Jul 10, 2018 — About the WTO. The World Trade Organization deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade.
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About the WTO The World Trade Organization deals with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. About this publication World Trade Statistical Review provides a detailed analysis of the latest developments in world trade. It is the WTO’s flagship statistical publication and is produced on an annual basis. For more information All data used in this report, as well as additional charts and tables not included, can be downloaded from the WTO web site at www.wto.org/statistics

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ContentsI. Introduction 2II. Highlights of world trade in 2017 8 Merchandise trade 10 Trade in commercial services 14 Regional and economic groups 18 Digital trade 21 Global value chains 22 WTO membership 23 Global trade: World maps 24III. Latest trends in world trade 2017-2018 26 General trends and drivers of trade in 2017 28 World trade and output in early 2018 37IV. Goods and services Œ what is being traded? 40 Merchandise trade 42 Trade in commercial services 48 Global value chains 62 Digital trade 65V. Global perspectives Œ who are the leading players? 66 Leading players 68 Regional performance 71 Regional trade agreements (RTAs) 74 Developing economies 77 VI. Trade policy developments 88 Trade monitoring 90 The 11th WTO Ministerial Conference 93 Trade facilitation 94 Aid for Trade 98 Trade ˜nance 99VII. Composition, de˜nitions & methodology 100 Composition of geographical and economic groupings 102 De˜nitions and methodology 106 Trade policy indicators 115 Speci˜c notes for selected economies 116 Statistical sources 117 VIII. Statistical tables 120 1WTO18 Chapter 01 v9.indd 106/08/2018 16:09

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This publication has been prepared under the direction of Robert Koopman, Director, Economic Research and Statistics Division and Andreas Maurer, Chief, International Trade Statistics Section. The coordination and supervision of tables, charts and production of the report was done by Ninez Piezas-Jerbi. Statistical research, data compilation and the preparation of estimates were conducted by Barbara d’Andrea-Adrian, Alejandra Barajas Barbosa, Lori Chang, Christophe Degain, Florian Eberth, Antonella Liberatore, Coleman Nee, Ninez Piezas-Jerbi, Ying Yan with the assistance of Ma. Diyina Gem Arbo, Carolle Elisabeth Kempa Nangue and Mia Jie Sheng. Special contributions to this publication were made by the WTO Market Access Division, the Aid for Trade Unit, the Research Group, Trade Monitoring Section of the Trade Policies Review Division, and the WTO Trade and Gender focal point. Acknowledgements are due to the multilateral, national and private institutions for providing their statistics. The detailed statistical sources used in this report are presented in Chapter VIII. The International Trade Statistics Section also wishes to thank colleagues from the Information and External Relations Division (IERD) and the Languages Documentation and Information Management Division (LDIMD) whose collaboration is vital in the production of this report. In particular, recognition is due to Anthony Martin, Serge Marin-Pache, Steve Cooper, and to the French and Spanish translators for rendering the report in the WTO’s other official languages. Finally, we wish to thank the community of fiWTO Statisticsfl users for their loyalty and their suggestions and comments for improvement. Their regular feed-back allows us to better provide them with relevant statistical data. Acknowledgements This publication is also available online at www.wto.org/wtsr18 For more information on the contents of this report, comments or suggestions for improvement may be sent by email to the International Trade Statistics Section (statistics@wto.org). 4World Trade Statistical Review 2018 WTO18 Chapter 01 v9.indd 406/08/2018 16:09

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The rising trade tensions we have seen in recent months could put the recovery in global trade at risk, with inevitable consequences for the wider economy which could reach far beyond those countries that are directly involved. The WTO is working to help members to resolve these issues and to strengthen the global trading system. One of the less-noted but nonetheless vital ways we do this is by monitoring current trends and developments in trade, as showcased in this report. Indeed, when trade policies and practices are being put under the microscope, reliable data and statistics are more important than ever. This report provides insights into trade performance in all regions and in all major sectors, and this year’s edition re˜ects new work in international trade statistics. By creating experimental datasets on bilateral trade in services with OECD and on trade in services by mode of supply towards end 2018, we will be able to generate estimates in many areas where hard data are not yet available, thereby helping to overcome the lack of data that can hamper analysis, monitoring and formulation of trade policy. Another area where statistical work is evolving is in digital trade, where a number of initiatives are ongoing to improve the measurement of both digitally-enabled and digitally-delivered transactions. The WTO and OECD, together with the statistical community, is working to issue a Handbook on Measuring Digital Trade towards the end of 2018. With all of this in mind, I believe that this volume is an important resource for WTO members and for the broader trade community in academia, business and beyond. I would like to thank everyone that has worked on the report. I hope that it will help to inform the trade debate and members’ trade policies in the years ahead. Roberto Azevêdo Director-General 6World Trade Statistical Review 2018 WTO18 Chapter 01 v9.indd 606/08/2018 16:09

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Abbreviations and symbols ACP African, Caribbean and Paci˚c Group of States AfCFTA African Continental Free Trade Area ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations AFTA ASEAN Free Trade Area BOP Balance of Payments BPM6 Balance of Payments Manual, sixth edition CACM Central American Common MarketCARICOM Caribbean Common Market CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa CIS Commonwealth of Independent States, including associate and former member statesCOMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States EFTA European Free Trade Association EU European UnionEUROSTAT Statistical Of˚ce of the European Communities FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FATS Foreign Af˚liates Statistics FDI Foreign Direct Investment GCC Gulf Co-operation Council GDP Gross Domestic Product GNP Gross National Product HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System IEA International Energy Agency IMF International Monetary Fund ITC International Trade Centre ISIC International Standard Industrial Classi˚cationLDCs Least-developed countries MERCOSUR Southern Common Market NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PA Paci˚c Alliance SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation SADC South African Development Community SAFTA South Asian Free Trade Area SITC Standard International Trade Classi˚cation TDM Trade Data Monitor WAEMU West African Economic and Monetary Union UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNECLAC United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the CaribbeanUNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development OrganizationUNSD United Nations Statistics DivisionUnless otherwise indicated, (i) all value ˚gures are expressed in U.S. dollars; (ii) trade ˚gures include the intra-trade of free trade areas, customs unions, geographical and other groups; (iii) merchandise trade ˚gures are on a customs basis and (iv) merchandise exports are f.o.b. and merchandise imports are c.i.f. Data for the latest year are provisional. The statistical data in this publication are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant statistical authorities. In line with the practice of the WTO Secretariat, this publication uses the names of members as listed in the latest revision to document WT/INF/43. References to other geographical territories and groupings are based solely on terms provided to the WTO Secretariat by WTO members and observers or terms used by relevant international organizations. The use of such data and terms does not constitute or imply an expression of opinion by the WTO Secretariat concerning the status of any country or territory, or the delimitation of its frontiers, or sovereignty. The colours, boundaries and names shown and the designations used on maps in this publication do not imply any judgment, of˚cial endorsement or acceptance by the WTO Secretariat as to the legal status or frontier of any territory, or the rights and obligations of any WTO member in respect of WTO agreements. References and data relating to territories that are not WTO members or observers in their own right do not amount to an endorsement as to the WTO status, if any, of such territories. The following symbols are used in this publication: not available or growth rates exceeding 500% 0 ˜gure is zero or became zero due to rounding – not applicable $ United States dollars Q1, Q2 1st quarter, 2nd quarter I break in comparability of data series. Data after the symbol do not form a consistent series with those from earlier years. Billion means one thousand million. Minor discrepancies between constituent ˜gures and totals are due to rounding. c.i.f. cost, insurance and freight f.o.b. free on board n.e.s. not elsewhere specified n.i.e. not included elsewhere Closing date 31 May 2018 7Chapter I | Introduction WTO18 Chapter 01 v9.indd 706/08/2018 16:09

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9Chapter II | Highlights of world trade 2017 9Merchandise trade 10 Trade in commercial services 14 Regional and economic groups 18Digital trade 21Global value chains 22 WTO membership 23Global trade: World maps 24 WTO18 Chapter 02 v16.indd 906/08/2018 16:09

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