by SM Buchanan · Cited by 7 — Applied behavior analysis and autism: An introduction. Robbinsville, NJ: Autism New Jersey. Page 5. 3. Why ABA?
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First Bridge Centre is a fresh start for ABA in the UK. We promise a new beginning for families who live with early years ASD without a clear sense of choice. Led by the science, de˜ned by results our only care is the best care for each child we support. Our vision Every child born with autism should bene˜t from urgent attention, dedicated intensive care and the chance to grow and live their best life. Every family should know what™s possible with early evidence-based treatment. Published in the UK with permission. Copyright 2020 First Bridge Centre

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ContentsMotivation ReinforcementShapingPromptsModeling (Imitation Training) Discrete Trial Instruction Verbal Behavior Natural Environment Training Picture Exchange Communication SystemIncidental Teaching Pivotal Response Training Task Analysis and Chaining Token Economy Activity SchedulesPrecision Teaching with Rate-Building Functional Assessment and AnalysisAntecedent-Based InterventionsPositive Behavior SupportGeneralization and Maintenance137910111214161718202325262728303233343639414345454647495152555761636469ForwardIntroduction: Why ABA?What is ABA?How Behavior Analysts Approach Teaching ABCs of BehaviorWhat Principles and Methods Comprise ABA?Evaluation of ABA Programs Running an Intensive ABA ProgramABA and the FamilyABA as a ProfessionMyths & FactsSummary Resource SectionReferencesGive Us Your Feedback Data collection and analysis Demonstrating a functional relation SiblingsRunning a Home-Based ABA Program

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ForwardBoth authors have been profoundly touched by many individuals with autism and their families. We have partnered with parents to teach their children and learned from the challenges and joys they experienced while raising a child with autism. Many of these parents consistently requested a written overview that de˜ned and described methods used within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programming. Parents wanted this information during their initial search to better understand this treatment approach, and during their journey to increase their knowledge and abilities. Unfortunately, only a few such publications have met this need and they cover slightly different topics. This book is intended for those parents and professionals who want an overview of Applied Behavior Analysis and the meaningful changes it can make in the lives of people with autism. The book is divided into brief segments that focus on speci˜c topics. Within each section, readers can expect a description or de˜nition of the topic, examples from everyday settings, and references for further information. References are largely drawn from the professional literature with an emphasis on those that have a high degree of scienti˜c validity. We hope this book is helpful to you and we welcome your feedback for future revisions.It is important to emphasize that this book is an overview and the resources listed in each section and at the end should be referred to for a more comprehensive understanding of the discussed topics.The authors gratefully acknowledge the peer review of Dr. Sandra Harris and the contributions of Tamara Bannon, Jenna Miller, Rebecca Hernandez, and Chigusa Weekley to this manuscript. Suggested citation: Buchanan, S. M., & Weiss, M. J. (2010). Applied behavior analysis and autism: An introduction. Robbinsville, NJ: Autism New Jersey.

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for Children with Disabilities (MADSEC) Autism Taskforce, 1999; New York State Department of Health, 1999; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). Additionally, the United States Congress commissioned a panel of autism experts to publish a state of the research on autism and provide recommendations for public policy and future research (National Research Council, 2001). While they recognized the contribution of a behavior-based approach in autism treatment, they pointed out the lack of comparison studies of among this and other popular treatments. The results from this type of study would shed more de˜nitive light on the question of which treatment was the best. They stressed the importance of conducting studies that directly compared interventions so that educators and parents could select the most effective treatment for an individual with autism. Since then, two comparison studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals. While there are limits to how much information can be gleaned from only two studies (described below), the results tells us more about the effectiveness of ABA. How does ABA compare to other treatments? Howard, Sparkman, Cohen, Green, & Stainslaw (2005) published a study on the effects of three different treatment approaches used within early intervention. Sixty-one young children with autism spectrum disorders received one of three treatment procedures: a) intensive behavior analytic intervention, b) intensive eclectic intervention which was a combination of popular methods, or c) non-intensive public early intervention. The children were an average of 34 months old when they entered the study. The study measured each child™s skills before and after a 14-month intervention in the areas of: a) cognitive, b) non-verbal, c) receptive/expressive language, and d) adaptive skills. The results of this study showed that children in an intensive ABA program produced signi˜cant improvement across all four areas compared to the children who received eclectic and non-intensive treatments. The study even found that the children who received non-intensive early intervention showed a regression. What about children with autism who enter treatment at a later age? There is some evidence that these children also bene˜t substantially from ABA instruction when compared to children who participated in other interventions of similar intensity (Eikeseth, Smith, Jahr, & Eldevik, 2002). The researchers examined the progress of 25 4-7 year olds who received either intensive behavioral treatment or intensive eclectic treatment in public school settings. The results indicated that children who participated in intensive behavioral treatment made large improvements across all measured skill areas (i.e., cognitive, visual-spatial, language, and adaptive behavior skills) as compared to those children who received intensive eclectic treatment. The same is likely to be true for adults with autism. While there are well-documented effects of behavioral assessment and intervention strategies on improved functioning for adults with autism (McClannahan, MacDuff, & Krantz, 2002), there are limited long-term data on intensive programs for adults. However, it is clear that many adults experience real and substantial gains come from ABA intervention. Thus, it stands to reason that ABA remains a central and effective component of services for individuals of all ages with autism. Early and intensive ABA programming is cost effective and potentially life changing for individuals and their families (Jacobson, Mulick, & Green, 1998). Why not turn to science and get the best available treatment? When you review the results of the research, you will ˜nd ABA. Introduction4

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psychology. Most of these terms fail to fully capture the nature and dimensions of contemporary behavior analysis, and bring with them associations that are either inaccurate or misleading. Here is some accurate information. Behavior Analysis has two main branches: experimental and applied. The experimental analysis of behavior is a ˜eld of study in which animals and humans participate in experiments and researchers observe how they behave and learn in different situations. The results of these studies are then used to inform Applied Behavior Analysis, ABA, which is the service part of the discipline. In other words, this type of behavior analyst works with people to improve their behavior and quality of life. ABA programs are based on empirical research, include the direct observation and measurement of behavior, and utilize antecedent stimuli, positive reinforcement, and other consequences to produce behavior change. ABA is a well-developed discipline among the human service professions. It has a mature body of knowledge, established standards for practice, distinct methods of service, recognized experience and educational requirements for practice, and identi˜ed sources of requisite education in universities. Additional ResourcesThese two resources describe the characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis. While they do not contain information speci˜c to autism, they are quite relevant and provide an accurate and thorough picture of the concepts that guide the ˜eld.Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91-97.Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1987). Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 313-327. ResourcesCooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Green, G. (1996). Early behavioral intervention for autism: What does research tell us? In C. Maurice (Ed.), G. Green, & S. Luce (Co-eds.). Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals (pp. 29-44). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Newman, B. (1999). When everybody cares: Case studies of ABA with people with autism. NY: Dove and Orca. Newman, B., Reeve, K. F., Reeve, S. A., & Ryan, C. S. (2003). Behaviorspeak: Glossary of terms in applied behavior analysis (ABA). NY: Dove & Orca. Newman, B., Reinicke, D., & Newman, L. (2000). Words from those who care: Further case studies of ABA with people with autism. NY: Dove and Orca. What is ABA?8

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