Sep 30, 2013 — PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. The modern Arabic word for “alphabet” and “abjad” is interchangeably either

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Abjad 1 Abjad An abjad is a type of writing system where each symbol always or usually stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel. It is a term suggested by Peter T. Daniels to replace the common terms “consonantary”, “consonantal alphabet” or “syllabary” to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic. Abjad is thought to be based on the first letters (a,b,•,d) found in all Semitic language such as Phoenician, Syriac, Hebrew, and Arabic. In Arabic, “A” (•Alif), “B” (B†•), “‡” (‡…m), “D” (D†l) make the word “abjad” which means “alphabet”. The modern Arabic word for “alphabet” and “abjad” is interchangeably either “abajadeyyah” or “alefbaaeyyah”. The word “alphabet” in English has a source in Greek language in which the first two letters were “A” (alpha) and “B” (beta), hence “alphabeta” (in Spanish, “alfabeto”, but also called “abecedario”, from “a” “b” “c” “d”). In Hebrew the first two letters are “A” (Aleph), “B” (Bet) hence “alephbet.” It is also used to enumerate a list in the same manner that “a, b, c, d” (etc.) are used in the English language. Writing systems ——History ——Grapheme ——List of writing systems Types ——Featural alphabet ——Alphabet ——Abjad ——Abugida ——Syllabary ——Logography ——Shorthand Related topics ——Pictogram ——Ideogram Etymology The name “abjad” (•ab•ad •†‡…) is derived from pronouncing the first letters of the Arabic alphabet in order. The ordering (•ab•ad† ) of Arabic letters used to match that of the older Hebrew, Phoenician and Semitic alphabets; • b g d (read from right to left: — – ƒ …) or •†‡…. Terminology According to the formulations of Daniels, abjads differ from alphabets in that only consonants, not vowels, are represented among the basic graphemes. Abjads differ from abugidas, another category invented by Daniels, in that in abjads, the vowel sound is implied by phonology, and where vowel marks exist for the system, such as nikkud for Hebrew and harak†t for Arabic, their use is optional and not the dominant (or literate) form. Abugidas mark the vowels (other than the “inherent” vowel) with a diacritic, a minor attachment to the letter, or a standalone glyph. Some abugidas use a special symbol to suppress the inherent vowel so that the consonant alone can be properly represented. In a syllabary, a grapheme denotes a complete syllable, that is, either a lone vowel sound or a combination of a vowel sound with one or more consonant sounds.

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Abjad 2 The antagonism of abjad versus alphabet has been rejected by other scholars because abjad is also used as a term for the Arabic numeral system. Also, it suggests that consonantal alphabets, in opposition to for instance the Greek alphabet, were not yet true alphabets.[1] Values table The Abjad gadol (see below) values are: Decimal Hebrew Glyph 1 Aleph • 2 Bet † 3 Gimel ‡ 4 Daled … 5 He — 6 Vav – 7 Zayin ƒ 8 Heth ⁄ 9 Teth ‹ Decimal Hebrew Glyph 10 Yud › 20 Kaph − 30 Lamed ‰ 40 Mem „ 50 Nun “ 60 Samech ” 70 Ayin ‘ 80 Pe ’ 90 Tsade ‚ Decimal Hebrew Glyph 100 Qoph ™ 200 Reish fi 300 Shin fl 400 Taw Ł 20 Kaph(final) Œ 40 Mem(final) Š 50 Nun(final) Ÿ 80 Pe(final) Ž 90 Tsade(final) ı

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Abjad 3 Origins A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script containing a phrase which may mean ‘to Baalat’. The line running from the upper left to lower right reads mt l bclt. All known abjads belong to the Semitic family of scripts. These scripts are thought to derive from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet (dated to about 1500 BC), which is thought to derive from Egyptian hieroglyphs[citation needed]. The abjad was significantly simpler than the earlier hieroglyphs. The number of distinct glyphs was reduced tremendously at the cost of increased ambiguity. The first abjad to gain widespread usage was the Phoenician abjad. Unlike other contemporary scripts, such as Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Phoenician script consisted of only about two dozen symbols. This made the script easy to learn, and Phoenician seafaring merchants took the script wherever they went. Phoenician gave way to a number of new writing systems, including the Greek alphabet and Aramaic, a widely used abjad. The Greek alphabet evolved into the modern western alphabets, such as Latin and Cyrillic, while Aramaic became the ancestor of many modern abjads and abugidas of Asia. Aramaic spread across Asia, reaching as far as India and becoming Brahmi, the ancestral abugida to most modern Indian and Southeast Asian scripts[citation needed]. In the Middle East, Aramaic gave rise to the Hebrew and Nabataean abjads, which retained many of the Aramaic letter forms[citation needed]. The Syriac script was a cursive variation of Aramaic. It is unclear whether the Arabic abjad was derived from Nabatean or Syriac. Impure abjads “Al-‘Arabiyya”, lit. “Arabic.” An example of the Arabic script, which is an impure abjad. “Impure” abjads have characters for some vowels, optional vowel diacritics, or both. The term “pure” abjad refers to scripts entirely lacking in vowel indicators. However, most modern abjads, such as Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic and Avestan, are “impure” abjads, that is, they also contain symbols for some of the vowel phonemes. An example of a “pure” abjad is ancient Phoenician. Addition of vowels In the 9th century BC, the Greeks adapted the Phoenician script for use in their own language. The phonetic structure of the Greek language created too many ambiguities when the vowels went unrepresented, so the script was modified. They did not need letters for the guttural sounds represented by aleph, he, heth or ayin, so these symbols were assigned vocalic values. The letters waw and yod were also used. The Greek alphabet thus became the world’s first “true” alphabet. Abugidas developed along a slightly different route. The basic consonantal symbol was considered to have an inherent “a” vowel sound. Hooks or short lines attached to various parts of the basic letter modify the vowel. In this way, the South Arabian alphabet evolved into the Ge’ez alphabet between the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD. Similarly, around the 3rd century BC, the Br†hm… script developed (from the Aramaic abjad, it has been hypothesized). The other major family of abugidas, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, was initially developed in the 1840s by missionary and linguist James Evans for the Cree and Ojibwe languages. Evans used features of Devanagari script

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Abjad 4 and Pitman shorthand to create his initial abugida. Later in the 19th century, other missionaries adapted Evans’ system to other Canadian aboriginal languages. Canadian syllabics differ from other abugidas in that the vowel is indicated by rotation of the consonantal symbol, with each vowel having a consistent orientation. Abjads and the structure of Semitic languages The abjad form of writing is well-adapted to the morphological structure of the Semitic languages it was developed to write. This is because words in Semitic languages are formed from a root consisting of (usually) three consonants, the vowels being used to indicate inflectional or derived forms. For instance, according to Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic, the Arabic root ⁄ ƒ ‹ ‡-B-… (to sacrifice) can be derived the forms ›−‡−‹ —aba–a (he sacrificed), −‰„“−‡−‹ —aba–ta (you (masculine singular) sacrificed), −›”−‡−‹ —abba–a (he slaughtered), ›”‘‡−’‚™ yu—abbi– (he slaughters), and ›−‡„’−fi ma—ba– (slaughterhouse). In each case, the absence of full glyphs for vowels makes the common root clearer, improving word recognition[citation needed]Wikipedia:Disputed statement while reading. Comparative chart of Abjads, extinct and extant ID Name In use Cursive Direction # of letters Country of origin Used by Languages Time period (age) Influenced by Writing systems influenced 1 Syriac yes yes right-left 22 consonants Middle-East Syrian Church Aramaic, Syriac, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ~ 700 BCE[2] Nabatean, Palmyran, Mandaic, Parthian, Pahlavi, Sogdian, Avestan and Manichean 2 Hebrew yes no right-left 22 consonants + 5 final letters Middle-East Israelis, Some Jewish diaspora communities, Ancient Hebrew Tribes Hebrew, Ladino, Bukhari, Yiddish, Judeo-Arabic > 1100 BCE Proto-Hebrew, Early Aramaic 3 Arabic yes yes right-left 28 Middle-East Over 200 million people Arabic, Bosnian, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Malay, Persian/Farsi, Pashto, Balochi, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur, others ~ 500 CE Nabataean Aramaic 4 Aramaic (Imperial) no no right-left 22 Middle-East Archaemenid, Persian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires Imperial Aramaic, Hebrew ~ 500 BCE Phoenician Late Hebrew, Nabataean, Syriac 5 Aramaic (Early) no no right-left 22 Middle-East Various Semitic Peoples ~ 1000-900 BCE Phoenician Hebrew, Imperial Aramaic.

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Abjad 6 19 Samaritan yes (700 people) no right-left 22 Mesopatamia or Levant (Disputed) Samaritans (Nablus and Holon) Samaritan Aramaic, Samaritan Hebrew ~ 100-0 BCE Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet References [1][1]Reinhard G. Lehmann: “27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic”, in: The idea of writing: Writing across borders / edited by Alex de Voogt and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Leiden: Brill 2012, p. 11-52, esp. p. 22-27 [2](http:/ / www. omniglot. com/ writing/ alphabetic. htm), http:/ / www. omniglot. com/ writing/ alphabetic. htm. [3](http:/ / www. ancientscripts. com/ berber. html), http:/ / www. ancientscripts. com/ berber. html. [4](http:/ / www. iranicaonline. org/ articles/ pahlavi-psalter), Encyclopedia Iranica. Sources —Wright, W. (1971). A Grammar of the Arabic Language (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. v. 1, p. 28. ISBN–0-521-09455-0. External links —Actual photo of the specimen of Proto-sinaitic script (http:/ / www. ancient-hebrew. org/ 6_04. html) Abjad numerals Arabic alphabet fl ƒ Ł Œ – ⁄ Š — ‹ Ÿ Ž ı ł œ š ž € ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª Arabic script ——History ——Transliteration ——Diacritics ——Hamza ——Numerals ——Numeration The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values. They have been used in the Arabic-speaking world since before the 8th century Arabic numerals. In modern Arabic, the word abjad†yah means ‘alphabet’ in general. In the Abjad system, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, alif, is used to represent 1; the second letter, b†‡, is used to represent 2, etc. Individual letters also represent 10s and 100s: y†‡ for 10, k†f for 20, q†f for 100, etc. The word abjad (•†‡… abjad) itself derives from the first four letters in the Phoenician alphabet, Aramaic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, etc. These older alphabets contained only 22 letters, stopping at taw, numerically equivalent to 400. The Arabic Abjad system continues at this point with letters not found in other alphabets: th†‡=500, etc.

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Abjad numerals 7 Abjad order The Abjad order of the Arabic alphabet has two slightly different variants. The Abjad order is not a simple historical continuation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it has a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter samekh / semkat ƒ, yet no letter of the Arabic alphabet historically derives from that letter. Loss of samekh was compensated for by the split of shin ⁄ into two independent Arabic letters, ł (sh†n) and ı (s†n), which moved up to take the place of samekh. The most common Abjad sequence, read from right to left, is: ¨ — – ƒ … ‡ b j d h w z ‹ › y k l m n s … f − q r hs t ht hk hd ‰ „ hg This is commonly vocalized as follows: —abjad hawwaz ‹u››… kalaman sa…fa− qarashat thakhadh ‰a„agh. Another vocalization is: —abujadin hawazin ‹u›iya kalman sa…fa− qurishat thakhudh ‰a„ugh Another Abjad sequence (probably older, now mainly confined to the Maghreb), is:[1] ¨ — – ƒ … ‡ b j d h w z ‹ › y k l m n − … f ‰ q r s t ht hk “ „ hg hs which can be vocalized as: —abujadin hawazin ‹u›iya kalman −a…fa‰ qurisat thakhudh „aghush Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the Abjad order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer hijƒ†† () order (with letters partially grouped together by similarity of shape) is used: ‡ b t ht j ‹ hk d hd r z s hs − ‰ › „ … hg f q k l m n h w y Another kind of alfaba†† order used to be widely used in the Maghreb until recently, when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order: ª © ‡ b t ht j ‹ hk d hd r z › „ k l m n − ‰ … hg f q s hs h w y Persian dictionaries use a slightly different order, in which © comes before ¨ instead of after it. Uses of the Abjad system Before the introduction of the Arabic numerals, the Abjad numbers were used for all mathematical purposes. In modern Arabic, they are primarily used for numbering outlines, items in lists, and points of information. In English, points of information are sometimes referred to as “A”, “B”, and “C” (or perhaps use Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV), and in Arabic, they are “…”, then “ƒ”, then “–”, not the first three letters of the modern hijƒ†† order. The Abjad numbers are also used to assign numerical values to Arabic words for purposes of numerology.[citation needed] The common Islamic phrase ¯°±²³fl ´µ±²³fl ¶·³fl ¯¸‡ bismillƒh al-Ra–mƒn al-Ra–†m (‘In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most compassionate’–— see Basmala) has a numeric value of 786 (from a letter-by-letter cumulative value of 2+60+40+1+30+30+5+1+30+200+8+40+50+1+30+200+8+10+40). The name Allƒh ¶·³fl by itself has the value 66 (1+30+30+5).

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Abjad numerals 8 Letter values Value Letter Name Trans- literation 1 fl alif ‡ / † 2 ƒ b†‡ b 3 – j…m j 4 — d†l d 5 ¨ h†‡ h 6 © w†w w / ” 7 Ž zayn/z†y z 8 ⁄ ‹†‡ ‹ 9 ž ›†‡ › Value Letter Name Trans- literation 10 ¹ y†‡ y / … 20 ¤ k†f k 30 ¥ l†m l 40 ¦ m…m m 50 § n”n n 60 ı s…n s 70 € …ayn … 80 ¢ f†‡ f 90 œ −†d − Value Letter Name Trans- literation 100 £ q†f q 200 Ÿ r†‡ r 300 ł sh…n sh 400 Ł t†‡ t 500 Œ th†‡ th 600 Š kh†‡ kh 700 ‹ dh†l dh 800 š ‰†d ‰ 900 „†‡ „ 1000 ¡ ghayn gh A few of the numerical values are different in the alternative Abjad order. For four Persian letters these values are used: º=20 »=3 ¼=2 ½=7 . Similar systems The Abjad numerals are equivalent to the earlier Hebrew numerals up to 400. The Hebrew numeral system is known as Gematria and is used in Kabbalistic texts and numerology. Like the Abjad order, it is used in modern times for numbering outlines and points of information, including the first six days of the week. The Greek numerals differ in a number of ways from the Abjad ones (for instance in the Greek alphabet there is no equivalent for œ, ⁄ƒd). The Greek language system of letters-as-numbers is called isopsephy. In modern times the old 27-letter alphabet of this system also continues to be used for numbering lists. References [1] Ordering entries and cards in subject indexes (http:/ / alyaseer. net/ vb/ showthread. php?t=8807) Discussion thread (Accessed 2009-Oct-06) External links —Overview of the abjad numerological system (http:/ / bahai-library. com/ lewis_Abjad_numerological_system) —Sufi numerology site (http:/ / www. nurmuhammad. com/ IlmHuroof/ IlmHuroofArticles/ welcometothescienceofhuroof. htm) —Numerical Value of an Arabic Text as per “Abjad” Calculation – (http:/ / alavibohra. org/ abjad arabic calculator/ arabic numeric value. php)

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Article Sources and Contributors 9 Article Sources and Contributors Abjad –Source: –Contributors: 3210, ALargeElk, Adnanmukhtar, Ahmad2099, Ale jrb, AlexKarpman, Alphathon, Amire80, Andre Engels, AndreasJS, Andycjp, AnonMoos, Arne List, Aroundthewayboy, Ashashyou, Asthenization-Creator, Ausir, AxelBoldt, Babajobu, Bakken, BalthCat, Banzoo, Benwbrum, Bestofmed, Bgwhite, Bkell, Bkkbrad, BrianRecchia, BruceDLimber, CRGreathouse, Caiyu, Cbdorsett, Cdc, ChaosAkita, CharlotteWebb, Chris Capoccia, Chris Strolia-Davis, ChrisGualtieri, Clarince63, Conversion script, Crism, Crissov, Cybercobra, Dale Arnett, Damian Yerrick, Dbachmann, DeltaRhoPhi, Dgilman, DocWatson42, Dream of Nyx, Dreambeaver, Duomillia, Dzhatse, D‘oxar, Ecolatur, Eequor, Emrrans, Ergative rlt, Erutuon, Ezrakilty, Finlay McWalter, Flamarande, Foobaz, Frietjes, Furrykef, GCarty, Garzo, GeorgeTSLC, Gerbrant, Graham87, Grammatews, GreenGibbon, Guanaco, Gwalla, Gwil, H92, Haeinous, Hakeem.gadi, Hatukanezumi, IFaqeer, Idmkhizar, Ikiroid, Imperator3733, Imz, Interchangeable, Iridescent, Isam, JFHJr, JNW, Jaksmata, JarlaxleArtemis, Jeffq, Jim1138, Jimhoward72, Jimp, Jjalexand, Jkshapiro, Jlaire, JodyB, JohnChrysostom, Jonathan Webley, Jonsafari, Kamran the Great, Keinstein, KirbyMeister, Knuckles, Koavf, Koro Neil, Kwamikagami, LakeHMM, Looris, Lowellian, MacedonianBoy, Macrakis, Magioladitis, Mahmudmasri, Malcolmxl5, Mathae, MehmetMamger, Mesfin, Mglg, MichaelTinkler, Mike Storm, Mirv, Mmurrain, Mo-Al, Muntfish, Murraytheb, Mustafaa, Neo-Jay, Nik42, Nnemo, Nonstopdrivel, Norm mit, Octahedron80, Oghmoir, Ohconfucius, Omegatron, Oneeyedboxer, Phatom87, Phil Boswell, Phuzion, Pjacobi, Pne, Polynova, Prari, Pruneau, Pv000, QarapayimQazaq, Qbzzt, R’n’B, Rahulmothiya, RalfX, Rambam rashi, Ratiuglink, Rayizmi, Reaper Eternal, RedWolf, RenamedUser01302013, Rich Farmbrough, Rofik, Rursus, SarahStierch, Sardanaphalus, Scott Martin, Sebras, Sfan00 IMG, Shreevatsa, Skoosh, Smyth, Squids and Chips, Stephan Leeds, Stevertigo, Taichi, Tcp-ip, Temporaluser, TheGlatisant, Thnidu, Timwi, Tomchiukc, TomeHale, Tyomitch, Unedel, Unyoyega, Vanisaac, Varlaam, Vincent Ramos, VirtualRash, WOL, WSaindon, Wakantanka, Wiki Wikardo, Wiki-uk, Wikid77, Winterst, XPTO, Xihr, Xushi, Yamaha5, Yms, Yom, Zargulon, 152 anonymous edits Abjad numerals –Source: –Contributors: 2001:470:C622:32:5916:5607:27EC:6854, 2601:9:2100:54:FDDF:5D1E:AE7E:B7BF, Abjiklam, Annielogue, AnonMoos, Aris riyanto, Astrolog, Bekir89, Bidabadi, Binyamin Goldstein, Caiyu, CaptainIron555, Cbdorsett, Cfsenel, Ciphers, Dan Pelleg, Darkwind, Dbachmann, Deeptrivia, Dennette, DerBorg, Ecolatur, Enaya g, Epson291, FilipeS, Grenavitar, Hairy Dude, Hezare, IanOsgood, Jaksmata, Jeff3000, Joe Kress, Johanna-Hypatia, Jonah22, Kbdank71, Kblive, Koavf, Kwamikagami, LjL, Lockesdonkey, MZMcBride, Mahali syarifuddin, Mahmudmasri, Michael Hardy, Moali68, MrOllie, Mschlindwein, Muhandis, Oneeyedboxer, Rahulmothiya, SchreiberBike, SimonP, Sirmylesnagopaleentheda, Stephen Morley, Sundberg, Texteditor, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thnidu, Tiamut, Verdy p, Voidvector, Wiki-uk, Yamaha5, Yekrats, Zeimusu, ’‚™‚fi, , ÀÁ²Â Ÿ’îŸ, 71 anonymous edits

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