by SA Kumar · 2014 — Big Muskie was largest single bucket digging machine ever created. It was owned by the Central Ohio Coal Company mining brown coal. It weighted 13000 tons and.
98 pages

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DRAGLINE PERFORMANCE STUDY IN INDIAN COAL MINES A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Bachelor of Technology In Mining Engineering By ANKIT KUMAR 110MN0434 Department of Mining Engineering National I nstitute of Technology Rourkela -769008 2013 -14

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DRAGLINE PERFORMANCE STUDY IN INDIAN COAL MINES A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Bachelor of Technology In Mining Engineering By ANKIT KUMAR 110MN0434 Under the guidance of PROF. H.K.NAIK Department of Mining Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela -769008 2013 -14

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I National Institute of Technology Rourkela CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled fiDRAGLINE PERFORMANCE STUDY IN INDIAN COAL MINES fl submitted by Sri Ankit Kumar in parti al fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree in Mining Engineering at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma. Date: Prof. H.K.NAIK Dept. of Mining Engineering National In stitute of Technology Rourkela -769008

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II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It will be simple to name all those people who helped me to get this thesis done, however it will be tough to thank them enough. First and foremost, I express my sincere gratitude and indebtedness to Prof. H.K.NAIK , Department of Mining Engineering for allowing me to carry on the present topic fi Dragline Performance Study in Indian Coal M ines fl and later on for his inspiring guidance, constructive criticism and valuable suggestions throughout this project work. I am very much thankful to him for his able guidance and pain taking effort in improving my understanding of this project. I would also like to give a special thanks to our Institute – NIT Rourkela and the Department of Mining Engineering for provid ing all the necessary facilities dur ing the course of the project. I will be failing in my duties if I didn™t mention reference to and inspiration from the works of others whose details are mentioned in reference section. I acknowledge my indebtedness to all of them. At the last, my sincere thanks to all my friends who have patiently extended all sorts of help for accomplishing this assignment. Date: ANKIT KUMAR

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III CONTENTS Page No. CERTIFICATE i ACKNOWL EDGEMENT ii ABSTRACT vi LIST OF FIGURES vii LIST OF TABLES viii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Dragline mining 1 1.2 Dragline mining in India 2 1.3 Aim of the paper 4 1.4 Objectives 4 1.5 Methodology 5 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 6 2.1 History and present 6 2.2 Typical specification 7 2.3 The Big Muskie 8 2.4 Conditions for operation of dragline 9 2.5 Classification of draglines 9 2.6 System of working 9 2.7 Dragline stripping methods 12 2.7 .1 Simple sidecasting method 17 2.7 .2 Dragline extended bench method 19 2.7 .3 Dragline pull -back method 20 2.7 .4 Tandem machine systems 21 2.8 . Drilling and Blasting of Overburden for Draglines 21

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IV 2.9 . Dragli nes in use in India 23 2.9.1 Draglines in CIL as on 1.4.2013 23 2.9.2 Dragline in other mines 27 3. PARAMETER COLLECTION, RECORDING AND ACQUIRING 28 4. CALCULATION AND PROGRAMMING 29 4.1. Dragl ine balancing diagram 29 4.2. Purpose of drawing balancing diagram 29 4.3. Preparation of dragline balancing diagram 30 4.4. Developing a computer based program ( in MATLAB) on dragline 32 bench designing (keeping the cut -width constant) and dete rmine whether or not rehandling is required 4.5. Output (user -defined data) 35 4.5.1. Case1. (A3<0) 35 4.5.2. Case2. (A3=0) 37 4.5.3. C ase 3. (A3>0) 39 4.6. Projection of annual output, calculation of o wnership, operating cost 41 and cost per tonne of coal exposed by dragline 4.6.1. Evaluation of Availability and Utilization 41 4.6.2. The maximum depth that can be worked by a dragline 45 4.6.3. Amount of rehandle (PRM ) 45 4.6.4 Calculation of ownership and operating cost of dragline 46 (Singareni OC -I dragline) 4.6. 5 Calculation of cost per ton of coal exposed b y Singareni 48 OCP ΠI Dragline by extended bench method 4.6. 6. Calculation of Ownership and operating cost of dragline 49 (Samaleswari dragline) 4.6. 7 Calculation of cost per ton of coal exposed by S amaleswari 51

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VI ABSTRACT Draglines have been abundantly used in coal mining for decades, either as stripper or stripper and coal extractor. Since this equipment has certain inborn advantages, which their challengers do not, they must be operated in a 24-hour day and night manner for high product ivity and low costs. In India, the development of giant surface mining ventures like Bina and Jayant remove s large volume of overburden in shortest possible time to achieve higher coal production targets (upto 10 million tonnes per annum) . This has led to major changes in overburden/ interburden excavation technology in surface coal mines from shovel mining to that of draglines. Coal India Limited (CIL) has now standardized the draglines in two sizes, which are 10/70 and 24/9 6 for their mines. Most of the mines depend 24 hours a day, 7 days a week on the dragline working . In many coal mines, the mine’s output is totally dependent on the dragline™s performance since it is the only primary stripping tool . For these reasons, design of draglines requi re importance placed on developing component™s with high levels of reliability and predictability so that repairs and replacement of components can be scheduled at times that will least affect the overall mining operation. Before deploying draglines in mi nes, various factors have to be considered for selection of suitable size of the dragline and other parameters . Different parameters are used to determine the production and productivity of draglines. Also availability and utilization of different draglines have been calculated and their performance was studied and various rea sons of decreasing performance are pointed out. In this thesis these points are discussed in detail.

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VII LIST OF FIGURES Figure no. Name Page 2.1 Line diagram of dragline 10 2.2 Parts of dragline bucket 11 2.3 Simple sidecasting method 18 2.4 Positions in extended bench method 20 4.1 Dragline balancing diagram for total sidecasting 30 4.2 Flowchart for the dragline bench designing (keepi ng the cut -width constant) and determine whether or not rehandling is required 35 4.3 Output screenshot 1 36 4.4 Output screenshot 2 36 4.5 Output screenshot 3 37 4.6 Output screenshot 4 38 4.7 Output screenshot 5 38 4.8 Output screenshot 6 39 4.9 Output screenshot 7 40 4.10 Output screenshot 8 40 4.11 Output screenshot 9 41 4.12 Flowchart for the dragline bench designing (keeping the cut -width constant) and determine whether or not rehandling is required 56 4.13 Output screenshot 10 58 4.14 Out put screenshot 11 58 4.15 Output screenshot 12 59 4.16 Output screenshot 13 60 4.17 Output screenshot 14 61 4.18 Output screenshot 15 61 5.1 Month wise production comparison of two years 76 5.2 Graphical representation of production data 77 5.3 Grap hical comparison of W.H. of 2012 -13 & 2011 -2012 79

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VIII LIST OF TABLES Table no. Topic Page 2.1 Bharat Coking Coal Ltd. (E CL) 23 2.2 Eastern Coalfields Ltd. (W CL) 23 2.3 Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. (BC CL) 24 2.4 Northern Coalfields Ltd. (M CL) 24 2.5 South E astern Coalfields Ltd. (SECL) 25 2.6 Western Coalfields Ltd. (N CL) 25 2.7 Singareni collieries Co. Ltd. (SCCL) 27 4.1 Productivity factors for dragline as per CMPDI recommendations 42 4.2 Parameters of Singareni OCP ΠI Dragline 43 4.3 Parameters of S amaleswari Dragline 44 5.1 Availability & Utilization % of draglines (D/L) 62 5.2 Analysis of age of D/L 62 5.3 Status of Equipments of Rajnagar Open Cast Project as on 01/01/2013 at Hasdeo Area 67 5.4 Name of Seam with the total coal reserve 69 5.5 Number a nd Name of the Seam being worked (with stages of working) 70 5.6 Details of Outlets 70 5.7 Rope Dimensions 75 5.8 Motor Capacity 75 5.9 Month wise production considering month from 26th to 25th 76 5.10 Month wise working Hrs. (Considering month from 26 th to 25 th) 77 5.11 Comparison of W.H. of 2012 -13 & 2011 -2012 78

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1 Chapter 01 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Dragline mining There is a continuous increasing need for energy and to fulfill this demand, coal is required in huge quantity. Mother earth has been kind enough to homo geneously spread this raw material throughout its crust. A considerable portion of coal is produced by adopting surface mining methods. To meet the demands of thermal, cement and other industry sectors the trend in production of coal has been increasing. I n order to have high production with minimum cost, Draglines are being used in coal mining. This equipment has been chosen because of its certain advantages like economically excavate deposits at greater and greater depths. Dragline is a one of the surface mining equipment which is used to excavate materials and is so designed so that it can excavate below the level of the machine also. Dragline working can be divided into two parts: Digging and Walking. Among them walking is a steady process on which the m ine design team has little control. Almost all walking draglines take a step of approximately 2 m within a time period of 0.75 -1 min. The design of strip panels, equipping a specific unit with one operator’s room on the desired side or with two on both sid es and the management’s strategy in coal loading operation largely affect the frequency and the length of long deadheading periods, during which the unit is unproductive (Erdem et al., 2003). Dragline used in surface mining is heavy equipment. They are mos tly built on-site for strip mining operations to remove overburden and coal and they are largest mobile land machine ever built. It consists of large bucket which is suspended from a boom with wire ropes. The bucket is maneuvered by means of ropes and chai ns. The hoist rope is powered by electric motors and drag rope is used to draw bucket assembly horizontally. Various operations of the bucket for the desired purposes are controlled by maneuvering of the hoist and drag ropes. The dump operation of the drag line consists of positioning the bucket above the material to be excavated and then lowering it so as to drag it on the surface of the material. The bucket is then lifted by the hoist rope and a swing operation is then performed to

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