Foreword. Chapter. J. Ali b. Abi Talib in Makknh,. Fnmily, Birth and Migration. 11 ‘Ali Deputizing for the Prophet ib. ‘Ali During the Reign of Caliph Abu Bakr.
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AO Rights Reserved inf avour of: Academy of Islamic and Publications Tagore Marg, Nadwatul UJama, P.O. Box No. 119, Lucknow-226 007 (India) SERIES NO. 233 EdltloM: English Urdu Arabic First Edition (Lucknow, 1991) Third Edition (Lucknow, 1991) Second Edition (Lucknow, 1989) Printed at : NADWA PRESS Lucknow. (AP-SN: 57)

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ERRATA Page Line Read For 3 30 An explorer A explorer 5 14 catholicity c.atho locity 25 Journeys journies 12 31 or on (and) nor 18 18 sometime sometimes 19 3 connection conncxtion 22 34 Wasnq dasaqs 23 16 Balagl1ah Bulaghah 37 30 or and 39 24 Insert ‘you’ before wouJd 42 9 Ibn Shayba Jbn Sayba 23 Abu Jafar Jafar 43 26 long large 48 N-12 platform plntefonn 49 N-34 rcliubiJ ity reliabllly 54 2 strictly strictiy 81 7 may am 93 15 nations notions 108 8 died given up the ghost 121 19 Islamic fslamie 136 15 commoners commcners 144 35 died gave up th.e ghost 147 24 invading inveding 148 12 h osti li tics hotilitics 169 3 insert ‘in’ before war 173 18 b.e docs you do 182 2 ultida aluda 202 30 coins con ins 203 last line Hew ipdo He wiped 230 14 i serl ‘youŁ before ever 231 J tidings tidings 237 12 spirituality spiritually 241 2 Selflessness Salflessncss 272 18 delete Łfor’ after pawned and insert it after Jew

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CONTENTS Pages Foreword Chapter J. Ali b. Abi Talib in Makknh, Fnmily, Birth and Migration 11 Family Characteristics ib. The Tribe of Qurnish 13 Banu Hashim, 14 ‘Abdul Muttalib b. Hashim ifJ. Abu Talib 15 Sons of Abu Talib 18 UmmHani 22 Jumanah ib . . Birth of ‘Ali 23 Under Prophet’s Guardianship ib. ‘Ali accepts fslam 24 ŁAli and Abu Talib 25 Assistance to Seekers after Trutl1 ib. The Greatest Honour 27 Migration ib. TT. ‘Ali at Medina 33 Institution of Brotherhood ib. Marriage with Fatima ib. Economic Condition of ‘Ali 34 Love for the Prophet 35 Title of Love 36 ‘Ali in Badr ib.

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ii ) Battle of Uhad 37 ‘Ali’s Valour: Knightly Skill 38 Treaty of Hudaibia-‘Ali’s regard for the Prophet 40 The Expedition to Khaybar 41 ·Ali’s Combat with Jewish Warrior 42 Absolute Trust in God ib. Prophet’s Lnudatory Remarks 43 In the Year of Deputations 44 ‘Ali Deputizing for the Prophet ib. The Farewell Pilgrimage 45 Death of Prophet 46 m. ‘Ali During the Reign of Caliph Abu Bakr 51 The Decisive Hour ib. Ancient Religions S2 Succession to the Prophet-Demands & Conditions 53 Abu :Bakr-An Ideal Successor SS Consultative Administration 63 Oath of Allegiance to Abu Bakr 68 Steadfastness of Abu Bakr 73 Fatima 76 ‘Ali’s oath of Allegiance to Abu Bakr 79 Perseverance of ‘Ali 80 Close Relationship between ‘Ali & Abu Bakr 81 Abu Bakr’s deep regard for Prophet’s Family 83 Abu Bakr as the Caliph ib. Collection of the Quran 84 IV. ‘Ali During the Reign of Caliph ‘Umar 91 Nomination of ŁUmar as Caliph ib. Simple Jiving of the Arabs 93 Expansion of the Islamic Realm under ‘Umar 96 ‘Ali and Caliph ‘Umar ib.

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( iv ) The Kharijites and the Syrians ib. Disobedience of Iraqis 164 MurLyrdom of ŁAli 166 Example Set by ‘Ali 168 ‘Ali’s off-springs 169 ‘Ali’s Wisdom and Eloquence 171 ‘Poetic Compositions of ‘Ali 174 A Unique Style of Reprobation ib. vrrr. ŁAli and MuŁawiyah 179 Indifference to the World 181 Behaviour with Officials and Muslims 184 Guardian and Reformer 185 Administrative Policy of ‘Ali 186 ‘Ali’s Statesmanship 189 A Few words about Mu’awiyah 191 The Then Islamic Society 195 rx. Some Distinguishing Characteristics of ‘Ali 201 An Enthusiastic Iconoclast ib. Insight into Sharia11 202 Leaming 203 Ki ndltea rtedJless ib. Ingenuity of ‘Ali 204 Some Little Known Aspects of Ali’s Caliphate 205 U1tderstanding of Prophet’s Character 207 X. Hasan and Husain 2Jl Hasan b. ‘Ali ib. Prediction about Hasan 213 Hasan’s Election as Caliph 214 Death of Hasan 217 The Stand taken By Hasan 218 Husain b. ‘Ali 219 Accession of Yazid b. Mu’awiyah to Kingship 220

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v Character of Yazid Trngedy of Karbala Invitation by the Iraqis Treachery of the People of Kufo Message of Muslim to Husain Husain in Kufa In Karbala In the Court of Ynzid Sack of Medina Sunnite View of the Incident Reformative Efforts XL The Virtuous Dcscendcnts of ‘Ali Selflessness Dislike for Laudntion Laudation of the First Three Caliphs Their Soldierly conduct and Valour Preaching o f Islam Reformers of [ndo-Pak Sub-Continent Freedom Fighters in the Arab World XII. The Shi’ite Doctrine of Imamnte Psycliological Backdrop of rmamntc [ranian Influence XrrI. The First Four Caliphs Bibliography rndcx 221 222 223 ib. 224 226 227 228 229 ih. 232 237 241 242 243 244 245 247 252 259 260 264 271 277 285

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/11 The Name of Allah, The B..:11ejicc111, The Merciful FOREWORD History bears witness to lhe fact, although lamentable, that comprehensive biographies throwing light on the character and achievements of many a mastermind, who has played a leading role in his Lime or was even harbinger of a new era, were not written for a long time to come. The followers of such esteemed personalities owe a moral responsibility to them in this regard, though the obligation was very often not discharged even by those who have regarded Lhosc celebrated persons as their spiritual and religious leaders or unduly extolled and glorified their greatness. Sometjmes such a life story comes to be written in good time, but often the debt remains unpaid for several centuries. This has not been the case with any particular individual nor it relates to any peculiar time. There have been innumerable guides of humanity, flag-bearers of reform and renovation, ders of the nations and countries and teachers of wisdom and learning whose real accomplishments have remained l.111known to the world for hundreds of years while a few exaggerated and unbelievable accounts were all that kept alive their cherished mory. These stories also imparted a peculiar colour to these personalities. This was often the result of certain incidents in their lives, poliLicul interest or differences of opinion, since aU these serve to hide rhe truth from succeeding generations. It is also not unoflen that those who entwine a peculiar creed around such personalities cause them to be seen through the lenses tainted by their own emotions and concepts. The life of such sonalities ought to have been presented in their true colours so that everybody had known of their achievements; tbcir lives should have been presented as a paradigm for their followers, if not for others. If they had been foUowers of Islam, they would

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