coose Ali for reason to be mentioned; but the caliphate from Abu Bakr to. Othman Othman Ibn Affan was appointed caliph in the year 24 Hijra, people talked.

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In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, The Most MerciCul Introduction 01 Othman: Man 01 leniency and Othman Ibn Affan, , for whom may Allah’s good pleasure is prayed, is the third orthodox caliph known as «Zu-al- Nourain». He was the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah, (to whom may Allah’s Blessingsand peace be granted), and he was described by hirn as «a shy man from whom angels feel shy». Othman had many favours in Islam. Most important favour was the equipping ofal-O’sra Army. Allah, Be He exalted, said: «Who followed him in the hour of O’sra (Distress)», The Messenger of Allah, (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted), accepted Othman’s great aid to al- O’sra Army. He said: «Nothing will harm Othman after today». And He added: «He who equipped al-O’sra army will be one of the inhabitants of Paradise», Othman was known for his generosity and piety. He bought the Romat well from a Jewish and offered it as a public utility for Moslems. He also was known for offering financial aid to Moslems. He, moreover; was the first to pay for Mu’azens (callers for prayer), the first to address Moslems at religious sermons before the prayers of al-Id (feast); the first to authorize people to allocate alms on their money; the first to be appointed as caliph at his mother’s life, the first to appoint chief constable; the first to immigrate with his family, etc In fact, Othman’s favours are uncountable. His caliphate lasted for eleven years from 24 -35 Hijra during which very significant events took place. He was assassinated on Friday, 18th of ‘h al-Hejjah, 35 Hijra. 3

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,1 Uö”‘;'” 4!J’i1 –ß ..11J’.., 3Ut1 – .)& -“‘)LJS .,USII iJI&!..I1’-,,”-I ..,..Lc. .: <101.". 'i! Copyright All rights Exclusive rights by DAR al-KOTOB ILMIYAß Beirut Ł Lebuoa. No partofthis publication may be translated, reproduced, distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. fiLH 1b . bü..,J - .:.;l$.l. t;L:. Ja; : .;1,,>aJ1 ..( ‘l ,·m”, – -nmA : .JJiL – ,,- JJ..IW> DAR al-KOrOß Beirut – Lebanon Address :Ramel al·Zarif, Bohtory st., Melbrt bldg., Ist Floore. Tel. &Fax: 00 (961 I) 60.2J.33 . 36.61.35 .36.43.98 P.O.Box : 11 . 9424 Beirut· Lebanon ISBN 2-7451-2504-4 90000> I t82745 e-mail:

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have become weak and biased to your relatives. Othman said: Do you know that Omar appointedMo’uawya along all his caliphate? So, I appointed him! Ali said: I appeal to you! Do you know that Mo’uawya was more frightened than Omar. He replied: Yes! Ali said: Mo’uawya behaves ashe likes without taking permission from you and you know this. He tells people this is Othman’s order. And you know this and you don’t do anything to prevent it. Ali, , for whom may Allah’s good pleasure is prayed, explained the very crux of the problem. It is the infuence by those people on Othman, who was unable to get independent from them. Very catastrophic events took place in the aftermath of murdering Othman. And many victims fell as a result of inter-fighting among Moslems. Mou’awya was ambitious to be the Caliph. Sovhe used Othman’s murdering as a cover to obtain what he wanted. He accused Ali ‘Ibn Abi Taleb of helping «murderers» and used all gimmicks to rally Moslems behind him, Othman’s presence after his death was stronger than his influence during his life. Thus, even those who used to ignite Moslems against Othman attempted «his card» after his assassination. Aiysha, the Mother of Berlievers, Talha and al- Zubair demanded revenge for Othman’s blood and they fought AlL But, they lost to hirn at al-Jamal Battle (the Battle of Camel). The three, Aiysha, Talha and al- Zubair, repented for pushing the developments to such a terrific battle which caused the death.of the best Moslems. Later, Seffin Battle and other bloody battles prompted by Mou’awya under the pretext of revenge for Othman’s killing led to the weaknes of Islam and the fragmentation of Moslems. Othman’s points of frailty might be a reason for the successive events that hit Islam and Moslems; but the frailties of others, particularly those who were ambitious to reap the fruits of the tragedy were more dangerous!!! Developments during Othman’s caliphate and following his assassination

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show facts. These developments speak for themselves. In a word, Othman was the victim ofhis power-seeking relatives. He was, pious, lenient and tolerant; but they were greedy and ambitious to control the very state of atTairs!!! Let events show up facts. It is a real drama fraught with plots, fear and blood on the one side and telling lessons on the other!?! Mobammad Agba

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In tbe Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful Praise be to Allah, the God of all creatures and the wisest ruler; and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted). So and so, Allah, to whom be ascribed all perfection and majesty, willed that I persist in what I started as I worked out books on the Islamic history in the service of Moslems in all the countries of the world. Hereinafter, I introduce to researchers and readers this book as one of the series of Islamic history. It is on «Othman Ibn Affan, for whom may Allah’s good pleasure is prayed», By doing so, I filled aspace and completed a shortage. People did not find a book, which is independent, on each caliph. This book deals with his biography and the events that took place during his reign. Even foreign writers followed the suit of Moslem writers. They did not write a separate book for each caliph. Sir Moer’s book «The Caliphate» and Sir Irving’s book «Mohammed and His Caliphs» are both one volume. And others did the same. Undoubtedly, this is a shortage which must be completed. But, we should acknowledge that the scholar Rafiq Beck al- Azem had made up for this issue and allocated apart for each caliph from his book: The Most Famous Men of Islam. I did not find more than the first four parts inc1uding Othman. Thus, we do not find anything, but the general books of history such as Tabari, who is trusted, as well as Ibn Khaldoun and Ibn al-Athir, who derived their writings from al-Tabari in general. This is addition to «The Annals» of Prince Rittani, who translated the Arabic texts into Italians. Noteworthy is that the Arabic books on the Orthodox Caliphs are only biographies. There also were the interpretations; such-as Assad al- Ghaba (The

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coose Ali for reason to be mentioned; but the caliphate from Abu Bakr to Othman had been in anormal way for the pressing needs and according to the tradition known by Moslems at that time. They knew one of Prophet Mohammed’s saying, (to whom may Allah’s B1essings and peace be granted) which refers to this arrangement in position and degree in which the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted) placed each one. Ali hirnself knows this and acknowledges it(l). But, was that noticeable in the choice of Othman? I don’t think that; and Omar Ibn al-Khattab did not see hirn when he had chosen the people of Shura. The Omayyads feared sovereignty of Hashims and they succeeded in choosing Othman. The character of Othman was loveable and esteemed. And the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessingsand peace be granted) liked hirn and had a niee treatment with hirn for his good morals. He married his two daughters. These are the reasons that made things ready for Othman to be the caliph. When Othman became caliph he spent the first half of his caliphate period as most loveable by people for he was lenient and gracious. People also had good bonuses at his reign. The sedition which 100 to killing Othman will be dealt with in detail in this book. It also led to grave results. It led to the division of Moslems, letting, partisanism and disunity in opinion and action. After his murdering, Moslems fought each other to avenge for hirn. Some 90000 Moslems were killed!!! Sedition had reasons that historians mentioned. The truest sourees among the sources we have is the History of Ibn Jarir al-Tabari. There were talks and negotiations between Othman and senior companions on the sedition, its origin and reasons. He, for whom may Allah’s good pleasre is prayed, consulted with everybody whom he found relialable. And all gave him their opinions. Hereinafter, I make the historian’s position cIear, (The historians can (I) The book «The Most Famous Moslems», by Rafik Beck al-Azem. 9

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review the events and conc1ude a thing on which they can build his ruling as a honest judge). The historian is not obliged to seek execuses and bias to a people against others. He who turned facts upside-down and counted bad acts as good and mistakes as right motivated by his senses and emotions, or out of fear of the public opinion or to fulfill a whim within himself, or to pretend knowledge or righteousness is not a historian, but biased or ill-intentioned, according to our opinion. Some people wrote the biographies of some ancestors and considered them far above the qualities of all people in worshipping, righteousness and piety, conniving with the painful events that resulted. This is in addition to its c1ear contradiction with history and with the opinions of the contemporaries, the good ancestors, who were more knowledgealbe than others in religion, its fundamentals, the methods of ruling at their time and the reasons of the general indignation. This is also a waste of the benefit sought from history and its telling lessons for the successors. Some historians distort facts and take fanatic opinions and attitudes. They sow sedition and dispute as they blow their poison through their intentioned writings and slanders. I hope I have served truth and history by my research on the biography of Othman Ibn Man, for whom may Allah’s good pleasure is prayed. And I hope I have offered the people of this age and the future ages a lesson from which they get benefitted in the matters of their religion and world. Mohammed Redha

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An interpretation 01 the 01 Othman Ibn 576Ł656A. He is Othman Ibn Affan Ibn Abi al-Ass Ibn Omayya Ibn Abd Shams Ibn Abdo-Munaf. He is a Quraishian, Omayyan, meeting with the Prophet (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted), at Abdo-Munaf. And he is the third Orthodox Caliph. He was born in al- Taif six years after the Elephant Year (576A.D.). His mother is Arwa daughter of Kariz Ibn Rabe’a Ibn Habib Ibn Abd Shams Ibn Abdo-Munaf. And the mother of Arwa is AI- Baida’a daughter of Abdul Muttaleb, the aunt of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted)(l). His rille: He is entitled Abu Abdullah and Abu Amre. First, he was entitled after his son Abdullah the son of bis wife Ruqaya, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted). Abdullah died at 6, in the 4th year of Hijra. Othman was also called «Ze al-Nourinx because he married Ruqaya and Omm Kalthoum, the two daughters of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted), Nobody is known to have married two daughters of the Messenger of Allah except him. His Children and Wives: (1) Abdullah Ibn Ruqaya. (2) Abdullah al-Asqhar, bis mother Fakheta (1) Murouj al- Zahab by al-Masoudi, Part II, page 340. 11

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daughter of Ghazwan Ibn Jaber. (3) Amre. (4) Khalid. (5) Aban. (6) Omar. (7) Meriam and their mother Omm Amre daughter of Jundub. (8) al-Walid. (9) Sa’id. ‘(10) Omm Sa’id, and their mother Fatima daughter of al-Walid Ibn Abdu-Shams. (11) Abdu-al-Malek, his Mother Omm al-Banin daughter of Qyaina Ibn Hass Ibn Hudaifa. (12) Aiysha. (13) Omm Oban. (14) Omm Amre and their mother Ramlah daughter of Shaib Ibn Rabe’a. (15) Meriam and her mother Nae’la daughter of al- Farafesa Ibn al-Ahwas. (16) Omm al-Banin and her mother Omm Walid, who was the wife of Abdullah Ibn Yazid Ibn Abi Sufian. His sons and daughters are sixteen; nine males and seven females. His wives are nine. Omm Kalthoum was not mentioned here beeause she had no ehildren. As Othman was killed he had Ramlah, Nae’la, Omm al-Banin and Fakheta. Buthe divoreed Omm al-Banin a short time before his assassination. His wife Ruqaya: Ruqaya is the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may A1lah’s Blessings and peace be granted) and her mother Khadija. The Messenger of Allah had already married her ‘to Otba Ibn Abi Lahab. The husband of her sister Omm Kalthoum (her brother-in-law) was Otaiba Ibn Abu Lahab. When Tabbat eame in, Abu Lahab and their mother Omm Jamil daughter of Harb Ibn Omaya (The bearer of wood) told them to quit the two daughters of Prophet Mohammed. They departed from them even before they marry them, as an honour granted to them from Allah, Be He exalted, and as intimidation of the two sons of Abu Lahab. Othman, then married Ruqaya in Meeea and she immigrated with him to al-Habasha (Ethiopia). She gave a birth to a ehild named (Abdullah), Othman Ibn Affan, for whom may Allah’s good pleasure is prayed, was ealled after hirn. The boy reaehed six; but a eoek pieked his eye. His face got swollen and then he fell siek and died. He died in the 4th year of Hijra. The Messenger of Allahno whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted) performed prayers at hirn, and his father Othman descended to his grave. Ruqaya is older than Omm Kalthoum. When the Messenger of Allah (to whom may A1lah’s Blessings and peace be granted) marehed to Badr, his daughter Ruqaya was siek. Othman eame late to her under the order of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may Allah’s Blessings and peace be granted). She died on the day when Zaid Ibn Haritha arrived to tell them the good news on the vietory of the Messenger of Allah (to whom may A1lah’s Blessings and peace be granted) over the

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