Development Reports published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) since 1990 as independent, analytically and empirically grounded discussions of major development issues, trends and policies. Additional resources related to the 2016 Human Development Report can be found online at, including digital versions of the Report and translations of the overview in more than 20 languages, an interactive web version of the Report, a set of background papers and think pieces commissioned for the Report, interactive maps and databases of human development indicators, full explanations of the sources and methodologies used in the Report™s composite indices, country pro˜les and other background materials as well as previous global, regional and national Human Development Reports. The 2016 Report and the best of Human Development Report Of˜ce content, including publications, data, HDI rankings and related information can also be accessed on Apple iOS and Android smartphones via a new and easy to use mobile app. The cover re˚ects the basic message that human development is for everyoneŠin the human development journey no one can be left out. Using an abstract approach, the cover conveys three fundamental points. First, the upward moving waves in blue and whites represent the road ahead that humanity has to cover to ensure universal human development. The different curvature of the waves alerts us that some paths will be more dif˜cult and sailing along those paths will not be easy, but multiple options are open. Second, in this journey some people will be ahead, but some will be lagging behind. Those lagging behind will need helping hands from those who are ahead. The gestures of the two hands re˚ect that spirit of human solidarity. Third, the two coloursŠ green and blueŠand the hands at the topŠconvey that universal human development requires a balance among planet, peace and people. Copyright @ 2016 By the United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017 USA All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission. Sales no.: E.16.III.B.1 ISBN: 978-92-1-126413-5 eISBN: 978-92-1-060036-1 ISSN: 0969-4501 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library and Library of Congress Printed in Canada, by the Lowe-Martin Group, on Forest Stewardship Council certi˜ed and elemental chlorine-free papers. Printed using vegetable-based ink.Editing and production: Communications Development Incorporated, Washington DC, USA Information design and data visualization: Gerry Quinn and Human Development Report Of˜ce Cover design: Phoenix Design AidFor a list of any errors and omissions found subsequent to printing, please visit our website at Human Development Report 2016Human Development for Everyone

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Human Development Report 2016 Team Director and lead authorSelim JahanDeputy directorEva JespersenResearch and statisticsShantanu Mukherjee (Team Leader). Milorad Kovacevic (Chief Statistician), Botagoz Abdreyeva, Astra Bonini, Cecilia Calderon, Christelle Cazabat, Yu-Chieh Hsu, Christina Lengfelder, Patrizia Luongo, Tanni Mukhopadhyay, Shivani Nayyar and Heriberto Tapia Production and webAdmir Jahic and Dharshani SeneviratneOutreach and communicationsJon Hall, Sasa Lucic, Jennifer O™Neil Oldfield and Anna OrtubiaOperations and administrationSarantuya Mend (Operations Manager), Fe Juarez Shanahan and May Wint Thanii | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016

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ForewordHuman development is all about human free -doms: freedom to realize the full potential of every human life, not just of a few, nor of most, but of all lives in every corner of the worldŠnow and in the future. Such universalism gives the human development approach its uniqueness. However, the principle of universalism is one thing; translating it into practice is an -other. Over the past quarter-century there has been impressive progress on many fronts in hu -man development, with people living longer, more people rising out of extreme poverty and fewer people being malnourished. Human development has enriched human livesŠbut unfortunately not all to the same extent, and even worse, not every life. It is thus not by chance but by choice that world leaders in 2015 committed to a develop -ment journey that leaves no one outŠa central premise of the 2030 Agenda. Mirroring that universal aspiration, it is timely that the 2016 Human Development Report is devoted to the theme of human development for everyone. ˜e Report begins by using a broad brush to paint a picture of the challenges the world faces and the hopes humanity has for a better future. Some challenges are lingering (depri -vations), some are deepening (inequalities) and some are emerging (violent extremism), but most are mutually reinforcing. Whatever their nature or reach, these challenges have an impact on people™s well-being in both present and future generations. At the same time, however, the Report re -minds us what humanity has achieved over the past 25 years and gives us hope that further ad -vances are possible. We can build on what we have achieved, we can explore new possibilities to overcome challenges and we can attain what once seemed unattainable. Hopes are within our reach to realize. Given that broader context, the Report then raises two fundamental questions: who has been le˚ out in progress in human devel -opment and how and why did that happen. It emphasizes that poor, marginalized and vulnerable groupsŠincluding ethnic mi -norities, indigenous peoples, refugees and migrantsŠare being le˚ furthest behind. ˜e barriers to universalism include, among others, deprivations and inequalities, discrimination and exclusion, social norms and values, and prejudice and intolerance. ˜e Report also clearly identifies the mutually reinforcing gender barriers that deny many women the opportunities and empowerment necessary to realize the full potential of their lives. To ensure human development for everyone, the Report asserts that merely identifying the nature of and the reasons for the deprivation of those le˚ out is not enough. Some aspects of the human development analytical frame -work and assessment perspectives must be brought to the fore to address issues that prevent universal human development. For example, human rights and human security, voice and autonomy, collective capabilities and the interdependence of choices are key for the human development of those currently le˚ out. Similarly, quality of human development outcomes and not only quantity, going be -yond the averages and disaggregating statistics (particularly gender-disaggregation)Šmust be considered to assess and ensure that human development bene˛ts reach everyone. ˜e Report forcefully argues that caring for those le˚ out requires a four-pronged policy strategy at the national level: reaching those le˚ out using universal policies (for example, inclusive growth, not mere growth), pursuing measures for groups with special needs (for example, persons with disabilities), making human development resilient and empowering those le˚ out. ˜e Report rightly recognizes that national policies need to be complemented by actions at the global level. It addresses issues related to the mandate, governance structures and work of global institutions. It draws our attention to the fact that even though we have grown accustomed to heated debates winding up in gridlock at the national, regional and global levels, underneath the rumble of all that, consensus has been emerging around many global challenges to ensure a sustainable world for future generations. The landmark Paris Foreword | iii

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Agreement on climate change, which recently came into force, bears testimony to this. What was once deemed unthinkable must now prove to be unstoppable. ˜e Report complements the 2030 Agenda by sharing the principle of universalism and by concentrating on such fundamental areas as eliminating extreme poverty, ending hunger and highlighting the core issue of sustainabil -ity. ˜e human development approach and the 2030 Agenda can be mutually reinforcing by contributing to the narrative of each other, by exploring how human development and Sustainable Development Goal indicators can complement each other and by being a forceful advocacy platform for each other. We have every reason to hope that trans -formation in human development is possible. What seem to be challenges today can be overcome tomorrow. ˜e world has fewer than 15 years to achieve its bold agenda of leaving no one out. Closing the human development gap is critical, as is ensuring the same, or even better, opportunities for future generations. Human development has to be sustained and sustainable and has to enrich every human life so that we have a world where all people can enjoy peace and prosperity. Helen ClarkAdministrator United Nations Development Programme iv | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016

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who are too numerous to mention here (par -ticipants and partners are listed at http:// Formal multistakeholder consultations were held between April and September 2016 in Geneva, Paris, Istanbul, Nairobi, Singapore and Panama. We are grateful to the UNDP Office in Geneva, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and UNDP regional service centres and global policy centres for organizing these consulta -tions and in particular to Rebeca Arias, Max Everest-Phillips, Anne-Gertraude Juepner, Alexis Laffittan, Marcos Neto and Maria Luisa Silva. Informal consultations were also held on the side of the launch of the 2015 Human Development Report in Beijing, Bonn, Colombo, Dhaka, Helsinki, London, Manila, Reykjavik and Vienna. Contributions, support and assistance from partnering insti -tutions, including UNDP regional bureaus and country o˝ces, are acknowledged with much gratitude. Special thanks are extended to UNDP col -leagues who constituted the Readers Group for the Report: Mandeep Dhaliwal, Priya Gajraj, George Ronald Gray, Anne-Gertraude Juepner, Sheila Marnie, Ayodele Odusola, Thangavel Palanivel, Sarah Poole, Mounir Tabet, Claire Van der Vaeren and Claudia Vinay. ˜e political read of the Report was done by Patrick Keuleers, Luciana Mermet and Nicholas Rosellini, and their advice is thankfully acknowledged. Former HDRO colleagues and friends of the Report, including Moez Doraid, Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, Terry McKinley, Saraswathi Menon, Siddiqur Osmani, Stefano Pettinato and David Stewart, were kind enough to spend a day with us and share their insights, views and experiences, which are invaluable. We further benefited on Report-related topics from discussions with and inputs from Saamah Abdallah, Helmut K. Anheier, Michelle Breslauer, Cosmas Gitta, Ronald Mendoza, Eugenia Piza-Lopez, Julia Raavad, Diane Sawyer and Oliver Schwank. We would like to thank members of the public who par -ticipated in online surveys for Report-related topics on our website. Several talented young people contrib -uted to the Report as interns: Ellen Hsu, Mohammad Taimur Mustafa, Abedin Ra˛que, Jeremías Rojas, Prerna Sharma, Weijie Tan and Danielle Ho Tan Yau. ˜ey deserve recogni – tion for their dedication and contributions. We are grateful for the highly professional editing and production by Communications Development IncorporatedŠled by Bruce Ross-Larson, with Joe Caponio, Mike Crumplar, Christopher Trott and Elaine WilsonŠand de -signers Gerry Quinn and Phoenix Design Aid. Most of all, on a personal note, I am, as always, profoundly grateful to UNDP Administrator Helen Clark for her leadership and vision as well as her commitment to the cause of human development and her solid support to our work. My thanks also go to the entire HDRO team for their dedication in producing a report that strives to further the advancement of human development. Selim JahanDirector Human Development Report O˝ce vi | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016

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ContentsForeword iiiAcknowledgements vOverview 1CHAPTER 1Human development Š achievements, challenges and hopes 25The achievements we have made 26The challenges we face 29The hopes we have 39The human development approach and the 2030 Agenda 45CHAPTER 2UniversalismŠfrom principles to practice 51Momentum towards universalism 52Beyond averages Š using the family of human development indices 52A look at disadvantaged groups 56Deprivations in human development as a dynamic process 67Barriers to universalism 76Breaking down barriers 81CHAPTER 3Reaching everyone Šanalytical and assessment issues 85What aspects need to be analysed 85Checking whether progress in human development reaches everyone Š assessment requirements 94CHAPTER 4Caring for those left out Š national policy options 105Reaching those left out using universal policies 105Pursuing measures for groups with special needs 118Making human development resilient 122Empowering those left out 128Conclusion 133CHAPTER 5Transforming global institutions 137Structural challenges in global institutions 138Options for institutional reform 147Conclusion 160CHAPTER 6Human development for everyone Š looking˜forward 163Human development for everyone Š an action agenda 163Human development for everyone Š future substantive work 168Conclusion 169Notes 171References 175STATISTICAL ANNEX Readers guide 193Statistical tables 1. Human Development Index and its components 1982. Human Development Index trends, 1990Œ2015 2023. Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index 2064. Gender Development Index 2105. Gender Inequality Index 2146. Multidimensional Poverty Index: developing countries 2187. Population trends 2228. Health outcomes 2269. Education achievements 23010. National income and composition of resources 23411. Work and employment 23812. Human security 24213. International integration 24614. Supplementary indicators: perceptions of well-being 25015. Status of fundamental human rights treaties 254Human development dashboards1. Life-course gender gap 2592. Sustainable development 264Regions 269Statistical references 270Contents | vii

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SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONSPeace in Colombia is also peace for the worldŠJuan Manuel Santos 20The power of culture to prompt actionŠOlafur Eliasson 44Getting a clearer picture of povertyŠMelinda Gates 57Predictably irrationalŠhelping advance human development in a less than rational worldŠDan Ariely 90The world has much to learn from indigenous peoplesŠMirna Cunningham Kain 121Preventing violent extremism and promoting human development for all: A critical issue on the global development agendaŠCarol Bellamy 158The Sustainable Development GoalsŠshared vision, collective responsibilities ŠDr. Angela Merkel 167BOXES1 Human development Š a comprehensive approach 22 Measuring human development 31.1 Human development Š a people-centred approach 251.2 Human development in the Republic of Korea Š a longer term perspective 291.3 Insights based on horizontal inequalities 331.4 Millennials versus the silent generation 341.5 Five common myths about refugees 361.6 Human security, as people see it 371.7 Cyberactivism Š a new form of participation 401.8 Five misconceptions about women™s economic empowerment 421.9 The growing recognition of the importance of environmental sustainability 431.10 Sustainable Development Goals 462.1 Poverty is also a developed country problem 552.2 Gender-based inequalities in South Asian households 582.3 Human development among African Americans in the United States 612.4 Limitations in opportunities among young people in small island developing states 622.5 Disadvantages facing migrants 642.6 The challenge of a two-tier public and private system for universal access to quality services 692.7 Human security from a woman™s point of view 712.8 Antenatal stress and intergenerational deprivation 722.9 From the champagne glass to the elephant curve 773.1 Voice and participationŠintrinsic, instrumental and constructive 873.2 Facilitating participation through new technologies 883.3 Strategies for changing social norms 923.4 Test score methods for assessing the quality of education 973.5 Voice and accountability indicatorŠthe World Bank™s approach 983.6 A long-term vision of the futureŠthe Leimers List 1004.1 The Global Deal Š a triple-win strategy 1074.2 Providing ˜nance to rural farmers in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1074.3 E-governance 1104.4 Fiscal decentralization in Indonesia Š improving service delivery 1114.5 How local government makes a difference in Moldova 1124.6 Arab States Š opening opportunities for women 1134.7 Social businesses attract young people 1154.8 Af˜rmative action has helped increase women™s representation in parliament 1194.9 Overcoming discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex individuals 1204.10 Maori representation in New Zealand™s parliament 1204.11 Enlarging employment choices among persons with disabilities in Serbia 1224.12 Providing work to Syrian refugees in Jordan 1234.13 The Swedish economy is being boosted by immigration 1234.14 Reaching those left out in the ˜ght against HIV and AIDS 1244.15 Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan 1264.16 Two paths in carbon pricing 1274.17 Mainstreaming the povertyŒ environment nexus 1294.18 Resilient human development Š lessons from Latvia 1294.19 Equality under the law Š Georgia™s Legal Aid Service 1324.20 Right to information Š actions in developing countries 1335.1 Transnational corporations and human developmentŠno automatic link 1405.2 Loopholes of globalizationŠtax avoidance and illegal ˜nancial ˚ows 1415.3 The World Trade Organization and India™s national development policies 1425.4 Bilateral investment treaties and national policies in Ecuador 1445.5 Civil society and environment sustainability 1475.6 Reassessing treatiesŠsome examples 1495.7 International Organization for MigrationŠa new member of the UN family 1505.8 Global institutional developments promoting women™s inclusion 1535.9 The new regional development bankŠfor infrastructure in Asia 1545.10 Civil society and women™s participation 1596.1 Administrative registries in Latin America and the Caribbean 1656.2 The Paris Agreement on climate change 1666.3 The New York Declaration 168FIGURES1 Human development Š the analytical approach 22 Analytical links between the human development approach and the 2030 Agenda 43 Women are discriminated against with respect to opportunities 64 Barriers to universalism 75 National policies to care for those left outŠa four-pronged strategy 106 21st century skills 131.1 Regional trends in Human Development Index values 271.2 Human deprivation lingers in some indicators of well-being 301.3 Relative global inequality has declined steadily over the past few decades, but absolute inequality has increased dramatically 311.4 Some 46 percent of the total increase in income between 1988 and 2011 went to the wealthiest 10 percent 321.5 Global wealth has become far more concentrated 321.6 The planet™s surging population is projected to grow to 9.7 billion in 2050 331.7 People self-de˜ned as part of the lower middle class and working class feel less engaged by the concept of global citizenship 351.8 At the end of 2015 there were more than 65 million people worldwide who had been forcibly displaced 361.9 2014 saw the highest number of battle-related deaths since 1989: more than 50,000 361.10 Analytical links between the human development approach and the 2030 Agenda 472.1 A third of the world™s population lives in low human development 532.2 Women are the most disadvantaged in low human development countries 542.3 People in rural areas are far more likely than people in urban areas to be multidimensionally poor 552.4 Variations in Human Development Index values are wide across population groups in Nepal 60viii | HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2015

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2.5 In the United States the Human Development Index value is below the country average for some ethnic groups but above it for others 602.6 Since the 1990s attitudes towards the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex community have become more tolerant, and the number of antidiscrimination laws has increased 662.7 Basic mobile or ˜xed broadband plans cost much more in developing countries than in developed countries and cost the most in the least developed countries 702.8 Deprivations among women can accumulate throughout life 722.9 Interventions for women early in life can prevent deprivations later in the lifecycle 732.10 There are differences in the aggregate priorities of individuals in countries at different levels of human development 752.11 The priorities of Chileans vary by income 752.12 In South Asia many girls marry before age 18Šsome before age 15 792.13 Over the past three decades there has been a decline in rights of free association and collective bargaining 813.1 Choices rest on four foundations 863.2 People™s perceptions of threats to security were much more intense in Nigeria™s Federal Capital Territory than in the South-South region 953.3 It is possible for a country to have a high Human Development Index value and a low score on the voice and accountability index 983.4 The trend in nonincome Human Development Index values and in women™s and men™s shares of seats in parliament is moving in the desired direction in every region 993.5 Human development indicators and Sustainable Development Goal indicators may support each otherŠan example in health 1013.6 New data sources for Sustainable Development Goals 1014.1 Investments in priority human development to ensure human development for everyone 1084.2 Factors that enable or constrain women™s empowermentŠsix direct and four underlying factors 1124.3 21st century skills 1154.4 Navigating the fourth industrial revolution 1164.5 Many countries have not rati˜ed or signed various international human rights instruments 1315.1 The number of countries subscribing to multilateral instruments varies 1395.2 Net payments of royalties and licences from developing to developed countries have grown immensely since 1990 1435.3 The share of core resources in UN operational activities is low and declining 1445.4 Of the more than 4,500 nongovernmental organizations granted consultative status by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, 72 percent were admitted after 2000 1465.5 Good telecommunication infrastructure means more online participation 1475.6 Developing countries would add $191 billion to of˜cial development assistance by meeting their contribution target of 0.7 percent of gross national income 1546.1 Reaching everyone Š time is of the essence in Sub- Saharan Africa 164TABLES 2.1 Years of schooling, indigenous and nonindigenous children, selected countries 652.2 The difference between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in selected countries 685.1 Examples of the social bene˜ts and costs of globalizing market institutions 1385.2 SouthŒSouth cooperation advantages in Asia and Latin America 155Contents | ix

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