Abu Hurairah (ra) reported: The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Allah, Most High, has removed from you the pride of the pre-Islamic period and its boasting in ancestors.

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Chapter 32: Racism, Supremacism & True Patriotism !”#$%& ‘(#$%& )& !*+ Introduction -Last week we discussed immigration and refugees. One of the main factors in how refugees are treated is racism and nationalism. -Islam has an explicit anti-racism tradition. The Ahadith against racism are abundant. -The main Hadith has many themes in it: ¥Paradigm shift in how people are viewed: ÒOne is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner.Ó ¥Unity: ÒYou are all the children of AdamÓ ¥Humility: ÒAdam came from dirtÓ ¥Compares the arrogance of racism to the disgrace of rubbing your nose in the dirt. -In the premodern era, race and group membership were determined largely by cultural traits, especially language and shared customs, rather than by skin color. Abu Hurairah (ra) reported: The Prophet ( ,) said: Allah, Most High, has removed from you the pride of the pre-Islamic period and its boasting in ancestors. One is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner. You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust. Let the people cease to boast about their ancestors. They are merely fuel in Jahannam; or they will certainly be of less account with Allah than the beetle which rolls dung with its nose. [Sunan Abi Dawud]-.)& /01/234 30536 30536 7383$9:3$/; <-+3= 9'3> .?3> 3.)& .@-A ” !B2C D”B> )& EBF -G.”-B-;53H9%& 3G.”IJ/> 9!/K9L3> 3M3;9N3= 9O36 .P3Q3C R<-S3T U$-Q53V3C R<-S3W U'-X9Y/X -Z53+[5-+ 53;3$9\3V3C .'3>3O3″3% ]^&3$/W 9′-X /_3`a3C 3_3`a 1/L3+ 9!/b9c3= 9′-X U!9d3V 9!/; 53(.c-A ]_&31963e-+ 9!/;3$9\3V U053Q-4 -.)& E3B3> 3@319;3= .’/c1/K3″3% 9C3= 3!.L3f3Q -!9d3V 39g.L%& 53f-h9c3e-+ /i3V9O3W <-b.%& -@3j9k-H9%& 3'-X " [`C&` <+= l2]Chapter 32!!2 PAGE - 3 ============ ¥For example, Abu Dharr was considered black yet he still called Bilal (ra) ÒO son of a black womanÓ in one incident because Bilal was a non-Arab black man. This is discussed further in the class on Bilal (ra) -In another Hadith, the prophet ( ,) condemned tribalism saying: UG3L-b9L/X 53f.c-m3V 53;1/>3`. ÒLeave it because certainly it is filthy.Ó -Structural racism isnÕt just political, it is also sociological. For example, Quraysh used to swear by the forefathers. The prophet ( ,) forbade them from this. ¥Hadith: 9!/K-n53+o-+ &1/h-B9d3W 3p ” 3053S3V 53f-n53+o-+ /q-B9d3W Ur9:3$/6 9s3c53t3C . ” -.)5-+ .p-A 9q-B9d3: 3j3V 5uh-%53# 3@53t 9’3X ” . ¥ÒIt was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Whoever swears, let him not swear by anything other than Allah.'” The Quraish used to swear by their forefathers, and so he said: “Do not swear by your forefathers.” -Hadith: It was narrated that Jundab bin ‘Abdullah said: “The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said: ‘Whoever fights for a cause that is not clear, advocating tribalism, getting angry for the sake of tribalism, then he has died a death of Jahiliyyah.'” -Hadith: There are 4 traits of Jahiliya (Days of Ignorance) that will always remain in the Ummah: 1. Boasting about ones ancestors deeds and virtues, defaming others on the basis of their lineage, seeking to be given rain by means of the stars (referring to superstitions), ritualistic mourning over the dead.Ó (Sahih Muslim) ¥The manifestations may change but these diseases will remain. Spiritual Equality -A personÕs true value is based on their spirituality/Taqwa. The Ahadith of the prophet (,) affirm spiritual equality. ¥Surah Hujurat Ayah 13: .@-A v &1/V3453k3b-% 3P-n53J363C 5u+1/k/T 9!/t53L9B3k3Q3C wE3xc/=3C ]$3t3N ‘IX !/t53L9S3B3y 5.c-A /z5.L%& 53f{:3= 53: U$”-J3y U!”-B3> 3.)& .@-A v 9!/t53S9W3= -.)& 3OL-> 9!/K3X3$9t3= -Hadith: &3|3; 9’3> 3}9″3% &1/%53S3V .” 9!/;53S9W3= ” 30536 -z5.L%& /_3$9t3= 9’3X 7-.)& 301/234 53: 3P”-6 DL> )& E~4 383$9:3$/; <-+3= 9'3> 9’3k3V ” 30536 .3•/%3e9*3c &3|3; 9’3> 3}9″3% &1/%536 .” -.)& -P”-B3y -‘9+& -.)& I<-J3c -'9+& -.)& I<-J3c /'9+& -.)& {<-J3c /q/21/"3V " 30536 .3•/%3e9*3c Chapter 32!!3 PAGE - 4 ============ -.)& -O9"3J/> 9’3> U$-(3b9k/X3C 3G3X532/= 1/+3= 30536 .” &1/f/S3V &3N-A -_3j92-†& <-V 9!/;/453"-y -G."-B-;53H9%& <-V 9!/;/453"-y 3@1/%3e9*3W -^3$3k9%& -@-`53k3X !B2C D"B> )& EBF I<-J.L%& -'3> 383$9:3$/; <-+3= 9'3> ]O”-k32 9’3>. ¥Abu Huraira narrated: The people said, “O Allah’s Messenger (,)! Who is the most honorable amongst the people (in Allah’s Sight)?” He said, “The most righteous amongst them.” They said, “We do not ask you, about this. ” He said, “Then Joseph, Allah’s Prophet, the son of Allah’s Prophet, The son of Allah’s Prophet the son of Allah’s Khalil (i.e. Abraham).” They said, “We do not want to ask about this,” He said, ÓThen you want to ask about the descent of the Arabs. Those who were the best in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance will be the best in Islam provided they comprehend the religious knowledge. Ó -Taqwa/Piety is in the heart according to the prophet ( ,). It is not accessible to anybody which means that we treat everyone equally. Racism -The manifestation of the disease of racism is that one group of people is designated as the Ôout groupÕ or all but one group of people are designated as the Ôin groupÕ. This creates a massive imbalance in all levels of society. -The Shaytan is the first racist in history. He refused to obey Allah (swt)Õs command to prostrate to Adam because Adam was created from dirt while Shaytan was created from fire. -Ibn Qayyim called racism a form of Shirk Patriotism, Tribalism, and Nationalism -Wanting good for your people ( _16 as opposed to Ummah) is not discouraged so long as it is not to the detriment of others. Not through a call of privilege but rather through a call of living up to our best ideals (which include helping others). -The prophet ( ,) never stopped being a Hashimite but he didnÕt look down on other tribes. -During battles, the prophet ( ,) allowed people to fight alongside their family/tribe. Similarly, he would send people to their own tribes to call people to Islam. Chapter 32!!4

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-Allah (swt) mentions the prophets referring to their people as _16 5: despite them not accepting Islam. -The prophet ( ,) validated the identities of Aws and Khazraj (tribes of the Ansar) except when they were used as calls against the others. -Dr Salah al-Sawy: Wal “Õ (religious loyalty) and all it entails of love and support for our coreligionists does not conflict with national identity and the love and affection its social bonds naturally generate. We believe that we are a part of the Muslim ummah (global community) in light of our religion, and a part of our respective local societies in light of our citizenry and human relationships. We do not believe there is an inherent conflict between a religious and national identity, so long as oneÕs country does not criminalize religiosity or curtail the right to practice oneÕs religion or call to it. We also believe that living together should naturally weave a social fabric between people of a shared homeland, allowing for harmonious coexistence between them, regardless of how different their beliefs may be. This involves an ethos of kindness, justice, and security against harm. It also necessitates a reciprocation of social responsibility that is shared by all, and observes the sanctity of peopleÕs lives, wealth, honor, and public spaces which cannot be touched except by the current laws or governing bodies of that land. -The prophet ( ,) would call tribes to their best values. If a people of a tribe were known for generosity, the prophet ( ,) encouraged that identity. -Often times, racism is disguised as nationalism. -Religious Supremacism: Muslims are allowed, actually they must, believe in the correctness and superiority of their religion, while not acting intolerantly of those of other faiths, nor knowing of where people will end up on an individual level. Yes, salvific exclusivity is held by Islam as by others, but that does not mean demonizing non-Muslims nor dooming them on an individual level. After all, a person cannot know liability in the hereafter of themselves so how can he/she know it of others? Islamic Attitude Towards Race -Malcolm X, ÒLetter from MeccaÓ: America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels Chapter 32!!5

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in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered whiteÑbut the white attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective of their color. -Gandhi felt that Islam, more than Hinduism, had a clear and absolutist vision of human brotherhood. On the contribution of Islam to India, he said, ÒIslamÕs distinctive contribution to IndiaÕs national culture is its unadulterated belief in the oneness of God and a practical application of the truth of the brotherhood of man for those who are nominally within its fold. I call these two distinctive contributions. For in Hinduism the spirit of brotherhood has become too much philosophized. Similarly, though philosophical Hinduism has no other god but God, it cannot be denied that practical Hinduism is not so emphatically uncompromising as Islam.Ó -Blackness was disparaged in some parts of Muslim history and black people struggled, but unlike Europe, Black Muslims were able to rise to the top of leadership at all levels of scholarship (ÔAtaa bin Abi RabiÕah, first Mufti of Makkah), run dynasties (Mamluk dynasty), lead armies (Tariq ibn Z iyad), etc. -Bilal married Haala bint Awf (from a noble family of the Arabs). He was the head of the treasury and the first Muadhin. -The first shaheeda (martyr) of Islam was a black woman. -The Prophet would call Umm Ayman (black woman and former slave) his mother after his mother. -The adopted son of the Prophet Zayd was black . -Usama bin Zayd was the first commander of an army after the prophet ( ,)Õs passing. None of the Sahabah complained because of his skin color. -The first shaheed (martyr) of Badr was MihjaÕ. -Story of Ubadah Ibn As-Saamit ¥He was one of the first Ansar and a black man. He accompanied the prophet in every battle and was one of writers of revelation. Chapter 32!!6

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¥When al-Muqawqis heard that, he said to those who were around him: ÒHave you ever heard anything like what this man is saying? His appearance alarmed me but his words alarm me more than his appearance. Allah has sent this man and his companions out to destroy the world! I think that they are bound to prevail over the entire world.Ó -Story of SaÕd al-Aswad: He was black Arab from Bani Sulaym. He came to the Prophet, Peace and blessings of God upon him, and asked him if his dark complexion and unpleasant features would prevent him from entering Paradise. The Prophet, Peace and Blessings of God upon him, responded that they would not, as long as he was mindful of his Lord and believed in Him. SaÕd immediately accepted Islam. SaÕd then explained to the Prophet, Peace and Blessings of God upon him, that he had searched assiduously for a wife, but had been rejected by all and sundry because of his dark complexion. The Prophet, Peace and Blessings of God upon him, sent SaÕd to marry the daughter of ÔAmr bin Wahb, a recent convert from Bani Thaqif, who retained many pre- Islamic prejudices. -Story of Julaybeeb ¥He was looked down upon in society for many reasons. No one would consider him for marriage. So RasulAllah went to a father of a beautiful righteous woman and said, ÒI would like to marry your daughter, not to myself but to Julaybib.Ó He said let me talk to her mom. He went to her: and told her the prophet wants to marry your daughter to Julaybib. She started to scream: JULAYBIB! at the top of her lungs. I will never marry her to Julaybib! The daughter heard the prophet (,)Õs recommendation and insisted on marrying him. Uthman (ra) paid his Mahr for him. ¥After a battle, the prophet ( ,) asked every tribe: ÒAre you missing anybody?Ó Nobody was missing anyone but the prophet ( ,) said: ÒHowever, I am missing Julaybib.Ó They found him dead and next to 7 of the opposing army that he was able to kill. The prophet ( ,) stood over him full of emotion and said, ÒHe is from me and I am from him.Ó three times. The Prophet ( ,) picked him up in his arms, dug his grave, and buried him in it. Chapter 32!!8

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-Umm Mihjan was the woman who cleaned the masjid. The prophet did not find her too insignificant for a special Hanaza. -Allah sent Jibreel to pray on Najashi in absentia. -Muhammad ibn Maslamah, a black non-Arab, was a governor under all 4 of the righteous caliphs Conclusion -The prophet ( ,) sought to erase the racist attitude that existed by leading by example, putting people in positions of religious/political leadership, and through marriage and social/family interactions. He taught everyone to find their own individual value in their Taqwah and not denigrating others based on their class/ tribe/race -This goes back to the first Hadith: What exists today is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner. Chapter 32!!9

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