The blasting equipment is produced to deliver, reclaim and contain the media, contain the part to be blasted and collect the dust from the blasting process.
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BLAST FINISHING Blasting is the process where small angular or spherical particles are propelled at a part by compressed air, or mechanical high speed rotating wheels or water pumps . The blast media type, shape, size, density, and hardness, along with media acceleration and volume of media, combined with blasting distance from the workpiece, angle of impact and time cycles are important factors in the blast process capabilities. The blasting equipment is produced to deliver, reclaim and contain the media, contain the part to be blasted and collect the dust from the blasting process. Parts can be processed individually as a batch process or can be automated thru the system. Surface affects from the blasting process are: VISUAL MECHANICAL Bright Matte Þnish Deburring Dull Matte Finish De-ßashing Satin Þnish Paint and coating removal Satin luster Þnish Peening Blending of tool marks Pre paint and coating adhesion Removal of weld discoloration Heat treat, mill scale removal Surface cleaning Weld splatter removal Glass frosting and etching Thermal metal spray prep. Pre plate and anodize Þnishes Rust removal Mold cleaning BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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FACTORS THAT AFFECT BLAST FINISHING ARE: 1.Media delivery systems 2.Blast containment enclosures, media recovery and dust collection systems. 3.Media used in industrial blasting systems 1.MEDIA DELIVERY SYSTEMS There are three media delivery systems that propel and deliver media for high speed impact to the part being processed. A.Air Blasting ( Pneumatic) B.Mechanical Wheel (airless blasting) C.Hydro blasting (pumped water) A. AIR BLASTING utilizes an air compressors energy to deliver air/media mix at speeds and volumes to impact the parts being processed. The air speed or pressure of an air compressor is controlled by a pressure regulator. The regulator can increase or decrease the speed of the media delivery. Air pressure is measured by pounds per square inch (psi), industrial blasting is effectively done between 20 and 90 PSI. The higher the PSI the higher the air speed. The volume delivered of the air/media mix is determined by the oriÞce or opening diameter of the nozzle with pressure blast systems or air jet diameter of the suction blast gun body. Air volumes are measured by surface cubic feet per minute (scfm). The larger the oriÞce ID opening the larger volume of air/media. Other factors that affect volume of air into the blast system is media and air hose diameter. Increased air pressure (PSI) also increases the SCFM with a given size oriÞce. . Industrial blasting gun bodies of suction cabinet blast systems range between 12 to 38 SCFM. The pressure blast cabinet systems range between 12 to 68 scfm and the pressure blast room systems use up to 254 scfm. Industrial air compressors produce approximately 4.5 SCFM per horse power (hp). Blasting cabinets require 3 to15 hp compressors per nozzle and blast rooms can use up to 53 h.p. per man or nozzle. BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF AIR BLAST DELIVERY SYSTEMS Suction ( used in blast cabinets) Pressure ( used in blast cabinets, blast rooms, and outdoor blasting) SUCTION blasting uses the venture principle sucking media from a hopper. The air jet is 1/2 the ID of the nozzle and as the air stream is passed through both, it creates a low pressure which sucks the media from the hopper into the air stream. The media acceleration distance is very short ( from the nozzle to the workpiece-approximately 4 to 14Ó). The suction systems work Þne and can be continuously blasted as long as there is blasting media in the hopper. Suction systems do not deliver media well at very low air pressures (5 to 25 psi) and they have limits on how long the suction feed hose can be. Very heavy blasting ( larger steel media) cannot be conveyed into the air stream with suction blasting. Most industrial blast cabinets are suction systems and work well with most medias. PRESSURE blasting utilizes various sizes of ASME approved pressure vessels called pressure pots. The pressure pot contains the media, and as it is energized with compressed air, it pressurizes the pot. When the air/media mix is released from the pot it accelerates from the pot through at least 5-10 feet of hose and then even faster as it travels thru the ventura of the nozzle. The acceleration rates of air/media mix are much higher in pressure blasting than suction blasting. When the pressure pot empties of the media and air, the pressure pot has to be depressurized to reÞll the pot with media. The pressure blasting systems are much more productive when blasting than suction systems. Pressure systems can blast all medias regardless of weight or size and can also deliver medias at very low psi. BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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AIR BLAST SYSTEMS – AIR CONSUMPTION RATES Below are charts of air volume (SCFM) used in blasting with pressure and suction systems utilizing various pressures (PSI) and oriÞce sizes. CABINET BLAST SYSTEMS – AIR REQUIREMENTS Suction Systems Pressure Systems Suction-Blast Air Requirements (scfm) Pressure-Blast air requirements (scfm) Pressure (psi) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Pressure (psi) 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120 1/4Ó nozzle 3/32 jet 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 15 1/8Ó nozzle 6 8 10 13 14 17 20 25 1/4Ó nozzle 1/8 jet 10 12 15 17 19 21 23 26 3/16Ó nozzle 15 18 22 26 30 48 45 55 5/16Ó nozz 5/32jet 15 19 23 27 31 37 38 42 1/4Ó nozzle 27 32 41 49 55 68 81 97 7/16Ó nozz 7/32 jet 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 80 5/16Ó nozzle 42 50 64 78 88 113 137 152 3/8Ó nozzle 55 73 91 109 126 161 196 220 BLAST ROOMS AND OUTDOOR SYSTEMS – AIR REQUIREMENTS Air consumption and media delivery rates are much higher on blast rooms and outdoor blasting systems than in pressure blast cabinets. The air supply hose ID, the media blast hose ID, the nozzle ID, the pressure pot and pot piping are all much larger on the blast rooms than cabinet systems. The increase in production is also due to the further distance that the nozzle is from the work piece in blast rooms creating a larger blast pattern. Pressure- blast requirements (blast rooms) Nozzle ID Pressure 60 70 80 90 100 120 3/16Ó AIR (CFM) 30 33 38 41 45 #3 Air compressor horse power 7 7.5 8 9.5 10 Lbs Sand hour 171 196 216 238 264 1/4 Ò Air (CFM) 54 61 68 74 81 97 #4 Air compressor horse power 12 13.5 15 16.5 18 21.5 Lbs Sand hour 312 354 406 448 494 582 5/16Ó Air (CFM) 89 101 113 126 137 152 #5 Air compressor horse power 20.0 22.5 25.5 28.0 30.5 34.0 BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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Lbs Sand hour 534 604 672 740 812 912 3/8Ó Air (CFM) 126 143 161 173 196 220 #6 Air compressor horse power 28.0 32.0 36.0 38.5 44.0 49.0 Lbs Sand hour 754 864 960 1,052 1,152 1,320 Nozzle ID Pressure 60 70 80 90 100 120 7/16Ó Air (CFM) 170 194 217 240 254 300 #7 Air compressor horse power 38.0 43.5 48.5 53.5 56.5 67.0 Lbs Sand hour 1,032 1,176 1,312 1,448 1,584 1,800 1/2Ó Air (CFM) 224 252 280 390 338 392 #8 Air compressor horse power 50.0 56.0 62.5 69.0 75.0 87.5 Lbs Sand hour 1,336 1,512 1,680 1,856 2,024 2,352 AIR BLAST PRODUCTION RATES Blast nozzle spray patterns are affected by oriÞce size, air pressure, and distance from the workpiece. The total diameter of the blast pattern increases as the distance from the workpiece is increased. The hot spot (where work speed is maximized) can be obtained at larger distances from the workpiece with pressure air blast systems. CABINET SUCTION BLASTING CABINET PRESSURE BLASTING BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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CABINET BLAST PRODUCTION RATES Below is an estimate of abrasive delivery rates per hour and sq. ft. of blast area in sq. ft. per minute with various oriÞce I.D. ! s and 80 p.s.i. I.D. CFM PSI Blast Area Sq.Ft./Minute Abrasive Unit Hr. 3/32Ó 7 80 1/2 80 lbs 1/8Ó 15 80 1 to 1-1/2 120 lbs 5/32Ó 25 80 1 to 2-1/2 160 lbs 3/16Ó 40 80 3 to 3-1/2 216 lbs 1/4Ó 80 80 4 to 4-1/2 400 lbs BLAST ROOM AND OUTDOOR BLAST PRODUCTION RATES BLAST SPECIFICATIONS ESTIMATED BLAST CLEANING RATES NO 1 WHITE METAL BLAST SSPC-SP5 #7 NOZZLE Approx. Sq. Ft. Cleaning Per Hour Loose Mill Scale 170 Sq. Ft Tight Mill Scale 140 Sq. Ft. at 90 PSI Pitted Paint 85 Sq. Ft. Layered Paint 70 Sq. Ft. NO 2 NEAR WHITE BLAST SSPC-SP10 #7 NOZZLE Approx. Sq. Ft. Cleaning Per Hour Loose Mill Scale 180 Sq. Ft. Tight Mill Scale 146 Sq. Ft. at 90 PSI Pitted Paint 90 Sq. Ft. Layered Paint 72 Sq. Ft. NO 3 COMMERCIAL BLAST SSPC-SP6 #7 NOZZLE Approx. Sq. Ft. Cleaning Per Hour Loose Mill Scale 420 Sq. Ft. Tight Mill Scale 270 Sq. Ft. at 90 PSI Pitted Paint 200 Sq. Ft. Layered Paint 140 Sq. Ft. NO 4 BRUSH – OFF SSPC-SP7 #7 NOZZLE Approx. Sq. Ft. Cleaning Per Hour Loose Mill Scale 840 Sq.Ft. Tight Mill Scale 835 Sq.Ft. at 90 PSI Pitted Paint 830 Sq.Ft. Layered Paint 825 Sq.Ft. For more information on blast speciÞcations contact B.MECHANICAL WHEEL BLASTING Wheel blast system utilizes a high speed rotation wheel using centrifugal force to propel the media. The wheel size design and rotation speed affect the velocity and pattern of the media. BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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Media Reclaim Systems Recoverable medias used in industrial blast systems will run from 5 to 100 times through the blast system. These recoverable medias need to be cleaned, sized and returned to the blast system after being blasted. The media reclaim system accomplishes this. The reclaimer keeps Þnish and production rates consistent. Media reclaim systems can be Air Cyclones or Mechanical Systems. Dust Collection All Industrial blast systems utilize dust collectors to allow blast systems to be indoors. The dust collector removes the Þne blasting dust keeping the media clean and operators safe through visibility and breathable air. Dust collectors remove 99% of 1 micron or larger material. Hepa Þlters can be added to remove dust particles down to 1/2 micron.Dust collectors are sized to the cabinet size, media type, and amount of blast nozzles or wheels being used. BLAST MEDIAS Recoverable blasting medias are used in industrial blasting. Indoor blasting systems require medias with extended life. Blast media, type, shape, size and hardness affect the process and materials they ! re capable of blasting. Spherical medias are used for peening and produce smoother surface Þnishes. Angular medias chip at a parts surface; removing paint, rust and scale quicker, with better results than round medias. Angular medias produce a rougher surface Þnish and produce superior anchor patterns for paint and coating adhesions. Higher blast pressures increase production but reduce media life. Blasting harder workpieces also reduces media life. Recoverable blasting medias have two basic shapes. Round (spherical) and angular. The most common recoverable industrial blast medias are: Spherical shaped media Angular shaped media Ceramic beads Aluminum oxide Silicon carbide Glass beads Ceramic grit Stainless grit Stainless shot Crushed glass Steel grit Aluminum Oxide (AL 2O3) is a man made fused alumina that is very tough; angular blocky shaped, medium density, with a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. This BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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abrasive is designed for high blasting pressures up to 90 PSI. Aluminum oxide is very good for light deburring and surface prep (bonding strength) prior to painting and coating. AO creates a dull matte Þnish.Aluminum oxide has media life of approximately10-12 times through the blast system. Typical Aluminum Oxide blasting applications: ¥cleaning of investment castings Grit Size Conversion for AO and SIC ¥Scale removal Grit Size Inches (average) Micronts(average) ¥Thermal spray coating prep 16 0.043 1092¥Rust removal 20 0.037 942¥Hard oxide removal 24 0.027 686¥Heat treat and mill scale removal 30 0.022 559¥Glass frosting and etching 36 0.019 443¥Monument lettering and carving 46 0.014 356¥Air craft engine overhaul 54 0.012 305¥Matte Þnishing 60 0.010 254¥surface prep 70 0.008 203¥durability up to 20 passes 80 0.0065 165¥No free silicas 90 0.0057 145 100 0.0048 122 120 0.0048 102 150 0.0035 89 180 0.0030 76 220 0.0025 63 Silicon Carbide (SIC) is a man made abrasive that is very sharp and friable. SC is very hard at 9.5 on the mohs scale. It is used to blast very hard materials such as tool steels, glass and ceramics. SC creates a dull matte Þnish. The grit sizes available are the same sizes as aluminum oxide. SC blasts at pressures up to 90 psi and has an approximate life of 9-12 times thru the blast system. Typical Silicon Carbide blasting applications Sizing same as aluminum oxide ¥ Blasting hard metals ¥ Glass etching ¥ Ceramic recast removal ¥ Very tough scale removal ¥ Heavy proÞle and metal preparation ¥ Before brazing and weld applications requiring no aluminum oxide contamination BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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Glass Beads and Glass Grit Glass bead is a round glass used in peening and surface Þnishing on tight tolerance machined surfaces. Glass Beads create a bright matte surface Þnish with no surface contamination or damage. As a round particle beads are very slow on removal of paint, rust, or scale. Glass grit is the angular counterpart of glass beads. Glass grit is very aggressive on a blasted surface. Glass beads are blasted at pressures between 40-80 psi. Glass bead media life cycles are 9 – 12 times thru the blast system. Typical Glass Bead blasting applications: ¥Light deburring Grit Size Conversion Chart for Glass Beads ¥surface cleaning Mil-G-9954A Average Inches Average Micron US Screen Size ¥Peening # 3 .0283 725 20-30 mesh ¥Blending machine marks # 4 .0187 512 30-40 mesh ¥Removal of welding discolor # 5 .0139 363 40-50 mesh ¥Blasting tight tolerance parts # 6 .0105 256 50-70 mesh ¥Produces a bright matte Þnish # 7 .0084 215 60-80 mesh ¥Pre Anodize Þnishing. # 8 .0071 181 70-100 mesh # 9 .0060 153 80-120 mesh #10 .0047 120 100-170 mesh # 11 .0039 100 120-200 mesh # 12 .0033 85 140-230 mesh # 13 .0026 68 170-325 mesh Ceramic Blast Media Ceramic Beads are spherical shaped media with high mechanical strength and high wear rates. Ceramic is impact resistance creating very little dust. The ceramic beads keeps its round consistency and is chemically inert. Ceramic blast processes produce a smooth bright satin Þnish. The ceramic beads density creates higher impact speed making it a good choice for deburring and peening. Blast pressure recommendations are between 40-65 psi with media cycle lives between 70-90 times thru the blast system. Ceramic blast media is very versatile and can be blasted with all delivery systems,( air, wheel and water) Ceramic beads is a standard peening material for titanium parts. Ceramic grit is angular and is excellent for etching parts with extended media life. BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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Typical Ceramic Media blasting applications ¥ Peening Titanium ¥ Non contamination ¥ High impact for deburring ¥ Long media life applications ¥ Bright surface Þnish requirements ¥ Aircraft and medical parts Stainless Steel Blast Media is available in both shot (cut wire conditioned and casted) and grit. Stainless media is available in 302-304 and 316 alloys. Stainless is a softer but heavier media that is a good choice for short blasting times, deburring, and rust free surfaces. It produces a brighter Þnish with reduced blast machine wear rates. Stainless shot obtains some the highest media recovery rates of up to 150-200 cycles through the blast system. Blasting pressure can be as high as 90 PSI. Typical Stainless Steel blasting applications: ¥ Blast cleaning, de-burring, surface reÞnement, surface Þnishing ¥ All types of aluminum castings and forgings ¥ Zinc pressure die castings ¥ Non-ferrous metals and special alloys ¥ Stainless steel castings and forgings ¥ Stainless steel equipment fabrication ¥ Granite and stone industry Steel Shot and Grit Media Steel blast media is produced in round/spherical shape (conditioned cut wire and cast shot) and angular steel grit. Steel abrasives are very durable making it the Þrst choice in blast rooms and automated wheel applications. The hardness ranges between 40 to 65 Rockwell. Conditioned cut wire (rounded) is the primary choice for shot peening over cast shot that produces an unfavorable angular breakdown while blasting. Steel shot and grit is very often mixed to achieve both anchor patterns with good Þnishes. Steel shot can be blasted with very high pressures of up to 110 PSI. Media cycle lives are between 80-100 times through the blast cycle. BLASTING TECHNICAL INFORMATION

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