Professional users are turning to online manufacturing platforms. The plethora of 3D printing materials and systems make it impossible for companies to.

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2 / 38Executive summary Looking back on the last decade, the 3D printing landscape has changed drastically. A technology that started as a prototyping solution has gained tremendous momentum for manufacturing end-use parts for industrial applications. 2019 was a landmark year in this evolution. 3D printing is now adopted by the early-majority for serial production. With ubiquitous applications across multiple industries – including Automotive, Aerospace, Maritime, Medical, Space, Sports, Motorsports, Railway, and Defense – 3D printing is changing new product development and aftermarket supply chains globally. 3D printing entrepreneurship is strong and driven by applications. A record-high $1.1B+ was raised by 3D printing startups in 3D printing in 2019 alone. Applications of 3D printing are attracting the largest number of investors. The 3D printing market keeps growing at record speeds. Top analysts agree that, as adoption steadily increases, the total 3D printing market will continue to double in size approximately every three years, despite current poor returns of publicly traded 3D printing companies. Professional users are turning to online manufacturing platforms. The plethora of 3D printing materials and systems make it impossible for companies to invest in in-house capabilities that cover all use-cases. Many professionals choose online manufacturing platforms as the most competitive solution to ful˜ll their serial 3D printing production needs. 3D printing is only one part of the new digital manufacturing stack. Joined by other digital manufacturing technologies, such as CNC machining and low-run injection molding, and empowered by digital supply chains and smart factories, 3D printing is forming the new manufacturing landscape. Ł A timeline with the most in˚uential industrial 3D printing applications of 2019 Ł An overview of the current size and growth trends of the 3D printing market Ł The global distribution of the online 3D printing demand based on transactional data Ł A breakdown of the online demand by industry, application, material and process Ł Commentary on the role of 3D printing in the greater digital manufacturing landscape Ł Interviews with 3D printing subject experts on the state of the industry Ł Emerging trends and predictions for 2020 and beyond In the Hubs 3D Printing Trends 2020 report, we take a look back at 2019 to help you better understand what lies ahead. In this report you™ll ˜nd: Trend Report 2020 2 / 38EU +44 20 3966 9208US +1

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3 / 383 × more professionals are using 3D printing today than 3 years ago 40% of all online 3D printed parts in 2019 were for serial production of all online 3D printing orders come from the top three countries: USA, UK and the Netherlands 75% of total VC funding in 3D printing startups was invested in 2019 35% 24% is the forecasted average annual growth of the 3D printing market for the next 5 years Trend Report 2020 3 / 38EU +44 20 3966 9208US +1

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4 / 38Table of contents Introduction 5 Methods and approach Basic de˜nitions and bene˜ts of 3D printing 67Market trends 8Industry highlights: what happened to the 3D printing industry in 2019? Startup highlights and VC funding Market trends and sentiment Global online 3D printing demand Geographic distribution Breakdown by industry and application Breakdown by materials and processes 91316192223 Beyond 3D printing 24Online 3D printing demand: The pillars of the new digital manufacturing stack Industry expert interviews Emilio Juárez, EMEA Head of 3D Printing Sales, HP Max Lobovsky, Co-founder and CEO, Formlabs Jon Bruner, Head of Enterprise Strategy, Carbon Dr. Cora Lüders-Theuerkauf, MGA Medical, a division of Mobility goes Additive 2628 293031Predictions for 2020 32About this report 33References 34

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6 / 38Data from ˜ve main di˛erent sources were collected to produce this report: Ł A systematic review of the news reported by the media Ł An analysis of the trends in VC funding raised for 3D printing startups Ł Market trends through a comparison of market analyst reports Ł Transactional data from the Hubs online manufacturing platform Ł Informational interviews with leading industry experts The review of the news provides an overview of the direction of the industry with an emphasis on the progress of large enterprises. These early industrial adopters are at the forefront of the technology and drive cutting-edge innovation and market growth. Trends in VC funding reveal what direction the industry will take in the near future, as an increased in˚ux of capital into speci˜c areas signals their substantial growth. Market analysis gives an overview of the ˜nancial forces that drive the growth of 3D printing technologies. By comparing the results of multiple reports Šall released in 2019Ša more holistic picture of the current state and direction of the market can be drawn. The analysis of the online transactions of the Hubs platform provides hard data on the way 3D printing is used today by the majority of engineering professionals worldwide. To gain more profound insights, we interviewed industry experts, who shared with us their opinion on the current key trends of 3D printing and gave their predictions on what to expect moving into the new decade. DMLS from a Concept Laser machineMethods and approach

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9 / 38Quarter 1 Industry highlights What happened to the 3D printing industry in 2019? Themes: Industry, Medical Lima Corporate , the medical device company that commercialized the ˜rst 3D printed hip cup implant, announced in January that it will open an on-site metal 3D printing facility at a hospital in New York City. The facility is expected to be in operation by early 2020 and it will be the ˜rst of its kind. [01] Themes: Applications, Space The race to space is on for AM. In February, Orbex [02] , Launcher [03] , and ESA™s ArianeGroup [04] all revealed more information about their progress on producing a 3D printed rocket engine. Thales Alenia Space manufactured an AM titanium pressure vessel for space exploration applications [05] . Later in the year, Relativity Space signed a lease with NASA to set up a robotic micro- factory to produce their rockets that are 95% by mass 3D printed [06] [07] .Themes: Applications, Automotive, Mobility In February, Local Motors deployed the ˜rst two 3D printed, autonomous shuttles which will be roaming inde- pendently in the Sacramento State University campus [08] . Later this year, the company partnered with Airbus to establish a micro-factory that will focus on producing 3D printed solutions for ground and air mobility, for example, urban cargo, and drones [09] .In 2019, Orbex 3D printed a rocket in a single piece [02] (Courtesy Orbex)

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10 / 38Themes: Industry, Automotive, Serial Production BMW kicked o˛ a project in April tar- geting the serial production of auto- motive parts with AM [10] . The company is not the only car manufacturer that sees AM as a serial production tool. In the same month, Audi announced that they are scaling their AM produc- tion for polymer components [11] . Later in the year, Volkswagen announced that 10,000 high-quality parts for their EV were produced in just a few weeks using HP™s metal binder jetting system. [12] Themes: Applications, Industrial Operations In May, SmileDirectClub announced their plan to 3D print molds for their dental aligners on a massive scale, following the success of Invisalign [13] . Dental is only one of the industries that 3D printing can improve operational e˝ciencies. Some other examples in 2019 come from the food and beverage industry, with Heineken [14] and Kaspar Schulz [15] , the automotive industry, with Volvo Trucks [16] , and the textile industry (with Lonati [17] ) to name a few. Themes: Applications, Aerospace, Serial Production In June, Norsk Titanium was recog- nized as part of Boeing ™s Material Allowables Program, expanding the collaboration of the two companies for serial produc-tion of structural titanium parts for passenger airplanes [18] . The serial produc-tion of aircraft components was on the rise in 2019. Airbus on-boarded two new suppliers of metal AM parts in its supplier network [19] [20] . Avio Aero , a business of GE Aviation , started the production of a turboprop engine manufactured with AM [21] , and other companies like Rolls Royce [22] and Boom Supersonic [23] both made large investments in AM equipment. Themes: Applications, Aircraft, Supply Chain In Q2, Collins Aerospace [24] , and Marshall Aerospace [25] , as well as British Airways later in the year [26] , revealed the expansion of their activities in the ˜eld of AM. These ˜rms were added to the long list of Air Carriers and Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) companies that use AM to improve the e˝ciencies of their supply. This list includes companies such as Air NZ [27] , Qatar Airways [28] , and Lufthansa Technik [29] . The use of AM in aircraft MRO is only expected to increase as SAE International published in October the ˜rst AM speci˜cations for the aerospace industry [30] .BMW announced in 2019 it aims to produce at least 50,000 components per year using AM(Courtesy BMW)Quarter 2

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11 / 38Themes: Applications, Motorsports, Product Development In August, FIA , the governing body of Formula One, used AM to test and issue new regulations for race vehicles for next year™s competition [31] . 3D printing has become common- place in motorsport teams in 2019 shown by example from F1 with Renault F1 [32] , IndyCar racing with Arrow SPM [33] , endurance racing with Toyota Motorsport [34] , and even drag racing with Don Schumacher [35] .Themes: Applications, Sports, Consumer Products Specialized [36] and ˜zik [37] both announced in Q3 their plans to use Carbon™s 3D printing technology to produce adaptive bike saddles. The sports industry found more applications for resin-based 3D printing. Earlier in the year, New Balance revealed their new sneaker with an insole 3D printed with Formlabs printers [38] . Also, Riddel released American football helmets with customizable padding and an impact- absorbing lattice structure design [39] . Themes: Applications, Railway, Supply Chain Obsolete plastic train components were 3D printed, certi˜ed and put into operation in UK trains in September [40] . Later in the year, Mobility goes Additive obtained approval to start additively manufacturing a highly- loaded part of the brake unit used in German trains [41] .Last year, the Renault F1 team announced its partnership with Jabil to produce 3D-printed car parts (Courtesy Renault)Quarter 3

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