Din. Way of life, religion together with its practices. Din-ul-Fitrah. A description of Islam as the natural way of life. Du’a. Varying forms of personal prayer and.

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Oldham SACRE RE Support © 201 9 Glossary of religions and beliefs Oldham Agreed Syllabus for RE Guidance and Support Materials Glossary of Terms: Religion and Belief This glossary of terms is closely based upon the SCAA Glossary of Terms for Religious Education (originally published in1994) which was drawn up in consultation with members of the faith communities concerned. 1

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Christianity Glossary Unlike the other five world faiths included in this glossary, most of the terms given below are in English and will be familiar to many people. The historic languages of the Christian scriptures are Hebrew, Greek and Latin. The Old Testament was written la rgely in Hebrew, with some texts in Aramaic and Greek (Apocrypha). The whole of the Old Testament was translated into Greek, although many words and passages have their origin in Aramaic. Latin became increasingly the language of the Western Church from the 5th century AD when the Bible was translated into Latin. Absolution The pronouncement by a priest of the forgiveness of sins. AD (Anno Domini) In the Year of our Lord. The Christian calendar dates from the estimated date of the birth of Jesus Christ . Advent Coming. The period beginning on the fourth Sunday before Christmas (40 days before Christmas in the Eastern Orthodox tradition). A time of spiritual preparation for Christmas. Agape The love of God. New Testament word used for the common meal of Christians; a Love Feast. Altar (Communion Table, Holy Table) Table used for Eucharist, Mass, Lord’s Supper . Some denominations refer to it as Holy Table or Communion Table. Anglican Churches in full communion with the See of Canterbury. Their origins an d traditions are linked to the Church of England, and are part of the Anglican Communion. Apocalyptic (i) Revelatory, of God’s present purposes and of the end of the world. (ii) Used of a literary genre, for example, the Book of Revelation. Apocrypha Boo ks of the Old Testament that are in the Greek but not the Hebrew Canon . Some Churches recognise the Apocrypha as part of the Old Testament Canon . Apocryphal New Testament A modern title for various early Christian books which are non -canonical. Apostle One who was sent out by Jesus Christ to preach the Gospel . Ascension The event, 40 days after the Resurrection , when Jesus ‘ascended into heaven’ (see Luke 24 and Acts 1). Ash Wednesday The first day of Lent . In some Churches , penitents receive the sign of the cross in ashes on their foreheads. Atonement Reconciliation between God and humanity; restoring a relationship broken by sin. Baptism Rite of initiation involving immersion in, or sprinkling or pouring of, water. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 20 13 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions and beliefs Baptist (i) A member of the Baptist Church , which grew out of the Anabaptist movement during the 16th century Reformation . (ii) A Christian who practises Believer’s Baptism . Baptistry (i) Building or pool used for baptism , particularly by immersion. (ii) Part of a church , where bapt ism takes place. BC (Before Christ) Period of history before the estimated birth of Jesus Christ . Believer’s Baptism The baptism of people who are old enough to understand the meaning of the rite. Benediction Blessing at the end of worship. Also, late afternoon or evening service including the blessing of the congregation with the consecrated host (usually in a Roman Catholic cont ext). Blessed Sacrament Bread and wine which have been consecrated and set aside for future use (usually in the Roman Catholic Church ). Brethren Christian, Exclusive or Open Brethren are Christian groups which emphasise piety, high moral values, faithf ulness to the bible and plural leadership. Canon (Scripture) The accepted books of the Bible. The list varies between denominations. 2 Catholic (i) Universal. (ii) Often used as an abbreviation for Roman Catholic . Charismatic A modern movement within the Church , emphasising spiritual gifts, such as healing or speaking with tongues. Chrismation (i) The Orthodox second sacrament of initiation by anointing with chrism (a special oil). Performed at the same time as baptism . (ii) Anointing with oil, for example, healing or coronation. Christ (Messiah) The anointed one. Messiah is used in the Jewish tradition to refer to the expected leader sent by God, who will bring salvation to God’s people. Jesus’ followers applied this t itle to him, and its Greek equivalent, Christ, is the source of the words Christian and Christianity. Christmas Festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ (25 December, in most Churches ). Church (i) The whole community of Christians. (ii) The buil ding in which Christians worship. (iii) A particular denomination. Confession Contrition; penance. (i) One of seven sacraments observed by some Churches whose priest confidentially hears a person’s confession. (ii) An

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admission, by a Christian, of wrong -doing. (iii) A particular official statement (or profession) of faith. Congregationalist Member of a Christian body which believes that each local church is independent and self -governing under the authority of Christ. Consubstantiation Doctrine of the Eucharist associated with Luther, which holds that after consecration, the substances of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and of the bread and wine co -exi st in union with each other. Creed Summary statement of religious beliefs, often recited in worship, especially the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds. Crucifixion Roman method of executing criminals and traitors by fastening them to a cross until they died of asphyxiation; used in the case of Jesus Christ and many who opposed the Romans. Easter Central Christian festival which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. Ecumenism (Oikoumene) Movement within the Church towards co-operation and e ventual unity. Episcopacy System of Church government by bishops. Epistle (Letter) From the Greek word for letter. Several such letters or epistles, from Christian leaders to Christian Churches or individuals, are included in the New Testament . Eucharist Thanksgiving. A service celebrating the sacrificial death and resurrection of Jesus Christ , using elements of bread and wine (see Holy Communion ). Evangelical Group, or church , placing particular emphasis on the Gospel and the scriptures as the sole authority in all matters of faith and conduct. Evangelist A writer of one of the four New Testament Gospels; a preacher of the gospel . Font Receptacle to hold water used in baptism . Free Churches Non -conformist denominations, free from state control (used of 20 Churches ). Good Friday The Friday in Holy Week . Commemorates the day Jesus died on the cross. Gospel (Evangel) (i) Good news (of salvation in Jesus Christ ). (ii) An account of Jesus’ life and work. Grace (i) The freely given and unmerited favour of God’s love for humanity. (ii) Blessing. (iii) Prayer of thanks before or after meals. Heaven The place, or state, in which souls will be united with God after death. Hell The place, or state, in which souls will be separated from God after death. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 2013 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions Holy Communion Central liturgical service observed by most Churches (see Euchari st, Mass , Lord’s Supper , Liturgy ). Recalls the last meal of Jesus, and celebrates his sacrificial and saving death. Holy Spirit The third person of the Holy Trinity . Active as divine presence and power in the world, and in dwelling in believers to make th em like Christ and empower them to do God’s will. Holy Week The week before Easter, when Christians recall the last week of Jesus’ life on Earth. Icon or lkon Painting or mosaic of Jesus Christ , the Virgin Mary, a saint, or a Church feast. Used as an aid to devotion, usually in the Orthodox tradition. Iconostasis Screen, covered with icons , used in Eastern Orthodox churches to separate the sanctuary from the nave. Incarnation The doctrine tha t God took human form in Jesus Christ . It is also the belief that God in Christ is active in the Church and in the world. Jesus Christ The central figure of Christian history and devotion. The second person of the Trinity . Justification by Faith The doctrine that God forgives (‘treats as just’) those who repent and believe in Jesus Christ Kerygma The central message about Jesus proclaimed by the early Christians. 3 Kyrie (Greek) O Lord. Addressed to Jesus, as in ‘Kyrie eleison’ (Lord have mercy). Lectern Stand supporting the Bible, often in the shape of an eagle. Lectionary List of scriptural passages for systematic reading throughout the year. Lent Penitential season. The 40 days leading up to Easter . Liturgy (i) Service of worship according t o a prescribed ritual such as Evensong or Eucharist . (ii) Term used in the Orthodox Church for the Eucharist. Logos Word. Pre -existent Word of God incarnate as Jesus Christ . Lord Title used for Jesus to express his divine lordship over people, time and space. Lord’s Supper Alternative term for Eucharist in some Churches (predominantly Non -conformist ). Lutheran A major Protestant Church that receives its name from the 16th century German reformer, Martin Luther. Mass Term for the Eucharist , used by the Roman Catholic and other Churches . Maundy Thursday The Thursday in Holy Week . Commemorates the Last Supper .

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Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 20 13 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions and beliefs Methodist consisting of national Churches (mainly Pentecostalist A Christian who belongs to the Greek or Slav), including the ancient A Christian who belongs to a Church Methodist Church which came into Eastern Patriarchates. They hold the that emphasises certain gifts which existence through the work of John common Orthodox faith, and are in were granted to the first believers on Wesley in the 18th cent ury. communion with the Patria rchate of the Day of Pentecost (such as the Constantinople. (ii) Conforming to the power to heal the sick and speak in Missal creeds sanctioned by the ecumenical tongues). Book containing words and ceremonial councils, for example, Nicaea, directions for saying Mass . Chalcedon. Pope The Bishop of Rome, head of the Mother of God Palm Sunday Roman Catholic Church . The title given to the Virgin Mary, The Sunday before Easter , mainly in the Orthodox and Roman commemorating the entry of Jesus into Presbyterian Catholic Churches , to underline the Jerusalem when he was acknowledged A member of a Church that is Trinitarian belief that Jesus was truly by crowds waving palm branches. governed by elders or ‘presbyters’; the God (in this context, God refers to God national Church of Scotland. incarnate as seen in Jesus Christ ). Paraclete (Comforter) Advocate. Term used for the Holy Protestant New Testament Spirit . That part of the Church which became Collection of 27 books forming the distinct from the Roman Catholic and second section of the Canon of Parousia Orthodox Churches when their Christian Scriptures. Presence. The Second Coming or members professed (or ‘protested’ -return of Jesus Christ . hence Protestant) the centrality of the Non -conformist Bible and other beliefs. Members Term used to describe Protestant Passion affirm that the Bible, under the Christian bodies which became The sufferings of Jesus Christ , guidance of the Holy Spirit , is the separated from the established Church especially in the time leading up to his ultimate authority for Christian of England in the 17th century. crucifixion . teaching. Old Testament Patriarch Pulpit That part of the Canon of Christian Title for principal Eastern Orthodox An elevated platform from which Scriptures which the Church shares bishops. Also used for early Israelite sermons are preached. with Judaism, comprising 39 books leaders such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. cover ing the Hebrew Canon, and in the Purgatory case of certain denominations, some In some traditions, a conditio n or state books of the Apocrypha . in which good souls receive spiritual cleansing after death, in preparation for heaven . Ordination Pentecost (Whitsun) Quaker In episcopal Churches , the ‘laying on The Greek name for the Jewish Festival A member of the Religious Society of of hands’ on priests and deacons by a of Weeks, or Shavuot, which comes Friends, established through the work bishop. In non -episcopal Churches, the seven weeks (‘fifty days’) after of George Fox in the 17th century. ‘laying on of hands’ on ministers by Passover. On the day of this feast, the other representatives of the Church. followers of Jesus received the gift of Reconciliation (Confession) the Holy Spirit . (i) Sacram ent of the (Roman) Catholic Orthodox Church , consisting of Contrition, (i) The Eastern Orthodox Church Confession of sins, and Absolution . 4 (ii) The human process of reconciling Christians with one another. Redemption Derived from the practice of paying the price of a slave’s freedom; and so, the work of Jesus Christ in setting people free through his death. Reformation A 16th century reform movement that led to the formation of Protestant Churches. It emphasised the need to recover the initial beliefs and practices of the Church . Resurrection (i) The rising from the dead of Jesus Christ on the third day after the crucifixion . (ii) The rising from the dead of believers at the Last Day. (iii) The new, or risen, life of Christians. Roman Catholic That part of the Church owing loyalty to the Bishop of Rome, as distinct from Orthodox and Protestant Churches. Sacrament An outward sign of an inward blessing, as in baptism or the Eucharist . Salvationist A member of the Salvation Army founded by William and Catherine Booth in the 19th century. Sanctification The process by which a believer is made holy, to become like Jesus Christ . Sin (i) Act of rebellion or disobedience against the known will of God. (ii) An assessment of the human condition as

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disorder ed and in need of transformation. Synoptic Having a common viewpoint. It is applied to the presentation of Jesus’ life in the first three gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke in contrast with that given in the Gospel of John. Tabernacle (i) A receptacle for the Blessed Sacrament , not immediately consumed but set aside or ‘reserved’ (mainly in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches ). The presence of the consecrated elements is usually signalled by a continuously burning light. (ii) Term used by some den ominations of their building. Transubstantiation Roman Catholic doctrine concerning the Mass , defined at the Lateran Council of 1215, and confirmed at the Council of Trent in 1551. This states that in the Eucharist , at the words of consecration, the subst ance of the bread and wine becomes the substance of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ , and that he is thus present on the altar. Trinity Three persons in one God; doctrine of the three -fold nature of God Father, Son and Holy Spirit . Unction (Sacrament of the Sick) The anointing with oil of a sick or dying person. United Reformed Church A Church formed by the union of English Congregationalists with the Presbyterian Church of England, and subsequently the Reformed Association of the Churches of Christ. Vatican The residence of the Pope in Rome, and the administrative centre of the Roman Catholic Church . The chief building of the Vatican is St Peter’s Basilica, built on the traditional site of St Peter’s tomb. Virgin Birth The doctrine of the miraculous conception of Jesus Christ by the Virgin Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit and without the agency of a human father. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 2013 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions 5

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Buddhism Glossary As Buddhism spread throughout the East, it came to be expressed in many different languages. Terms in the Sanskrit and Pali of India are in most common use in the West, although Japanese and Tibetan terms also occur frequently. Pali is the language of the texts of the Theravada school, whilst Sanskrit is used for general Mahayana. Zen Buddhism uses terms expressed in Japanese, and Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan. There is no preferred form. For convenience, the Pali term appears first, followe d by the Sanskrit, except where otherwise indicated. Italicised phrases represent a literal translation. Bold type indicates that this is also a glossary entry. Abhidhamma Abhidharma Further or higher teaching . The philosophy and psychology of Buddhism in abstract, systematic form. Abhidhamma Pitaka Abhidharma Pitaka This is the third of the three principal sections of the canon of basic scripture. It is a systematic, philosophical and psychological treatment of the teachings given in the Sut ta Pitaka . Amitabha Amitayus (Sanskrit) Also, Amida (Japanese). Buddhas having unlimited light and life respectively. Anapanasati Anapanasmrti Mindfulness of the breath . The practice most usually associated with the development of concentration and cal m, but also used in the training of Vipassana (insight). Anatta Anatman No self; no soul . Insubstantiality; denial of a real or permanent self. Anicca Anitya Impermanence; transience . Instability of all things, including the self. Arahat, Arahant Arha t Enlightened disciple . The fourth and highest stage of Realisation recognised by the Theravada tradition. One whose mind is free from all greed, hatred and ignorance. Asoka Ashoka Emperor of India in the 3rd century BCE. Atta Atman Self; soul . Bhikkhu Bhikshu Fully ordained Buddhist monk. Bhikkhuni Bhikshuni Fully ordained Buddhist nun. Bodhi Tree (Pali) The tree ( ficus religiosa ) under which the Buddha realised Enlightenment. It is known as the Tree of Wisdom. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 20 13 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions and beliefs Bodhisatta (Pali) A Wisdom Bei ng. One intent on becoming, or destined to become, a Buddha . Gotama , before his Enlightenment as the historical Buddha. Bodhisattva (Sanskrit) A being destined for Enlightenment, who postpones final attainment of Buddhahood in order to help living beings (see Mahayana ). Brahma Viharas (Pali) The four sublime states: loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and evenness of mind. Buddha Buddha Awakened or Enlightened One. Dalai Lama (Tibetan) Great Ocean . Spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people. Dana Dana Generosity; giving; gift. Dhamma Dharma Universal law; ultimate truth. The teachings of the Buddha . A key Buddhist term. Dhammapada Dharmapada Famous scripture of 423 verses. Dukkha Duhkha Suffering; ill; unsatisfactoriness; imperfection. The nature of existence according to the first Noble Truth. 6 Gompa (Tibetan) Monastery; place of meditation. Gotama Gautama Family name of the Buddha . Jataka (Pali) Birth story. Accounts of the previous lives of the Buddha . Jhana Dhyana Also Ch’an (Chinese) and Zen (Japanese). Advanced meditation. Kamma Karma Action. Intentional actions that affect one’s circumstances in this and future lives. The Buddha’s insistence that the effect depends on volition marks the Buddhist treatment of kamma as different from the Hindu understanding of karma Karuna Karuna Compassion. Kesa (Japanese) The robe of a Buddhist monk, nun, or priest. Khandha Skandha Heap; aggregate . The Five Khandhas together make up the ‘person’ (form, feeling, perception, mental formation and consciousness). Khanti Kshanti Patience; forbearance .

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Theravada Sthaviravada Way of the elders . A principal school of Buddhism, established in Sri Lanka and South East Asia. Also found in the West. Thupa/Cetiya Stupa Reliquary (including pagodas). Tipitaka Tripi taka Three baskets . A threefold collection of texts ( Vinaya , Sutta , Abhidhamma ). Tiratana Triratna The triple refuge . Buddha , the Dhamma and the Sangha . Another way of referring to the three jewels. Tulku (Tibetan) Reincarnated Lama . Upaya (Pali) Any skilful means, eg meditation on loving kindness, to overcome anger. Upekkha Upeksa Equanimity; evenness of mind . Vajrayana (Sanskrit) Thunderbolt; Diamond Way. Teachings promulgated later, mainly in India and Tibet. Another term for esoteric Buddhi sm. Vedana (Pali) Feeling . The second of the Five Khandhas . Vihara (Pali) Dwelling place; monastery . Vinaya (Pali) The rules of discipline of monastic life. Vinaya Pitaka (Pali) The first of the three collections of the canon of basic scripture, containing mostly the discipline for monks and nuns, with many stories and some teachings. Vinnana Vijnana Consciousness . The fifth of the Five Khandhas . Vipassana Vipashyana Insight into the true nature of things. A particular form of meditat ion (see Samatha ). Viriya Virya Energy; exertion . Wesak Vesak (Sinhalese) Buddha Day. Name of a festival and a month. On the full moon of Wesak (in May or June), the birth, Enlightenment and passing away of the Buddha took place, although some schools celebrate only the birth at this time, eg Zen . Zazen (Japanese) Meditation while seated, as in Zen Buddhism. Zen (Japanese) Meditation. Derived from the Sanskrit ‘dhyana’. A school of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in China and Japan. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 20 13 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions and beliefs 8

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Hinduism Glossary The main references are to Sanskrit terminology, although variants are found and used in other Indian languages. Lakshmi, Laksmi, Vishnu or Visnu type variants are not always included because of their frequency. Many of these terms will also be found in books on Buddhism and Sikhism, but with somewhat different meanings. Proper names and place names are only included in this list if variant forms a re commonly used. The preferred form appears first, followed by any variants. Acharya Acarya One who teaches by example. Usually refers to a prominent or exemplary spiritual teacher. Advaita Adwaita Non -dual. Refers to the impersonalistic philosophy whic h unqualifyingly equates God, the soul and matter. Ahimsa Ahinsa Not killing. Non -violence; respect for life. Artha Economic development. The second aim of life. Arti Arati Welcoming ceremony in which auspicious articles such as incense and lamps are offered to the deity or to saintly people. Aryan Noble. Refers to those who know the spiritual values of life. Scholars say it refers to the original inhabitants of the Sindhu region in India. Ashram Asram A place set up for spiritual development. Ashrama Asrama A stage of life (of which there are four) adopted according to material considerations, but ultimately as a means to spiritual realisation. Atharva Veda The fourth of the Vedas . Atman Atma Self. Can refer to body, mind or soul, depending on context. Ultimately, it refers to the real self, the soul. Aum Om The sacred symbol and sound representing the ultimate; the most sacred of Hindu words. Avatar Avatara Avtara One who descends. Refers to the descent of a deity, most commonly Vishnu. Sometimes it is translated as incarnation which, although inaccurate, may be the best English word available. Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 2013 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions Ayodhya Birthplace of Rama . Bhagavad Gita The Song of the Lord. Spoken by Krishna , this is the most important scripture for most Hindus. Tradition dates it back to 3,000 years BCE, though most scholars attribute it to the first millennium BCE. Considered an Upanishad . Bhajan Bhajana Devotional hymn or song. Bhakti Devotion; love. Devotional form of Hinduism. Bhakti -yoga The path of loving devotion, aimed at developing pure love of God. Brahma A Hindu deity, considered one of the Trimurti , and in charge of creative power; not to be confused with Brahman or Brahmin . Brahmachari Brahmacari Brahmacharin Brahmacarin One in the first sta ge of life, a celibate student of Vedic knowledge. Brahmacharya Brahmacarya Also two words Brahma and chari, cari, charin or carin The first ashrama or stage of life. Brahman The ultimate reality, or the all -pervading reality; that from which everythi ng emanates, in which it rests and into which it is ultimately dissolved. Brahmin Brahman Brahmana The first of the four varnas , the principal social groupings from which priests are drawn. Some writers, rather confusingly, use the spelling the meaning only becomes clear in the context of a few sentences (see also Brahman and Brahma ). Darshan Shastras Six systems of Hindu philosophy Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga , Vedanta and Meemansa. Dassehra Dussehra Dassera Dashara (Other variants are also found) Ten days. Also called Vijay Dashami. Celebrates the victory of Rama on the tenth day of the bright half of the lunar month of Jyeshtha. As is often the case with Hindu festivals, followers may interpret the festival differently, fo r example in connection with Durga (see Navaratri ). Dharma Religion or religious duty is the usual translation into English, but literally it means the intrinsic quality of the self or Dhoti A garment made of natural fibre (usually cotton or silk), worn by males, which covers the lower body and legs. 9

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Dhyana Meditation. Divali Diwali Dipavali Deepavali Festival of lights at the end of one year and beginning of the new year, according to one Hindu calendar. Durga Female deity. A form of the goddess Parvati ; wife of Shiva . Dvaita Dwaita Dual. Refers to the personalistic philosophy that differentiates between God, the soul and matter. Dwarka Dvarka Dvaraka Dwaraka Pilgrimage site on the west coast of India. Ganesha Ganesh Ganupati Ganapati A Hindu deity portrayed with an a sign of strength. The deity who removes obstacles. Ganga The Ganges. Most famous of all sacred rivers of India. Gangotri Sou rce of the river Ganges. Gotra Exogamous group within Jati . Grihastha Gristhi Grhastha The second stage of Hindu life; one who belongs to that stage, that is, the householder (grihasti). Guna Rope; quality. Specifically refers to the three qualities of sattva (goodness), rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance), which permeate and control matter. Guru Spiritual teacher, preceptor or enlightener. Hanuman The monkey warrior who faithfully served Rama and Sita . Also called Pavansuta ( son of the wind God ). Havan Also known as Agnihotra. The basis of many Hindu rituals used at weddings and on other ceremonial occasions; the ceremony or act of worship in which offerings of ghee and grains are made into fire. Havan kund The container, usually square or pyramid -shaped, in which the havan fire is burned. Hitopadesh Stories with a moral. Holi The festival of colours, celebrated in Spring. Homa Term often used interchangeably with havan . Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 20 13 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions and beliefs The International Society for Krishn a Consciousness (ISKCON) A religious group of the Vaishnava tradition. Janeu Jenoi Sacred thread worn by Hindus who study under a guru . Janmashtami Janmashtmi The birthday of Krishna , celebrated on the eighth day of the waning moon in the month of Badra. Japa Jap The quiet or silent repetition of a mantra as a meditative process. Jati Caste is the usual translation, meaning occupational kinship group. Jnana Gyan Knowledge. Jnana -yoga Gyan -yoga The path of knowledge, that aims at liberation. Kali Kaali Name given to that power of God which delivers justice often represented by the Goddess Kali (a form of Durga ). Kali yuga The fourth of the ages; the iron age or the age of quarrelling and hypocrisy. Kama The third of the four aims of life regulated sense of enjoyment. 10 Karma Action. Used of work to refer to the law of cause and effect. Karma -yoga The path of self -realisation through God. Kirtan Songs of praise; corporate devotional singing, usually accompanied by musical instruments. Krishna Usually considered an avatar of Vishnu . One of the most popular of all Hindu deities in contemporary Britain. His teachings are found in the Bhagavad Gita . Kshatriya Khatri Second of the four varnas of traditional Hindu society, the ruling or warrior class. Lakshmi Laksmi The goddess of fortune. Mahabharata The Hindu epic that relates the story of the five Pandava princes. It includes the Bhagavad Gita . Mal a Maala Circle of stringed beads of wood or wool used in meditation. Mandala Mandal A circle, area or community/group. Mandir Temple.

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Oldham SACRE RE Agreed Syllabus 2013 Guidance and support materials ~ Glossary of religions Mantra Navaratri Raja Yoga That which delivers the mind. Refers to Navaratra Raj Yoga a short sacred text or prayer, often The Nine Nights Festival preceding Path of self -control and meditation to recited repetitiously. Dassehra , and held in honour of the realise God. goddess Durga . Rajas Manusmriti Nirvana Passion or creative potency, one of the The laws of Manu. An ancient and The cessation of material existence. three gunas (qualities of material important text on Dharma , including nature). personal and social laws. Panchatantra Marg Part of the supplementary Vedic Rakhi Path (see Jnana yoga , Karma yoga scriptures, composed of animal stories Raakhi and Bhakti yoga ). with a moral. A bracelet, usually made out of silk or cotton, tied to give protection and to Mata Parvati strengthen the bond of mutual love. Mother. Often associated with Hindu The consort of Shiva , also known by goddesses who represent shakti other names such as Durga , Devi, etc. Raksha Bandhan (pow er). The festival when women tie a Prahlada Mathura Prahalada wrists. Holy place connected with Krishna . A great devotee of Vishnu , connected with the festival of Holi . Rama Maya The incarnation of the Lord, and hero Not this. Usually, it refers to illusion, Pranayam of the Ramayana (avoid using the particularly where the permanent soul Pranayama identifies itself with temporary matter, Regulation of breath as a means of for example, the body. It can also controlling the mind. Ramayana mean power. Ramayan Prashad The Hindu epic that relates the story of Moksha Prasad Rama and Sita , composed by the sag e Moksa Prasada Valmiki thousands of years ago. Ultimate liberation from the process of Prashada transmigration, the continuous cycle of Sacred or sanctified food. Ramnavami birth and death. Ramnavmi Pravachan The birthday festival of Rama . Mundan A lecture or talk, usually based on the The head -shaving ceremony. scriptures. Rig Veda Performed in the first or third year of Rg or Rc Veda life. Puja The first scripture of Hinduism, Pooja containing spiritual and scientific Murti Worship. General term referring to a knowledge. Moorti variety of practices in the home or Form. The image or deity used as a Mandir . Rishi Rsi Purana Risi also cause offence. Ancient. Part of the Smriti scriptures. A spiritually wise person. More Contains many of the well -known specifically, one of the seven seers who stories of Hinduism. received the divine wisdom. 11 Sadhana Sadhan discipline. Sadhu Saddhu Holy man, ascetic. Sama Veda The Veda of chanting; material mainly from the Rig Veda , arranged for ritual chanting in worship. Samsara Sansara The world the place where through a series of lives in different species) occurs. Samskar Sanskar Samskara Sacr aments designed to initiate a new stage of life. There is usually a total of sixteen such rites of passage (though many schools of thought do not practise them all). Sanatan Dharma The eternal or imperishable religion; also known as Vedic Dharma. Adherent s often prefer this term to Hinduism since it characterises their belief in the revealed and universal nature of religion. Sannyasa The state of renunciation, the fourth stage of life. Sannyasin Samyasin Samnyasin A renunciate who, having given up worldl y affairs and attachments, has entered the fourth stage of life, often as a mendicant.

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