word for God is Allah, which simply means ‘the (al) God (ilah)’. Usul ad-Din, the five roots of religion, can also be referred to as Fitrah the natural instinct all.
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228 7 Islam: Beliefs and teachings The foundations of faith ˜ The six articles of faith in Sunni Islam There is no of˜ cial creed in Islam, but for Sunni Muslims there are six central beliefs, or articles of faith, which de˜ ne their understanding of God. This teaching can be found in the Hadith, where Muhammad is recorded as saying: ‚You must believe in Allah, his angels, his holy books, his messengers, in the Last Day and in fate (both in its good and in its evil aspects).™ 1 Allah (God): the unity and oneness of God is called Tawhid. Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe in one God. The Arabic word for God is Allah, which simply means ‚the (al) God (ilah)™. 2 Malaikah (angels): God created angels to interact with human lives, bringing his divine message. Each Muslim has two guardian angels who record that person™s good and bad actions. 3 Holy books: God has revealed his word to humans in the Qur™an. This tells Muslims all they need to know about how to live their lives. Other inspired scriptures include the Tawrat of Musa (Torah), the Zabur of Dawud (Psalms) and the Injil of Isa (Gospels).4 Risalah (prophethood): God has spoken through numerous prophets throughout time, including Adam, Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus). However, Muhammad is the greatest prophet. 5 Akhirah (the afterlife) Belief in the ˜ nal judgement and life after death. This life is a preparation for the eternal life that follows. On the last day there will be a time of judgement, when Muslims will have to account for their lives. 6 Al-qadr (God™s predestination): God is responsible for everything and has set out a divine destiny for all things. God has written down all that has happened and all that will happen in the universe. However, this does not take away human free will. Jihad striving to do what is right, for God. The greater jihad is the struggle that each person has, as an individual, to follow God™s will in their life. The lesser jihad is the ˜ ght to defend Islam (holy war). Submission to the will of God Islam means ‚submission™; following the Five Pillars and the rules of Shari™ah law are a sign of being a true Muslim. Creed a set statement of faith that all religious believers follow. 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2288/16/16 12:44 PM

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229The ˜ ve roots of religion in Usul ad-Din in Shi™a Islam Although these six beliefs are central to the Islamic faith they are not the only important beliefs. Others include: the creed, the jihad and submission to the will of God.The six articles of faith in Sunni Islam Create a mind map around these six articles of faith. Write out the six key beliefs on a large sheet of paper and add in the following ideas, linking them in where you think they belong: Prophet Muhammad Angel Jibril The Qur™an Free will or predestination? The afterlife One God (Tawhid) Ibrahim, Musa and Isa Two guardian angels Revelation from God Can you think of six more of your own to add to the diagram? Create a mind map around these six articles of faith. Write out the six key beliefs on a large sheet of paper and add in Task Belief in GodBelief in al-qadr (God™s divine plan)Belief in theprophethood Articles offaithBelief in theafterlifeBelief in theangelsBelief in theholy books ˜ The ˜ ve roots of religion in Usul ad-Din in Shi™a Islam Diversity of beliefs in Islam All Muslims share the central beliefs of the Islamic faith: the understanding that there is one God (Allah) who is creator, protector and judge; the belief that Muhammad is the Seal of the Prophets, to whom God revealed the Qur™an. However, over the centuries, as Islam developed in different cultures and societies, Muslim scholars developed different ways of understanding the faith. Today there are some signi˜ cant differences in the way different Muslim groups interpret these˛truths. The ˜ ve roots of religion (Usul ad-Din) Shi™a Islam emphasises the importance of ˜ ve fundamental principles which are sometimes called the ‚roots of religion™. Every individual must make themselves aware of these truths as the foundation of their faith. Justice of God(Adalah)Prophethood (Nubuwwah)Leadership(Imamat)Resurrection (Qayamat)Oneness of God(Tawid) 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2298/16/16 12:44 PM

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230 7 Islam: Beliefs and teachings Usul ad-Din, the ˜ ve roots of religion, can also be referred to as the ‚foundation of faith™. They are: ˜ Oneness of God (Tawid) ˜ Justice of God (Adl or Adalah) ˜ Prophethood (Nubuwwah) ˜ Leadership (Imamat)˜ Resurrection (Qayamat). 1 The oneness of God (Tawid): There is one God who has no equals; he is a divine unity. He cannot be compared to anyone or anything. He is perfect and unique and he possesses infinite power and knowledge. He is immortal (he was never born) and has no partner or children. He alone should be worshipped. ‚Say, fiHe is God, [who is] One, God, the Eternal Refuge.™ Qur™an 112:1Œ22 The justice of God (Adl or Adalah): God is perfect justice, fairness and wisdom. He does not wrong anyone and he will not tolerate wrongdoing. He cannot abuse his power by performing acts that go against his own nature to be just and fair. Humans must be responsible for their own actions, good or bad. 3 Prophethood (Nubuwwah): God has appointed prophets and messengers to guide human beings, showing them how to live in peace and submission to God. According to some Islamic sources, God sent 124,000 prophets; some of these bought divine scriptures with them, from God. Muhammad was the Seal of the Prophets, meaning that he brought the ˜ nal, perfect and unchanging message from God. 4 Leadership (Imamae): All Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last prophet, who brought the ˜ nal scripture (the Qur™an) to humanity. Shi™as believe that, after his death, God appointed 12˛infallible Imams to guide the Muslim community, leading them on the path set by the Prophet Muhammad. These Imams are part of what Shi™as call Ahl al-Bayt (the Family of the House). In other words, they are part of Prophet Muhammad™s extended household. Of these 12, 11 have been killed. They believe that the 12th (or hidden) Imam is still alive, but is in hiding (occultation), waiting to reappear and rule on earth with justice. They sometimes refer to him as the Mahdi.5 Resurrection (Qayamat): The belief that, on the Day of Judgement, there will be a resurrection, when all human beings will be physically raised to life to be judged by God. He will reward the good and punish the evil. ‚So whoever does an atom™s weight of good will see it, and whoever does an atom™s weight of evil will see it.™ Qur™an 99:7Œ8Using the information here and on Pxxx (Key differences between Sunni and Shi™a beliefs and practices) compare and contrast Sunni and Shi™a beliefs about imams. and on Pxxx (Key differences Task Sunni Shi™aSunni and Shi™a beliefs about imams 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2308/16/16 12:44 PM

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231 Al-Fatihah, the opening The Nature of God (Allah) 1 Copy out the al-Fatihah in your book. 2 Why do you think Muslims might try to learn this passage by heart? 3 Choose three things it says and write down what they teach Muslims about God. Copy out the al-Fatihah in Tasks Al-Fatihah in calligraphhy Tawhid ‚Oneness™ in reference to God. The basic Muslim belief in the oneness of God. ‚Oneness™ in reference to God. The basic Muslim belief in the Key Concept The single most important belief in Islam is Tawhid, the oneness and unity of God. There is one God (Allah) who is the universal God of all humanity. Muslims believe that God is: ˜ Immanent: God is always close by. The Qur™an says that God is closer to each one of us than the veins in our necks (50:16). ˜ Transcendent : God is beyond all things, not limited by the rules of nature.˜ Omniscient: God has all knowledge, nothing can be hidden from him. ˜ Bene˜ cent : God is always kind; he loves us. ˜ Merciful: God is always fair; he forgives us if we are sorry. ˜ Judge: on the last day, God will be our judge. ˜ Creator : God is the beginning; he is the cause of all that exists.In Shi™a Islam there is an emphasis on Adalat, the Justice of God. This is one of the ˜ ve roots of religion (Usul ad-Din). The Qur™an teaches that it was God ‚Who created the heavens and the earth™ and that ‚He has power over all things.™ (46:33) ˜ Al-Fatihah, the opening The al-Fatihah is the ˜ rst surah (chapter) in the Qur™an. It means ‚the opening™, and many Muslims learn to recite it from memory in their daily prayers. ‚In the name of God, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. [All] praise is [due] to God, Lord of the worlds Œ The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. It is You we worship and You we ask for help. Guide us to the straight path Œ the path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.™ Qur™an 1:1Œ7Allah the Arabic word meaning God. Muslims believe that they worship the same God that spoke through Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus). ‚God witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge Œ [that He is] maintaining [creation] in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.™ Qur™an 3:18866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2318/16/16 12:44 PM

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232 7 Islam: Beliefs and teachings ˜ The 99 names of God In Islam, God is not to be confused with any living creature; he is beyond all things and cannot be pictured as a physical being. God is outside our human understanding, but for Muslims he lies at the very centre of everything we think and do. So, how do Muslims ‚see™ God? The Qur™an and the Hadith have many different ‚names™ for God, not as a person, but using words that describe his qualities and attributes. They use names like: King, Protector, Wise, Eternal, Light, etc. These are known as the 99 beautiful names of God. In fact, there are different lists of these names, recorded through different traditions of Muslims, but reciting these names has been a powerful form of prayer for Muslims through the centuries. The word ‚anthropomorphism™ comes from ‚anthros™ meaning man and ‚morph™ meaning shape. In some religious traditions it is acceptable to picture God in human form (for example in some Christian art). Islam rejects this sort of anthropomorphic representation. ‚Whenever I am in a di˚ culty, I remember God with his words and through his names. There are ninety-nine names for God and we remember them for di˛ erent purposes.™ Musarat S‚Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.™ Qur™an 6:103Here are some of the 99 names of God: Giver of life, Protector, Just, Generous, Guide, Ever-forgiving, Watchful, Creator, Watcher, Compassionate, Avenger, Tremendous, Mighty, Finder, Patient, Knower, King, Gentle. Copy out the table below. Put each of the ‚names™ of God in the list above into the column you think it most relates to. Then compare your table with your neighbour’s. Did you have different ideas? Why? Transcendent: beyond all things Omniscient: all-knowing Bene˜ cient: always loving Merciful: kind and forgiving Judge: decision- making, fair Creator: maker, designer Task Calligraphy showing the 99 names of God 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2328/16/16 12:44 PM

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233 God: One, eternal and absolute God ˜ God: One, eternal and absolute God One God (Tawhid) Islam is a monotheistic faith; it teaches that there is only one God. There are no other divine beings and it is a sin to compare God to other ‚false™ gods. Muslims reject the Christian belief that Jesus is the Son of God. The passage ‚He begetteth not, nor is he begotten™ (Qur™an 112:3) makes it clear that God has no children and he is not the child of anyone. Monotheism belief in one true God. Beget to bring a child into existence, or to create offspring. This mind map shows Surah 112Œ4 from the Qur™an, with notes around it to explain some of its meaning. This passage sums up the nature of God and is one that many Muslims will learn by heart. 1 Make a list of the qualities and attributes of God mentioned in Surah 112. 2 Using the information in Source A, write a paragraph to explain what Muslims believe about God. Include two quotations from Surah 112. 112Œ4 from the Qur™an, with notes around it to explain some of its meaning. This passage sums up the nature of God Task There is onlyone God(monotheism).Belief inmany gods(polytheism)is false.God is personal,but he is nota person. Godcannot be picturedin human form.In the name of God,Most Gracious, MostMerciful say, ‚He isGod the One and Only,God the Eternal,Absolute. He begettethnot nor is He begotten;and there is nonelike unto him.™God is perfectand unchanging.There is nogreater being.Nothing comparesto God; he isincomparable.He is the creator,everything else ispart of his creation.‚nor is Hebegotten™means he wasnot born.‚He begettethnot™ means thathe has no children.This challengesthe Christianbelief that Jesus isthe ‚Son of God™.He is‚eternal™,withoutbeginningor end.‚There™s nobody and there™s nothing like Allah. I love him. I can™t see him, but I know he™s bene˜ cent, merciful, master of the Day of Judgement.™ K Farzana (From Committed to Islam by Silvia Sutcliffe) Surah a chapter from the Qur™an. 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2338/16/16 12:44 PM

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235 Revelation of God™s inspired truth Fitrah, the need for God Islam teaches that we are all born with an instinctive need for God. This is called ˜ trah . It is the natural spirituality that connects us to our creator, making Muslims aware of God™s presence and drawing them to worship him. This is where our conscience comes from, helping us discern right from wrong.Taqwa, awareness of God Taqwa is the desire for a personal connection with God. Muslims try to live in a state of taqwa, the awareness of God. The Qur™an refers to taqwa as the highest quality of a Muslim, leading them to show worship and submission to God. Taqwa is often understood as a shield against wrongdoing; it allows Muslims to live as God would want, protecting them from evil. ‚O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you. Indeed, God is Knowing and Acquainted.™ Qur™an 49:13Hanifs, the devout people Islam teaches that, long before the birth of the Prophet Muhammad, in pre-Islamic Arabia, there were groups of people˛known as hanifs. The hanifs rejected idol worship; they believed in one Supreme God, creator of the universe, the God of Ibrahim who had sent revelations to the prophets through the ages. It is said by some Muslims that Muhammad™s˛grandfather was a hanif and through him Muhammad learnt the practice of spending time alone in the desert to fast and pray. Fitrah the natural instinct all humans have, from birth, to know and worship God. Taqwa having an awareness of God in every aspect of life. Hanifs people who lived in Arabia before the Prophet Muhammad and who believed in one God. Create your own word ˜ le. Make a list of the following terms, adding a de˜ nition for each in your own words: shirk revelation ˜ trah taqwa hanif rasul risalah Task Fitrah is the natural instinct that all people are born with to worship God 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2358/16/16 12:44 PM

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236 7 Islam: Beliefs and teachings The channel of communication between God and humanity is called risalah; the prophets are our guides. They are human beings chosen to carry guidance from God to people, but their wisdom does not come from within themselves; it comes from God. ‚And We have already sent messengers before you and assigned to them wives and descendants. And it was not for a messenger to come with a sign except by permission of God . For every term is a decree.™ Qur™an 13:38The Qur™an teaches that every generation has been given its own prophet, bringing God™s message in a book. The message brought by the Prophet Muhammad is essentially the same message as had been preached by all the prophets back to Adam: the need to worship the one, true God, who will be the judge of all. ‚And We send not the messengers except as bringers of good tidings and warners.™ Qur™an 6:48 ‚People, no prophet or messenger will come after me, and no new faith will emerge.™ Muhammad™s last sermon (Hadith) ˜ Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet Muslims believe that through history, God has communicated to humans through revelations and the last and greatest of these revelations was given to the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad did not come from a rich family and it is likely that he could not read or write. He was not a learned man or a scholar, but he was very devout . He would take himself off for days to meditate in a cave in the desert, seeking God. Muslims believe that God chose Muhammad as a prophet because he was a humble, honest man; a man he could trust with such a special message. Devout devoted to God. ‚God chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back [to Him].™ Qur™an 42:13Prophethood or ‚risalah™ The term used of the messengers of God, beginning with Adam and ending with the Prophet Muhammad. Key Concept A ‚rasal ™ a prophet. ‚Risalah™ means bringing prophecy from God. Muslims are clear that the Prophet Muhammad did not write the Qur™an from his own words; he was the channel through which God spoke. Islam makes a clear distinction between the divine revelation of the Qur™an and the human words of the Prophet Muhammad, which are preserved in the Hadith. Divine wisdom Risalah: prophethood Adam (Adam)Idris (Enoch) Nuh (Noah) Hud (Hud) Saleh (Salih) Ibrahim (Abraham) Lut (Lot) Ishma™il (Ishmael) Ishaq (Isaac) Yaqub (Jacob) Yusuf (Joseph) Ayub (Job) Shoaib (Jethro) Musa (Moses) Harun (Aaron) Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel) Dawud (David) Sulaiman (Soloman) Ilyas (Elijah) Al-Yasa (Elisha) Yunus (Jonah) Zakariya (Zachariah) Yahya (John the Baptist) Isa (Jesus) MuhammadNames of the 25 prophets mentioned in the Qur’an 866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2368/16/16 12:44 PM

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237 Ibrahim ˜ Bringing God™s message Key ˜ gures in the Qur™an Islam teaches that God has sent many prophets throughout history; 25 of them are mentioned by name in the Qur™an, going right back to the creation of the world. Many of these prophets are characters from the Jewish and Christian scriptures (what Christians refer to as the Bible). However, Islam teaches that, over the centuries, the messages from these prophets have either been lost or become corrupted, so there was a need for a ˜ nal revelation. Muhammad is known as the Seal of the Prophets, because his revelation of the Qur™an was God™s ˜ nal and absolute˛word. Muslim tradition says that, in total, there have been around 124,000 prophets and that, once a prophet had been called by God, he lived a sinless life. Muslim authors put PBUH (peace and blessings be upon him) after a prophet™s name to show them a deep level of respect. In Islam the major prophets (apart from Muhammad) are: Adam, Ibrahim, Musa, Dawud, and Isa. ˜ Adam Adam is said to be the father of the human race. According to the Qur™an, God formed Adam from a handful of soil of many colours. This represents the diversity of people on earth. Eve was created from Adam™s rib and they lived together in paradise. They were commanded not to eat from a particular tree, but the devil was able to convince them to taste its fruit. As a result, they were banished to earth. However, Adam confessed his sin and was forgiven, becoming the ˜ rst prophet. Muslims believe that Adam was created as God™s ‚khalifah™ (his representative on earth). It was to be his job to rule in the place of God. Tradition says that he built the ˜ rst Ka™ba in Makkah. ˜ Ibrahim Ibrahim (Abraham ) is regarded as a hanif. This means that he had an inner knowledge that there is really only one true God. For this reason, he is seen as the greatest of the prophets before Isa (Jesus). He was born into a family of polytheists, but he rejected these beliefs in favour of monotheism and became a Muslim (one who bows down to God). ‚Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was one inclining toward truth, a Muslim [submi˝ ing to God ]. And he was not of the polytheists.™ Qur™an 3:67Ibrahim had two sons who were both prophets: Ishma™il (the prophet to the Arabs) and Ishaq (the prophet to the Jews). For Muslims, Ishma™il is the more important, because he is an ancestor to Muhammad.When Muslims go on Hajj they remember the distress of Hajar (Ishma™il™s mother) as she ran between the hills of Al-Safa and Muhammad is the Seal of the Prophets, because, when you put a seal on something you close it up. It is the ˜ nal act, showing that nothing more can be added. Ka™ba known as the House of God, the black covered, cube-shaped building at the centre of Islam™s holiest mosque in Makkah. Polytheism belief in many gods. Monotheism belief in one true God. ‚To every people was sent an apostle.™ Qur™an 10:47866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2378/16/16 12:44 PM

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238 7 Islam: Beliefs and teachings Al-Marwah in search of water. They also remember how God instructed Ibrahim to sacri˜ ce Ishma™il. When Satan tried to tempt Ibrahim to disobey God, telling him to refuse to sacri˜ ce his son, Ibrahim drove the evil one away by throwing stones at˛him.There is a tradition that God revealed a holy book to Ibrahim, known as ‚the scrolls of Ibrahim™ or the ‚Sahifah™. The Qur™an mentions this book, but no record remains of it today. ˜ Musa Musa (Moses) is remembered by Muslims as one of the most signi˜ cant prophets. The teachings of Ibrahim had been forgotten and his book lost, so a new prophet had to be sent. Musa led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the Promised Land. Islam teaches that he was given the word of God, known as the Tawrat (Torah), but the people were disobedient and the message became distorted. ˜ Dawud Dawud (David) was Israel™s greatest king, who made Jerusalem a holy place for Muslims. He received the word of God in the Zabur (Psalms), beautiful hymns of praise to God. ˜ Isa Isa is the Islamic name for Jesus. Apart from Muhammad, Isa (Jesus) and his mother Maryam (Mary) are the most prominent ˜ gures in the Qur™an. It recognises Isa as a prophet and as a successor to Moses. He was given the Injil (Gospel) and he performed miracles. However, Muslims deny the Christian teaching of the Trinity (page xx) and reject the belief that Isa is God. They say God is ‚one™ not ‚three™. ‚We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of apostles; We gave Jesus – signs (miracles) and strengthened him with the holy spirit.™ Qur™an 3:87The Qur™an teaches that, although it appeared as if Isa (Jesus) had been cruci˜ ed, in fact he did not die. God could not allow evil men to triumph over his prophet in such a way. Instead, Isa was taken up to heaven and will reappear in the second coming when God judges the world. ‚And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them.™ Qur™an 4:157866340_C07_WJEC GCSE_RS_221-251.indd 2388/16/16 12:44 PM

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