Classifications of Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printing. Systems. com/content/white_papers/STR_7463_15_SDM_WP_3D_MATERIALS.PDF.
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CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2018 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4987-8375-0 (Hardback) ˜is book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable e˚orts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. ˜e authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, micro˛lming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www. ( or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-pro˛t organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identi˛cation and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at and the CRC Press Web site at MATLAB ® is a trademark of ˜e MathWorks, Inc. and is used with permission. ˜e MathWorks does not warrant the accuracy of the text or exercises in this book. ˜is book™s use or discussion of MATLAB ® software or related products does not constitute endorsement or sponsorship by ˜e MathWorks of a particular pedagogical approach or particular use of the MATLAB® software.

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This book is in memory of my late parents (Osman Ali and Nurunnessa Noorani) and my teachers, who taught me the importance of hard work, honesty and lifelong learning. The book is dedicated to my family: Zarina (wife), Sabrina (Daughter), Alejandro (son-in-law), and Layla and Elana (my two beautiful grandchildren).

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vii Contents Book Organization xvPreface xvii Acknowledgments .xixAbout the Author xxi 1. Int roduction ..11.1 In troduction .11.2 Th e World of 3DP .21.2.1 Wh at Is 3DP?..2 1.2.2 Wh at Is RP? .31.2.3 Th e History of 3DP 31.2.4 Ap plications of 3DP ..51.2.5 Th e Basic Process of 3DP ..51.2.6 In dustries Using 3DP 6 1.3 Gr owth of RP and 3DP Systems .71.3.1 Gr owth of RP .71.3.2 3 DP S ales by Regions ..91.3.3 Un its Sold by U.S. Companies. 101.3.4 3D Pr inter Technology Development .101.4 Cu rrent Popular 3D Printers .111.4.1 Ma kerBot Replicator 2 ..121.4.2 Fo rmLabs 1 + .121.4.3 Ul timaker 2 ..141.5 Ap plications in Education and Industry ..151.5.1 Ch oosing the Right 3D Printer for Speci˜c Ap plication Pr eproduction Applications . Dig ital Manufacturing .161.5.2 Ap plications of 3DP in Product Development .171.5.3 Ap plication in Reverse Engineering ..181.5.4 Pro duct Development Using a Low-Cost RE Pr ocess . Pr oject Objective .. Pro cedure . Re sults . Con clusion and Discussion ..201.5.5 Ap plication in Casting and Pattern Making .211.5.6 Ap plication in RT .221.5.7 Ap plication in RM ..231.5.8 Je t Engine Applications 23

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viii Contents 1.5.9 On -Demand Parts in Space ..251.5.10 Med ical Applications Bi oprinting Tissues and Organs .. Im plants and Prosthetics 3D Pr inted Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Devices ..271.6 Sum mary .281.7 Qu estions .29References .29 2. Ho w Does 3D Printing Work? ..312.1 In troduction ..312.2 3 D Pri nting and Conventional Manufacturing 312.3 Ba sics of 3D Printing Process 342.3.1 Cr eation of Solid Model ..352.3.2 Co nversion to STL F ile .362.3.3 Sl icing the File 392.3.4 Ma king the Prototype ..402.3.5 Po stprocessing 402.4 Prob lems with the STL File Format ..422.5 Ot her Translators ..432.5.1 Mo dern File Formats .432.5.1.1 VRM L File 432.5.1.2 AM F File 432.5.1.3 3 MF File .442.5.1.4 OBJ File 442.5.2 Ol der File Formats Still in Use 442.5.2.1 3 DS .442.5.2.2 IG ES File .442.5.2.3 HP GL File .452.5.2.4 CT Data ..452.6 Fu ture Manufacturing Format Developments .452.7 Ca se Study: Design and Printing of Eye Bracket. 462.7.1 In troduction .462.7.2 Pro ject Procedure .482.8 Sum mary .522.9 Qu estions and Problems ..52References .54 3. De sign of a 3D Printer 553.1 In troduction ..553.2 Ne cessary Parts ..563.3 Fu nctional Description and Design Analysis 563.4 Bu ild Process .603.5 Fu ture Improvements .64

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ixContents 3.6 Qu estions .66References .67 4. Ca librating the 3D Printer ..694.1 In troduction ..694.2 Ty pes of 3D Printing Software .704.3 3 D Pri nter Software Con˜guration Using Marlin ..704.3.1 Co n˜guring MARLIN ..714.3.2 Te sting the 3D Printer Movement. 734.4 Th e First Print ..744.4.1 Cr eating or Downloading a Part ..744.4.2 Co n˜guring the Cura Software .754.4.3 Fi nal Print Con˜guration ..764.4.4 Acc uracy .764.4.5 Fill 764.4.6 Ski rt 774.4.7 Sp eed and Temperature ..774.4.8 Su pport Structure 774.4.9 Fi lament ..784.4.10 Pr inting 784.5 Sum mary .784.6 Qu estions .78References .79 5. Ma terials for 3D Printing .815.1 In troduction ..815.2 Ty pes of Materials .825.2.1 Pol ymers .825.2.1.1 Th ermoplastic Polymers .825.2.1.2 Th ermosetting Polymers 835.2.1.3 El astomers 855.2.2 Me tals ..855.2.3 Ce ramics .865.2.4 Co mposites 875.3 Li quid-Based Materials .885.3.1 Pol ymers .885.3.2 Me tals and Composites 895.4 So lid-Based Materials .895.4.1 Pol ymers .895.4.2 Me tals ..905.4.3 Co mposites 915.5 Po wder-Based Materials 915.5.1 Pol ymers .915.5.1.1 Th ermoplastics .915.5.1.2 Po lymer Composites .91

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xContents El astomers 925.5.1.4 Pow ders ..925.5.1.5 Se lected Properties .925.5.2 Me tals ..925.5.2.1 Se lective Laser Sintering 925.5.2.2 SL S and Hot-Isostatic Pressing ..935.5.2.3 Di rect Metal Laser Sintering ..945.5.2.4 Di rect Metal Deposition .945.5.3 Ce ramics .945.5.3.1 Al uminum Oxide 945.5.3.2 Zi rconium Oxide .945.6 Co mmon Materials Used in 3D Printers ..955.6.1 PLA 955.6.2 ABS .955.6.3 PC 965.6.4 Pol ymides (Nylon) ..965.7 Ma terials Selection Considerations ..965.7.1 Ap plication 965.7.2 Fu nction ..975.7.3 Ge ometry ..975.7.4 Po stprocessing 975.8 Sum mary .975.9 Qu estions .98References .98 6. Cl assi˜cations of Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printing Systems ..996.1 In troduction ..996.2 FD M Systems .1006.2.1 St ratasys RP Machines ..1006.2.2 Pri nciples of FDM .100 6.2.3 Th e FDM Process ..1026.2.4 Mac hines .1036.2.5 St ratasys J-750 ..1036.2.6 St ratasys Dimension Elite 1046.2.7 St ratasys Objet Eden260VS .105 6.2.8 FD M 3D Printing 105 6.2.9 Ma kerBot Replicator 1066.3 SL A Systems 1066.3.1 Th e Details of SLA Process. 107 6.3.2 Th e SLA Process .1076.3.3 SL A 3D Printing .1086.4 SLS Systems .1106.4.1 SL S Overview ..1106.4.2 3 D Sy stems sPro 60 HD .111

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