It was the seventh year of prophethood. However, Abu Lahab ibn. ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib left the Banu Hashim and aligned himself with the Quraysh. For many

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©UK Islamic Academy, 1993 REPRINT 1995 ISBN 1 872531 10 5 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, ical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. General.Editor: Iqbal Ahmad Azami Published by UK Islamic Academy 14 7 Mere Road Leicester LES SGQ United Kingdom Cover design: Sultan Farooqui British Library CiJtaloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Printed & Bound by: Deluxe Printers Tel: 01&1-%5-1771

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Contents Foreword Preface . The Age of Ignorance . Before Prophethood. After Prophethood In Madinah . . . . The Decisive Battle of Badr . The Battle of Uhud . . The Battle of the Ditch. The Expedition Against the Ba nu Qurayzah The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah . . lnviti ng the Kings and Rulers to Islam . The Expedition to Khaybar The Expedition to Mu’tah . The Conquest of Makkah The Battle of Hunayn . . 3 page 5 7 1 1 15 29 65 73 83 Ł Ł Ł Ł 99 109 115 123 127 137 141 155

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The Expedition of Ta’ if 159 The Tabuk E xpedition. 165 The Year of Delegations. 171 The Farewell Hajj . . . . 173 The Death of the Messenger of Allah 179 The Prophet’s Character and Qualities . 191 Workbook 193 Transliteration Table 205 Glossary. . . . . . . 207 Names/Kunyahs/Epithets and Titles 211 Communities, Tribes, Clans and Families 214 Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 4

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Foreword All the Prophets were chosen by Allah to guide mankind to the Divine Path. They faced many difficulties and suffered severe hardships in their efforts to call their erring people to obey and worship the One God, Allah. This book is t he last in a series of stories about these Prophets. It portrays a v ivid pi,cture of the life and times of Muhammad, the last Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). It has been written in a style attractive to young people by the renowned Islamic scholar Maulana Sayyed Abul Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, one of the greatest living authorities on Islam, whose works provide material for the text books used in schools a nd colleges throughout the Arab and Musi im world. This translation has been prepared especially for young English-speaking Muslims who wish to benefit from the scholarship usually found in Arabic o r Urdu tions. MUHAMMAD, the Last Prophet is based on the Holy Qur’an and contemporary accounts of events taking place during that period. It offers an authentic account of the early call to Islam, the impact of which is still reverberating around the world. It is hoped that the reader will appreciate this opportunity to examine Islam from a historical perspective and to understand why it remains so relevant to life today. 5

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My ‘thanks are due to Sis. Aisha Bewley, Sis. Umm Ayman, my daughters Su’ad, Shifa’ and my other children for their help in producing this book. May Allah accept this effort and make it a source of inspiration and guidance for all. Leicester, England Rabi’ al-Awwal 1414 A.H. August 1993 Iqbal Ahmad Azami 6

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in Rabi’ al-Awwal, 1398 A.H. (April 1977 C.E.). It has also been translated into English and published by The Academy of Islamic Research & Publications, Lucknow, India, entitled Muhammad, Rasulullah). I have based my work on a summary of as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah by lbn Hisham, one of the oldest books on the life of the Prophet still in existence. It has had a great effect on the hearts and souls of generations of believers. I have also relied on ancient Si rah sources and the celebrated books of as-Sihah in hadith. As I did not set out to write an academic treatise I have refrained from constantly ing my sources. The book has been written for enthusiastic young people, not for university scholarship, so references are confined to texts and variants. My large and cohensive book on the Sirah will meet their needs for theological arguments and contemporary studies. By the power of Almighty Allah, this present work comes in between the Sirah written for adults and the books published for children. It can be studied by adolescents or read by non-academics, in their madrasahs, libraries and homes. It will also be useful to non-Muslims and can be translated into other languages. It contains the core and summary of the Sirah, the wonders and facts of various events, the background to the Islamic call, and the conquests and victories associated with it. Above all, this book will provide the student with a welcome environment in which he or she will find guidance to last a lifetime. It provides the light to illuminate the pathway, the spiritual weapons needed for defence against secularism and satanic influences and the message to carry into the future. Finally, I praise Allah for the successful conclusion of this work. I thank Him for His g ifts and blessings and I ask Him to accept my efforts. I pray that this book will help the 8

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The Age of Ignorance Ancient religions After the Prophet of Allah, ‘Isa ibn Maryam, there was a long period without a Prophet. Light and knowledge disappeared. Christianity fell into disrepute and became a matter of sport for the corrupt and the hypocrites. From the very beginning, Christianity had been subjected to tions by extremists and to interpretations by the ignorant. The simple teaching of the Messiah was buried beneath the transgressors’ evil behaviour. The Jews had become a society obsessed with rites and rules lacking all life and spirit. Apart from that, Judaism, a tribal religion, did not carry a message to the world nor a summo:ns to other nations nor mercy to humanity at large. The Magians were devoted to fire-worship. They built altars and shrines to fire. Outside the shrines they followed their own pursuits. Eventually, no difference whatever could be discerned between the Magi.ans and those with no religion or morality. Buddhism, a religion widespread in India and Central Asia, was transformed into outright paganism. Altars were built and images of the Buddha set up wherever it went. Hinduism, the basic religion of India, is distingu-11

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