Usul ad-Din The five roots of faith of Shi’a Isla. 1 – Tawhid – The oneness of Id-ul-Fitr – The celebration of the end of fasting, and to thank Allah for the help and
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Religious Studies B Christian Beliefs Useful Terminology Definition Trinity – The Christian belief that there is One God, who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit Nicene Creed – The Christian statement of Faith which originated at the First Council of Nicaea Creation – The Creation of the universe regarded as an act of God Creator God – the Creator of the universe. A characteristic of God Benevolent – All loving Omnipotent – All powerful Resurrection – The belief that Jesus rose from the dead after three days. The belief that the body stays in the grave until the end of the world, when it is raised and judged . Atonement – The reconciliation of God and humanity accomplished through the life, suffering, and death of Christ . Salvation – The deliverance of humanity from sin Ascension – When Jesus went up to heaven from earth Sin – An act against the will or law of God Righteous – Upright and moral Freewill – God’s gift to humanity allowing them to make their own choices Grace – The undeserved love and mercy given to humanity by God Judgement – The final trial of all humanity, the living and the dead, at the end of the world Heaven – The ultimate end and the resting place of saved souls Hell – The eternal separation from God Purgatory – Where one is purified to achiev e holiness to enter Heaven Literal understanding of Creation – Believing Creation occurred as described in Genesis 1 – 3 Metaphorical understanding of Creation – Believing Genesis 1 – 3 can be understood as a myth/symbolically Catholic Catechism – The official teachings of the Catholic Church Vale of Soul making – The argument that both natural and moral evil are essential to “soul – making” so they have a good purpose Prayer – Communication with God Charity – An organisation that raises money to help those in need. Or another word for love
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Marriage and the Family Useful Terminology Definition Marriage – The legally and religiously recognised union of two people as partners in a personal relationship Sanctity – Something that is holy or sacred Cohabitation – Living together as partners and having a sexual relationship without being married Marital – R efers to the married relationship of a couple Unitive – Results in a union – used to refer to marriage or sexual relationships Procreative – Results in the produc tion of children Homosexuality – Sexual attraction to, or activity with, someone of the same sex Nuclear family – A family group consist ing of parents and children. Single parent family – A family group consisting of one parent and children only Same – sex f amily – A family group consisting of parents who are the same gender and children only Extended family – A family group including more than the nuclear family e.g. grandparents living together or nearby Blended family – A family group that includes the par ents and children from their previous relationships Parish – A Church area cared for by a local minister/priest/vicar Family planning – A method of controlling the amount of children a couple has . Regulation of births – Controlling the amount of children a couple has and when they have them (family planning) . Artificial contraception – An artificial method of controlling the amount of children a couple has . Situation ethics – An ethical theory that making a decision should be dependent on the set of circums tances it is in . Divorce – The legal ending of a marriage . Annulment – A formal declaration that a marriage was not valid Remarriage – Another marriage aft er a previous marriage ends. Equality – Two people or groups of people are equal in status, rights an d opportunity . Gender discrimination – When someone has a different status, rights or opportunity because of their gender . Gender prejudice – When someone is believed to have different status, rights and oppo rtunity because of their gender.
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Living the Christian Life Useful Terminology Definition Sacrament – A visible sign of an inward grace instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church . Non – liturgical worship – Informal worship Liturgical worship liturgical celebration – S et form of public worship . Prayer – Communication with God . Book of common prayer – A permanent feature of the Church of England’s worship and a key source for its doctrine . Pentecostal – Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct person al experience of God through baptis m with the Holy Spirit . Evangelical Christians – Christians dedicated to sharing the Good News of Jesus The Lords prayer – The prayer taught by Jesus to his disciples Set prayers – Prayers that are taught and learned, or read the same every time Informal p rayers – Prayers that are personal and spontaneous Baptism – Holy sacrament. Sometimes called Christening. Initiation rite. Can be infant or adult Eucharist – A sacrament commemorating the Last Supper Pilgrimage – A journey made to a place of importance to a religion for spiritual reasons Christmas – C e lebration of the birth of Jesus Advent – Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas . Easte r – Celebration of the death and resurrection of Jesus Holy Week – T he week leading up to the Christian festival of Easter Mission – An important goal or purpose that is accompanied by strong conviction; a calling or vocation Evangelism – The spreading of the faith though teaching about the religion and helping others Commission of Jesus (The Great Commission) – Jesus’ last command to his disciples to go out and convert the world Reconciliation – Bringing together people who were opposed. Christian Aid – Christian charity Ecumenism – Efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings . Theology of the body – Catholic teaching originally by Pope Joh n Paul II about human sexuality .
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Matters of Life an d Death Useful Terminology Definition Origin of the Universe – The way space, matter and time began Value of the Universe – The importance of world and space for life Commodity – Something that can be bought and sold Sanctity of life – Life is holy Origin of human life – The way that human life began Evolution – The idea that life is thought to have developed from earlier forms Survival of the fittest – The idea that life is thought to have developed in order to best suit the environment they are in Abortio n – The deliberate termination of a pregnancy before the foetus can survive Pro – life – Generally opposed to the abortion Pro – choice – Generally in favour of a woman’s right to choose to have an abortion or not Remembered lives – A clear memory of a previou s existence Paranormal – A n event that cannot be explained by science Euthanasia – A ct of putting to death painlessly or allowing to die. Hospice care – Support given to people in the final phase of a terminal illness it focuses on comfort and quality of life Pollution – The contamination of the environment by substances that are harmful to living organisms. Global warming – The increase in the average temperature of the Earth that causes changes in climate an d that may be the result of the greenhouse effe ct Natural resources – Substances that occur naturally which can be used by humans or exploited for economic gain Stewardship – The responsibility of humanity to manage the world and animals for the next generation Stewards – Someone who looks after or man ages something for another Animal rights – The idea that animals deserve consideration of what is in their best interests Animal experimentation – Animal testing or animal research. The use of non – human animals in experiments Utilitarianism – An ethical th eory that making a decision should be dependent on whether it is useful or for the benefit for the majority
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Muslim Beliefs Useful Terminology Definition Six Beliefs of Islam Be lief in Allah, the Only One God 1 – Belief in Angels, 2 – Belief in Holy 3 – Beliefs in the Holy Books, 4 – Belief in the Prophets, 5 – Belief in the Day of Judgement, 6 – Belief in predestination . Usul ad – Din The five roots of faith of Shi’a Isla 1 – Tawhid – The oneness of Allah . 2 – Adl – Arabic word meaning justice, o ne of the names of Allah . 3 – Nubuwwah – Prophets of Allah, Prophethood . 4 – Imamah – Successors of Muhammad . 5 – Mi’ad – The Last Day; the day of judgment and resurrection . Immanence – Allah is here, part of the world, close to believers . Transcendenc e – Allah is beyond the physical or normal experiences of Humanity . Omnipotence – The quality of being all powerful . Beneficence – The quality of being all loving . Mercy – Compassion and forgiveness . Fairness – Equal treatment, without favourit es . Justice – The due allocation of rewards and punishments . Adalat – I . Kutub – Muslim Holy Books . Tawrat – The Torah . Zabur – The Psalms . Injil – The Gospel . Shahifah – The scrolls . Malaikah Angels . Al – Qadr – Idea of Predestination . Predestination – The idea of divine destiny in Islam. Allah wrote down in the Preserved Tablet all that has happened and will happen, which will come to pass as written. It is one of Islam’s six articles of faith . Akhirah – The las t things. Belief in The Last Day and life after death Judgement The final trial of all humanity, the living and the dead, at the end of the world . Al – Jannah (Paradise) – Final resting place for those who have submitted to Allah . Jahannam ( Hell ) – A place o f eternal punishment . RiSalah – The messengers of Allah, Belief in prophethood .
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Crime & Punishment Useful Terminology Definition Justice – Being fair and reasonable . Crime – An illegal act which can be punished . Punishment – The imposition of a penalty for wrongdoing . Protection – rights and freedoms . Retribution – A punishment give n as vengeance for a wrongdoing, t he act of taking revenge . Deterrence – The prevention of criminal behaviour by fear of punishment . Reformation – Punishment which aims to change or improve a person . Forgiveness – To stop feeling angry or resentful towards a person for a wrongdoing . Restorative justice – Justice which tries to rehabilitate offenders through reconciliation wi th victims and the community . Torture – To inflict pain on someone as a punishment or in order to force them to do or say something . Human rights – The basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person . Fair trial – A trial by a neutral court, conducte d so it gives all people involved the rights required by law . Trial by jury – A trial in which someone is judged by a group of ordinary people chosen for the purpose (jury) . Greater good – Doing something that most likely will not only benefit the person doing it but many people . Death penalty – Punishment by execution . Capital punishment – Punishment by execution .
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Peace and Conflict Useful Terminology Definition Peace – A period of time in which there is no war . Peacemaking – The process of trying to bring about peace . Conflict – The opposition of individuals or groups that may result in aggression or fighting . Pacifism – The idea that war and violence are unacceptable and never justified . Passive resistance – Opposition demonstrated by a lack of cooperation or in a non – violent way . Arab Spring – The Arab Spring was a series of anti – government protests, uprisings and armed rebellions that spread across the Middle East in late 2010 – early 2011 . Just War Theory – The idea that for a war to be morally justifiable (just) it must meet a number of criteria . Lesser Jihad – A military struggle. The outer Jihad. Jihad by sword . Harb al – Maqadis (Holy War) – A war fought to defend a religion or to force others to follow a different religion . Weapons of Mass Destruction – A weapon (device) that can kill or harm on a large scale . Acquisition – The act of acquiring, buying or gaining something . Violence – Behaviour that aims to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy . Terrorism – The use of violence or threat of violence in the pursuit of political aims, religious, or ideological change .
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