The meaning of Ahl-al-Bait and ‘Ahl’ in the language of the Arabs . 7. The first Did Allah, the Most High make the action of loving Ahl-al-Bait a reward for the

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Book Title: Ahl -al-Bait between the two theories Identifying the truth of Ahl -al-Bait in the midst of the moderates and the extremists Author: Mu˜ammad S˚lim Al -Kha ˛r Subject: Islamic Beliefs Edition: 1st Edn Publication Date: Feb 2016 Source: Aqeedeh Website This book was downloaded from: Email: Our Websites

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Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Introduction 4 Chapter One: Who are Ahl -al-Bait? . 6 The meaning of Ahl -al-Bait and ‚Ahl™ in the language of the Arabs . 7 The first opinion: That the origin of the phrase fiAhl -al-Baitfl is ‚Ahl™: .. 7 The second opinion which is the predominant: That fiAhl -al-Baitfl means those who are closest or foremost. 9 Ahl -al-Bait . 22 Al-‚Itrah .. 35 Al- – .. 39 Did Allah, the Most High make the action of loving Ahl -al-Bait a reward for the Message? . 41 Evidences from the Twelver tradition .. 49 Some Twelver testimonies confirming what we have mentioned . 54 – – . 54 Al- .. 55 The Tw elver Shaykh, al – . 57 – 58 Ibn al – – 1325 C.E.): . 58 Al- – 1533C.E. ): . 58 Al- – 1659C.E. ):59 Al- – 1670C.E. ): . 59 Al- – – 1173A.H./ 1759C.E.): 60 Ahl -al-Bait between honour and individuality . 60 The particularity of the people of al- and the wives .. 65 . 73 Loving Ahl -al-Bait – its manifestation and ways to it .. 76 1- Mentioning their virtues, morals and their Islamic rights 76 2- The prayer upon Ahl -al-Bait in the Ibrahimi prayer .. 77 3- Their declaration on the obligation to love Ahl -al-Bait along with knowing their rights without extremism or negligence: . 78 4- Their concern of the lineage of Ahl -al-Bait and harshness towards those who claim to be of Ahl -al-Bait .. 85 1

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Their noble characteristics . 87 1-Allah, the Most High has honoured them by praying on them following the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in the prayer and other than that. . 87 2- Every lineage is cut off except theirs . 88 3- rve the one fifth 89 The honouring of the companions and those who trace their ways to Ahl -al-Bait 90 The religion is given preference over lineage .. 92 1- A righteous believer upon the correct creed (‚aqeeda). 95 2- He has to be following the authentic prophetic Sunnah. .. 95 The companionship of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is given preference over lineage . 100 Establishing the lineage of Ahl -al-Bait . 104 It is not correct to be related to one who had no offspring . 106 Chapter Two: Ahl -al-Bait and the face to face . 111 The definition of the ghuluw .. 111 The ghuluw in the religion is a dangerous situation .. 112 The ghuluw is stupidity an d lack of enlightenment 119 Ahl -al-Bait against the ghuluw and false sanctification 122 Those that are cursed by Allah and cursed by Ahl -al-Bait . 125 -al-Bait? 144 1-Ayatollah al – -Khomeini: . 145 2- Ayatollah al – -Khoei: .. 148 3-Ayatollah al – – .. 149 4- Ayatollah al – – – .. 150 5- Ayatollah al – – . 151 6- Ayatollah al – .. 156 7- Ayatollah al – – – . 158 8- Ayatollah al – – – – 160 9- Ayatollah al – – – .. 161 Chapter 3 Ahl -al-Bait and how they respected the companions . 162 The insulting of the companions is an act of disbelief according to Ahl -al-Bait . 175 Concluding Section .. 176 2

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Introduction All praise be to Allah Alone, Who has made Isl m as a shelter for the creation in their religion, guided individuals to the true religion and warned them away from destruction. I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah Alone with no partner. I am full y satisfied that He is my Lord and my ™Il h (deity) . And I bear witness that Muammad is indeed His servant and Messenger, the most magnificent creation to Allah in terms of superiority and importance. May Allah bestow His numerous blessing s and peace upon him and upon his family and companions. Sinc e puberty I have carried love for Ahl -al-Bait and the companions, acknowle dging their virtues and statuses. As a child I was too young to kno w the dimensions of these qualities and the essence of the intimate relationship t hat joined them all together . Since Allah , the Most High prescribed that I would grow up enjoying His favo urs – being gu ided to this religion, and finding employment that allowed me to research the history of Ahl -al-Bait and the comp anions and once I looked attentively at the differences in sources, understanding s and perspective s my aspiration became to write a report that clarifies the methodology of moderate Islam in its standpo int towards the family of the Prophet (may Allah™s ble ssings be upon him ). The knowledge that Allah , the Most High has uncovered for me contains the proof of the exaggerated praise of Ahl -al-Bait from classical to recent times , giving me the p rerequisite insight t o be able to discuss the conflicts between sects and creeds in the best way possible. However, I tried to a void criticizing a spec ific group , thus I sought with this book, after striving for the pleasure of Allah the Mo st High, to demonstrate the true picture of Ahl -al-Bait and their way which wa s based on the Sunnah, free from in novations, superstitions, polytheism, illusion s and hypothetical statements. I titled it: ‚ Ahl -al-Bait bayna madrasatayn ™ (Ahl -al-Bait between two theories/ schoo ls). This is because the current conflict about those related to the religion of Mu ammad (peace and blessings be upon him ) has 4

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Chapter One: Who are Ahl -al-Bait ? Without doubt, understanding the terms contained in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah is key to comprehend ing the aim s and of these text s along with their Islamic meaning. Likewise, redacting these terms and look ing closely at their real meaning is considered to be the first and most important step to setting up useful and fruitful discussions . Indeed, most doctrinal debates these days are lacking in the academic fundamentals . Hence, when these debate s usually start to a certain extent they appear to be calm and peaceful, but not for long. Debaters soon turn to shout ing and accusing one another and o nce the debate is over, if you were to as k either party about the issue they are tackling each of them will give a different answer . People should limit their long discussions and arguments when they haven™t yet defined key term s and foundation s. The great scholar Ibn Hazm, with his usual insightfulness, once went out of his way to point out the danger of confusing terminology . He said: fiThe source of every affliction and allegation is jumbling and corruption. Namely, the mixing up of names and that certain word s have numerous me aning s. One might mention a particular name carrying one of the meanings that he is after but, unfortunately , the audient understanding of the word will be different depending on the speaker. Consequently, adversity and ambiguity are the result. In Sharia this is the most ha rmful, severe destruction leading to a belief in falshood, except for those that Allah has granted success fl.1 Therefore, it is necessary for whoever participate s in any research to record first the definition of the terms involved, seek ing to find the truth, to avoid conflict and dissension between the Muslims and not to be decieved . 1 Al- – , vol 8, p. 1129. 6

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The meaning of Ahl -al-Bait and ‚ Ahl ™ in the language of the Arabs Terms with connection s to Ahl -al-Bait such as fiAhl -al-Bait Muammad fl, fiAhl -al-Bait Al-Nabiyy fl and fi‚Itrat an -Nabiyy fl are frequently used, but is there any difference between these name s or do they all share the same meaning? The answer is found when researching the derivations of these names as well as their Islamic and linguistic meani ngs. Let™s start with the phrase fiAl-Ahl -al-Bait fl, which means ‚the™ fiAhl -al-Bait fl. Indeed, linguists assign different meanings to the word fiAhl -al-Bait fl in terms of both derivation and meaning. When we study the views of the lin guists in regards the source of the word fiAhl -al-Bait fl we find no more than two opinions; The first op inion: That the origin of the phrase fiAhl -al-Bait fl is ‚Ahl ™: That th e origi n of the word fiAal fl is Ahl is the view of Ibn Manzur in his Lisa aan Al -‘Arab . He said: fiIts origin is Ahl, then the letter haa was changed to hamza so that it became fiA™l fl. Hence, when the two hamzah s followed each other the let ter change s to an alif as with fi™dam fl and fiAakhar fl.1 Al-Fair z Ab d holds the same view. 2 As stated in Mufrad t gharb al-Qur’ n: fiAl-Ahl -al-Bait is inverted from Al -Ahlfl.3 On the other hand, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah disa gre ed with this view due to the following: 1- There is no evidence for it. 2- This requires irregular change without a need for it, and beside that, it contradicts the origin. 3- The word fial-™ahl fl can be under the categories of rational and irrational , where as fial-Ahl -al-Bait fl can only be defined as the rational. 4 1 -‚Arab , vol: 11, p. 28. 2 Al- – , vol: 3, p. 331. 3 – , p. 30. 4 This is debatable as the Arabs used fial – irrational, and an example is from the statement of ‚Abd al- and his companions: 7

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4- The Ahl can be attached to both definite an d indefinite words , whereas the Ahl -al-Bait cannot be joined except to a valued person. 5- The Ahl can be added to the substantive and to the pronoun. Some grammarians have prevented adding the Ahl -al-Bait to the pronoun and there is hardly any one who allowed it. 6- If a man is added to the phrase Ahl -al-Bait he will be included therein as in the Most High ™s saying: Cause Pharaoh™s people to enter the severest torment! 1 And the Most High saying: Allâh chose ‚dam , Noah, the family of Abraham and the family of ‘Imrân above the ‘Alamîn (mankind and jinn) (of their times). 2 And His saying: Verily, We sent against them a violent storm of stones (which destroyed them all), except the family of Lot , them We saved in the last hour of the night 3 worshippers.fl However, eloquence should be taken into account, ‚Abd al – known for it. Furthermore, I have – (Vol. 11, p. 160) closer [in meaning] to what we have mentioned, therein he says: the irrational, nor to the pronoun, where others allow it but they are the minority. of ‚Abd al – where he said, during the incident of the people of the elephant in a line of poetry: worshippers.™ 1 2 3 Al-Qamar 54: 34. 8

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And the saying of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) : fiMay Allah send His blessing upon the Ahl -al-Bait of Ab Awf fi. We could make this linguistic claim if no one is mentioned with him [Ab Awf] when the Ahl -al-Bait were added to h im; but he was , we then can say that h e is mentioned as a singular and included in the Ahl -al-Bait . We also can say that f or him to be mentioned as singular made it unnecessary for him to be mentioned as mu f (adjunct), and the ™Ahl [in usage] is different to that. Hence, if you say: ‚The Ahl of Zaid came, he [Zaid] will not be included with them.™ 1 The second o pinion which is the predominant : That fiAhl -al-Bait fl means those who are closest or foremost . Al-Khal l ibn A mad Al -Far hd holds this view. He said: fiAhl -al-Bait a ya™ lu ™ilayhi , if they return to him. fl2 Ibn F ris agreed with Al -Khal l, he said: fiAhl -al-Bait a ya™ lu , means: he returns. One says: fi™awwala al -ukma ™il ahlihi fl, meaning that he gave back to them. 3 As well al -fiµ ibn al -Jawz had the same view. He state d: fiThe principle is our saying: fiAhl -al-Bait a, wi th the meaning of raja‚a (he returned). 4 Ibn Taymiyyah has chosen this view too. 5 As for the intention behind attributing the Ahl -al-Bait to al -rajul (the man), it includes two meanings: 1- Ahl -al-Bait ihi ( the family members of his property). 2- His followers. This is what the masters of language had in the past decid ed. In his work Mu‚jam maq ys al -lughah , Ibn Fris (d. 395 A.H .) said: fiAnd Ahl -al-Bait al-rajul are the Ahl -al-Bait ih i, as he returns to them and to him they return. This is where the meaning of ‚ Y ™ahla ful n™ derives fromfl.6 1 – , p. 34. 2 -‚ayn , vol: 8, p. 359. 3 -lughah , p. 121. 4 al-al-a‚yun , p. 121. 5 – , Vol 22, p. 463. 6 -lughah , Vol. 1, p. 160. 9

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