It has been produced by the Australian Curriculum,. Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) on behalf of the Education Council1. The report highlights
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Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 Copyright © Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority ( ACARA ) 2016, unless otherwise indicated. Subject to the exceptions listed below, copyright in this document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) licence . Thi s means that you can use t hese materials for any purpose, including commercial use, provided that you attribute ACARA as the source of the copyright material. Exceptions : The Creative Commons licence does not apply to: 1. logos, including (without limitati on) the ACARA logo, the NAP logo, the Australian Curriculum logo, the My Schoo l logo, the Australian Government logo and the Education Services Australia Limited logo; 2. oth er trade mark protected material; 3. photographs; and 4. material owned by third p arties that has been reproduced with their permission. Permission will need to be obtained from third parties to re -use their material. Attribution : ACARA requests attribution as: fi© Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority ( ACARA ) 2016, u nless otherwise indicated. This material was downloaded from the ACARA website (accessed [insert date]) and [was] [was not] modified. The material is licensed under CC BY 4.0 . ACARA does not endorse any product that uses ACARA™s material or make any repres entations as to the quality of such products. Any product that uses ACARA’s material should not be taken to be affiliated with ACARA or have the sponsorship or approval of ACARA. It is up to each person to make their own assessment of the product.fl Copyright queries: copyright@acara.edu.au Contact details: Australian Curriculum, As sessment and Reporting Authorit y Level 10, 255 Pitt Street Sydney NSW 2000 telephone: 1300 895 563 email: info@acara.edu.au website: www.acara.edu.au National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 ISSN 1036 -0972 National Report on Schooling in Australia

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 1 CONTENTS Overview 3 Part 1: National policy context .. 4 1.0 Overview .. .. .. .. 4 1.1 Educational goals 6 1.2 Meas uring and repo rting perf ormance 8 Part 2: National initiatives and achievements .. .. 11 2.0 Overview . .. 11 2.1 Developing strong er partners hips.. 12 2.2 Support ing quality teach ing and school leadership .. . 16 2.3 Strengthe ning early childhood educ ation .. 18 2.4 Enhanc ing middle years de velopment . 20 2.5 Support ing sen ior years of schoo ling and youth trans itions .. 21 2.6 Promo ting world-class curr iculum and asses sment .. 24 2.7 Improving educational outcomes for Indigenous youth and disadvantaged young Australians, especially those from low socio -economic backgrounds 30 2.8 Strengthe ning accou ntability and transparen cy .. 33 Part 3: Schools and schooling . .. 37 3.0 Overview 37 3.1 School struct ures .. . .. 38 3.2 School numb ers . .. . 41 3.3 Student numbers .. . .. 44 3.4 Staff . 48 Part 4: Student participation 52 4.0 Overview 52 4.1 Enro lment . 53 4.2 Progress ion and reten tion . 55 4.3 Attendance 62 Part 5: Student achievement ΠNational Assessment Program .. .. 65 5.0 Overview 65 5.1 NAP ΠLiteracy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) . 67 5.2 NAP ΠCivics and Citizenship .. 72 Part 6: Senior schooling and youth transitions .. 75

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 2 6.0 Overview .. . 75 6.1 Part icipation in vocat ional education and training, including VET in Schoo ls 77 6.2 Part icipation in education and work .. 84 6.2 Student attainme nt . .. 88 Part 7: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education Œ to be added .. . 93 Part 8: Funding Australia™s schools .. .. 94 8.0 Overview . .. 94 8.1 Funding arrangements in 2013 .. 95 8.2 An overview of government funding of schools in 2013 .. . 100 8.3 Funding for government schools . 106 8.4 Funding for non -government schools 112 8.5 Capital expenditure . .. 117 8.6 Overview of My School financial information . 120 Part 10: Glossary .. 126

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 3 Overview The Nationa l Repo rt on Schoo ling in Australia 2013 is the twenty -fifth annua l repo rt on Australia™s school edu cation sector. It has been produced by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Repo rting Authority (ACARA) on behalf of the Educatio n Council 1. The report highlights progress in 201 3 towards the Melbourne Declaration on Edu cational Goals for Young Australians agreed by Australian education ministers in 2008, and on Council of Australian Governments (COAG) initiatives for schoo l edu cation through the National Edu cation Agreement (NEA). The Nationa l Repo rt on Schoo ling in Australia add resses the eight areas of c ommitm ent to action specified in the Melbourne Declaration. It describes the nationa l policy and repo rting context for schoo l edu cation in Australia, outlines nationa lly agreed policy initiatives, and repo rts against the nationa lly agreed key performance measures for schoo ling including enrolment, attendan ce, student achievement in national assessm ents and transitions to further edu cation and work. These include key performance m easures reflecting the educational goals for youn g Australians and measures reflecting COAG targets and indicators drawn from the performance reporting framework of the NEA. Under the NEA, which came into effect in Janua ry 20092, the Australian state, territory and federal governments agreed to streamlined and consistent reports on nationa l progress, including the continued publication of an annua l national repo rt on the outcomes of sc hoo ling in Australia. A variety of other statistical information on Australian sc hoo ling in 201 3 and for the five-year pe riod 200 9Œ2013 is included in the Add itiona l statistics tables. This is the fifth annua l National Report on Schooling in Australia to add ress the Melbourne Declaration and the NEA, and the fifth edition to be compiled by ACARA as required unde r its charter. The National Report on Schoo ling in Australia 2009 , 201 0, 201 1 and 2012 are available on the ACARA website . Editions prior to 200 9 are available on the SCSEEC website. 1 The (COAG) Education Council replaced the Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood (SCSEEC) in July 2014 as the ministerial council with responsibility for schooling in Australia. SCSEEC replaced the former Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA) in January 2012. In this report, references to the council of Australian education ministers in 2013 are to SCSEE C. Historical references are to MCEECDYA, or to its predecessor until July 2009, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA). 2 A review of the Nation al Education Agre ement pe rfor mance fra mework was undert aken in 2012 and a revised agre ement to reflect the outcomes of the review came into effect in July 2012. Refere nces and links to the NEA in this repo rt are to the revised agree ment.

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 4 Part 1 : National policy context 1.0 Overview Within Australia’s fede ral system, constitutiona l responsibili ty for schoo l education rests predo minan tly with the Australian states and territories3. The six state and two territory governments and the Australian Government have coope rated to develop and work towards ag reed goals for improving the edu cationa l outcomes for all young Australians. In Australia, joint decisions on shared priorities and agreed national initiatives are made through intergovernmental policy coun cils. For education in 201 3, these councils are the S tand ing Coun cil on School Edu cation and Early Childhood (SCSEE C), the Stand ing Coun cil on Tertiary Edu cation, Skills and Employment (SCOTESE), and the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). SCSEEC The COAG Stand ing Council on School Edu cation and Early Childhood (SCSEEC) was established in Janu ary 2012 , replacing the previous Ministerial Council for Edu cation, Early Childhood Development and You th Affairs (MCEECDYA) as the Ministerial Council with respon sibility for schooli ng4. Membership of the Standing Council comprises state, territory, Australian Government and New Zea land ministers with respon sibility for the portfolios of schoo l edu cation, early childhood de velopment and youth affairs. SCSEEC™ s areas of responsibili ty include: Ł primary and secondary education Ł youth affairs and youth policy Ł cross -sectoral matters including transitions and careers Ł early childhood development including early childhood education and care. SCSEEC provides a forum through which s trategic policy on sc hool edu cation and early childhood development can be coordinated at the nationa l level and is responsible for overseeing progress towards the Melbourne Declaration on the Educational Goals for Young Australians . 3 New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic.), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), Western Australia (WA), Tasmania (Tas.), Northern Territory (NT) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT). 4 In this report, contemporary references to the council of Australian education ministers are to SCSEEC. Historical references are to MCEECDYA, or to its predecessor until July 2009, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affa irs (MCEETYA). In July 2014 SCSEEC was replaced by the COAG Education Council.

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 6 National policy context 1.1 Educational goals The Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians 6 sets the directions for Australian sc hooli ng for the ten-year period 2009Œ2018 as agreed to by all Australian edu cation ministers. The Melbourne Declaration has two overarching edu cational goals7 for youn g Australians: Goal 1: Australian sc hooli ng promotes equity and excellence Goal 2: All young Australians become successful learners, confident and creative individuals, and active and informed citizens. Commitment to Action The Melbourne Declaration include s a Commitment to Action in eight interrelated areas in order to suppo rt the achievement of the edu cational goals: Ł developing stronger partnersh ips Ł suppor ting quality teach ing and sch ool leadersh ip Ł strengthen ing ear ly childhood educa tion Ł enhanc ing middle years development Ł suppor ting sen ior years of schoo ling and youth trans itions Ł prom oting world-class curriculum and as sessme nt Ł impro ving educ ational o utcom es for Indigenous youth and disad vantaged young Aus tralians, especially those from low soc io-econom ic backgrounds Ł strengthen ing accou ntability and transpare ncy. Progress in implementing strategies and initiatives addressing the areas for action in 201 3 is outlined in Part 2: National initiatives and a chievements. 6 The Melbourne Declar ation on Edu cational Goals for Young Australians (2008) replaced the Nati onal Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century (the Adelaide Declar ation, agr eed in 1999), which itself superseded the orig inal National Goals for Schooling in Austra lia (Hobart Declarat ion, agre ed in 1989). 7 For a full explanat ion of the goals, see the Melbourne Declaratio n, pp. 6Œ9.

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 7 National Education Agreement The Coun cil of Australian Governments (COAG) National Edu cation Agreement (NEA) articulates the shared objective of Australian governments that all Australian sc hoo l studen ts acquire the knowledge and skills to participate effectively in society and employment in a globalised ec onomy. The agreement sets out conditions for the provision of Commonwealth school edu cation funding to the Australian states and territories for the period of 2009 Œ2013. It details roles and respon sibili ties of the Australian Government, and states and territories, and defines a framework for performance repo rting. These, along with agreed policy and reform directions, are designed to contribute to the following outcomes: Ł All children are e ngaged in, and ben efiting from, schoo ling. Ł Young peop le are mee ting bas ic literacy and nu meracy stand ards, and o vera ll levels of literacy and nu meracy ach ievement are improving. Ł Aus tralian studen ts excel by interna tional stand ards. Ł Schoo ling prom otes soc ial inclusion and reduces the educ ation d isad vantage of childre n, espec ially Indigenous children . Ł Young peop le make a succes sful transition from school to work and further s tudy. The performance repo rting framework agreed by all governments include s the following elements: Ł streamlined and co nsistent repo rts on national progress, including an ann ual na tional repo rt on the o utcomes of schoo ling in Australia (the National Report on Schoo ling in Australia Œ this repo rt) and the biennial COAG rep ort Overcom ing Indigenous Disadvan tage: Key Indicators Ł national repo rting on performance of individual schoo ls to inform paren ts and carers , and for e valuation by governmen ts of sch ool pe rformance with details , as agreed by SCSEEC in March 2009 Ł pro vision by schoo ls of plain language student r epor ts to pare nts and c arers, and an annual repo rt made pub licly available to their school c ommun ity on the schoo l™s achievemen ts and other con textual information. Under the provisions of the Schoo ls Assistance Act 200 8 and regulations, the accountability framework for non-government sc hoo ls and school systems is consistent with that of the NEA for the government sc hoo l sector.

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 8 National policy context 1.2 Measu ring and repo rting perf ormance The Measurement Framework for Schooling in Australia The Measurement Framework for Schooling in Australia 2012 provides the basis for national repo rting on the performance of schooling , as agreed by edu cation ministers, and is the main focus of the statistical data include d in this report. The Measurement Framework for Schoo ling in Australia 2012 defines national key performance measures (KPMs) for schoo ling, specifies the data sources for these KPMs and outlines the repo rting cycle for the period 201 2Œ2017. The framework was revised during 201 2; the revised document replaces the Measurement F ramework for Schoo ling in Australia 2010 . The revised framework incorporates measures arising from the Melbourne Declaration on Edu cational Goals for Young Australians and measures reflecting indicators in the revised National Education Agreement (effective July 2012). The framework is maintained by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) on behalf of the Stand ing Coun cil on Schoo l Edu cation and Early Childhood (SCSEEC) and is pub lished on the ACARA website. It is periodically revised by ACARA in consultation with jurisdictions and sectors. Key performance measures By intent, the KPMs contained in the measurement framework are: Ł strategic measur es that pro vide na tiona lly comparab le data on aspec ts of pe rformance critical to monitoring pr ogress against the Melbourne Declaration Ł focused on student pa rticipation, ach ievement, a ttainment and equity Ł based on s ound and reliable asses sment pra ctice Ł suppor tive of open and transparent rep orting Ł relevant and of interest to the pub lic Ł cost-effective, practical to collect, and take account of the burden and impact that data collection may place on studen ts, sc hools and sc hoo ling systems.

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National Report on Schooling in Australia 2013 9 The agreed areas of performance monitoring for which KPMs have been developed and approved are: Participation: Ł enro lment in school Ł student a ttendance Ł par ticipation in National Assessme nt Program (NAP) asses sments Ł par ticipation of young people in voca tional educa tion and training (V ET), including VET in Schoo ls Ł par ticipation by young p eople in other learn ing pathways; Achievement in the National Assessm ent Program (NAP) in: Ł literacy Ł numeracy Ł civics and citizenship Ł ICT literacy Ł science literacy Attainment: Ł school completion and attainment Ł attainment of young people in other learning pathways. For nationa l repo rting purposes, KPMs for stude nt participation, achievement and attainment are disaggregated by equity measures: Indigeno us status; sex; geolocation; socio-economic status and language background ; where possible and appropriate. Policy and reporting framework The key nationa l sc hoo l education policy documents and reports including the Melbourne Declaration, the National Edu cation Agreement (NEA), the Measurement Framework for Schoo ling in Australia and the National Repo rt on Schoo ling in Australia relate to and reinforce each other. Their relationships and roles in policy formation, reporting, evaluation and review are s ummarised in figure 1.1.

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