Your institution’s research development office can provide contact information. Finally, it is worth noting that careful record keeping can help prevent

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Case studies developed by the APS Task Force on Ethics Education Edited by Heid Doss and Gabriel PopkinIllustrations and design by Nancy Bennett-Karasik**Please print this document double-sided, if possibleTeacher Edition A set of ethics case studies from physics research, with an activity and discussion guide for courses and seminars in science ethicsCase StudiesETHICS

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1Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICSForeword Research in physics depends on widely held values of integrity and honesty among participants. Without these values, the enterprise becomes suspect, and its results are mistrusted. It is important as scientists and educators that we demand ethical behavior on the part of all of the participants in all aspects of our enterprise. It is not some of the issues that practicing physicists might encounter. It is useful to draw the analogy between ethics education and safety training. Undoubtedly most physicists have an inherent desire to be safe, but the extent to which safety procedures are practiced in the lab depends on a range of factors, including prior experience, an understanding of appropriate procedures, and an understanding The reality is that ethical behavior in some instances is compromised by pressures to publish and discover, as is complicated, because researchers may be confronted with choices in which the ethical route is not obvious. There are also differences between practices in various sub-disciplines, especially in the area of authorship of papers for publication.An awareness of the ethical dilemmas that can occur in a professional career, and of the resources for understanding and resolving such problems, can help in avoiding ethical lapses, or limit the damage that can arise from them. Students and mentors are especially reminded that an understanding of the ethical expectations of the physics community is an important part of a physics education. Note: discussion of these issues. Some of the studies were also contributed by the general population. They are based Background on the APS Task Force on Ethics Education violations among physicists. Its charge was to advise APS on how it can best encourage physics departments Task Force Members Allen M. Goldman, University of Minnesota (Chair)Beverly Karplus Hartline, Delaware State UniversityJean P. Krisch, University of Michigan J. Marshall Thomsen, Eastern Michigan University Brian Utter, James Madison University Simon Woodruff, University of Washington

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2Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICSIntroduction to Ethics Case Studies materials would generate a community-wide discussion that would improve our collective understanding of what it means to practice science. in science or engineering research or in education include fiappropriate training and oversight in responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers plans upon request, and to designate one or more persons to oversee compliance of training in the responsible At the end of this document, and on the APS website, are a set of resources that provide further information on on the APS website. Suggestions and Notes to the teacher in this Teacher™s Edition are provided in this font. This set of case studies may be used in an ethics course, ethics seminar, or group discussion on the topic. To keep the discussion lively, it is suggested that various approaches appropriate for the audience be conducted. Examples of varied approaches include: role-plays of scenarios, creating video of scenarios, or creating cartoons of scenarios. In a class setting it is imperative that class discussions occur for each topic included below based on scenarios that represent the topic. It is also recommended that discussion participants read the APS statements in the appendices before moving to the case studies. Note that it is important to move the discussions from the realm of fiI feel that–fl or fiI think this is wrong–fl to a more concrete of comparison of actions (or proposed actions) to the standards of science. Suggestion: Consider opening up a discussion and/or collecting written descriptions of scenarios that students would like to explore. This should be done in a way to allow anonymity, for example, students could create types of questions to ask in situations and how to address situations involving unclear ethical lines. Emphasize to students the importance of learning about appropriate conduct and ethics for various situations that students

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3Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICSContentsCase Study Topics Data Acquisition .. 9Educational Concerns Health and Safety Research with Human Subjects ..Issues of Bias Mentoring Publication Practices .Responsible Conduct of Research and Participation 59Appendices and Resources Appendix A: APS Guidelines for Professional Conduct Appendix B: APS Policies for Handling Allegations of Research Misconduct ..Appendix C: .Ethics Education Resources

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4Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICSThese situations can include, for example, the use of university resources, telephone numbers, e-mail or web addresses to support or represent an outside activity, including businesses, hobbies and political activities. These in which the employee may have an interest or be in a position to assist others, particularly those in whom the employee may have a direct or substantial economic interest (such as a spouse, or child). Appointments, terminations, promotions, demotions, and approval of salary increases all need to be carefully considered from Some of the ethical issues explored in the three case studies below relate to the less documented situations: cases where there are no clear guidelines to follow. Publication Practices Case Study: Peer Review (p 55)Suggested assignments: what this documentation states.

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5Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICS on novel photonic materials. You are worried about your next appointment, and have applied for several appointment at your undergraduate alma mater, a prestigious research institution in a city where you already have connections and would love to live.detailed information about the novel material-preparation technique developed in your graduate research, and agreed not to provide details until a paper currently being prepared is submitted for publication. Your thesis couple months.You answer that you and your colleagues are in the process of writing it up for publication and a patent application, and you would be glad to send them an early preprint when it is available. The question and answer period continues and concludes uneventfully and pleasantly. to your undergraduate roots and the need to prove you are one of them to be a viable candidate for the position. What should you do?QuestionsWhat are the interests of the various players? What are your options?Discuss students™ responses before going over the discussion below. Not all discussions are included in the student text. The discussion below is in the student text.

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7Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICS the problem at his new company. implications for the original institution in the form of royalties.QuestionsWhat are the relevant ethical considerations in this dilemma? The answer could depend on missing information, such as the nature of the contract signed by the student with his institution, if any, and the nature of its intellectual property rules. This information may have an impact on what the correct ethical response is. Suggested assignment:Consider asking your students to explore your institution™s intellectual property rules. Have a discussion with your class about your institution™s intellectual property rules and provide an example of what typically would be included in a contract at your institution.PATENT

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8Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICS appears to be a new discovery, based on a highly original approach to the measurements in question. The to present a seminar at Institution C, where she is a candidate for a position, and where competitors of the experimentalist at Institution B are found. She was not told explicitly that his conversation with the experimentalist at Institution B was privileged.QuestionsWhat should she do in preparing for his visit?

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9Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICSData Acquisition acquired, recorded, and stored is thus of fundamental importance to progress in science.The APS Guidelines for Professional Conduct (see Appendix A) state: The results of research should be recorded and maintained in a form that allows analysis and review. data should be retained for a reasonable period in order to be available promptly and completely to responsible scientists. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances in order to preserve privacy, to assure patent protection, or for similar reasons. The two scenarios that follow are intended to explore the implications of this statement.Other scenarios that involve Data Acquisition: Suggested assignments:1. Write a set of procedures you might use when acquiring data for your research. 2. Discuss how these procedures help assure the integrity of the research record. Data Acquisition

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10Teacher Edition Case StudiesETHICS graduate student about this situation, and he tells you that you should be very concerned about the situation and that it should be reported.QuestionWhat are some possible situations that could explain the fimissingfl data, and how should you proceed for each? Data Acquisition

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