cannot be recognized and processed by our 3D printing software. It is always best to in concept to PDF files; AutoDesk Design Review is the reader.

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3D Printing – Basic Instructions 1 Step 1 Ð Creating An Object For Printing 1. Use a 3D modeling application to produce a model from either a single object or multiple objects that are connected (touching) each other. Both tables will print as single, unified objects 2. Determine the units of measurement you will be using and make sure the modeling application you are using is set to these units before you begin building your model. Acceptable units of measurement include inches, millimeters, centimeters or meters. ÒWorking UnitsÓ preferences settings from Autodesk Maya Preferences Pane

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3D Printing – Basic Instructions 2 This simple step is critical and should not be ignored. You will need to reference your chosen units of measurement when you bring the model in to be printed. Reporting the wrong units of measurements can adversely affect the final size of your printed object. 3. The model must be closed or ÒwatertightÓ and free of any ÒholesÓ. ÒHolesÓ are considered to be Ònon-manifoldÓ geometry and may produce undesirable results. Two ÒprimitiveÓ objects, one that is complete, and one that has ÒholesÓ Please note that a ÒholeÓ is actual missing geometry from the surface of the model. It is different than an opening in the model such as the opening in the center of a model of a donut or an open door in a model of a shed. 4.The model must not have edges that are shared between more than two faces. This is considered to be Ònon-manifoldÓ geometry and may produce undesirable results. Two primitive objects sharing a single , Ò2 dimensional Ó edge.

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3D Printing – Basic Instructions 3 5. All surfaces of your model should have their ÒnormalsÓ oriented in the correct direction. ÒNormalsÓ are indicators used by 3D modeling applications to determine the ÒinsideÓ or ÒoutsideÓ of individual faces. Inverted ÒnormalsÓ may produce undesirable results. The cube on the left has all of its normals facing outware while the cube on the right (the one with faces removed for clarity) has one normal facing inward. This is the “Inverted Normal”. Most 3D modeling applications have a “Show Normals” and a ÒReverse NormalsÒ function that will allow you to check and repair your model. 6. The smaller the model, or the smaller the specific details on your model, the greater the chance that it will be damaged during fabrication. Please be aware that really fine detail may not even print at all. The same delicate model printed at four differen t scales For the ProJet Powder-Based printer, the minimum safe dimension is 1/8in (3mm). For the Lulzbot Extrusion-Printer, the minimum safe dimension is 1/16in (1.5mm). Although we are willing to print objects that have features smaller than these dimensions, we will not guarantee that they will survive fabrication. You will be charged for the print regardless if it is successful or not.

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3D Printing – Basic Instructions 4 7. If your model is being fabricated using an Extrusion-Based plastic printer and has sections that do no rest directly on the printing bed, the printing software will add ÒSupportsÓ during the printing process. ÒSupportsÓ are removable printing artifacts that provide a foundation for features that could sag or otherwise deform during printing. ÒSupportsÓ underpi n the horizontal sections of this dragon model Even though they are discarded once the printing process is finished, ÒSupportsÓ are printed along with your model and are part of the final cost of the project. While you can request that ÒSupportsÓ not be included with your object, your object may not print properly and produce undesirable results. If your model is being fabricated using a Powder-Based printer, the unused powder itself will support features that do not rest directly on the bed so no additional modeled supports are required. 8. If you are printing more than one distinct model, whenever possible please give them to us as separate files. We would prefer that you NOT submit a Òbatch fileÓ that contains all of your models. When we set up each print run, we move the various models around with the printing software as we ÒfillÓ the printerÕs build area. The software we use, however, does not allow us to manipulate individual items within a single file that contains multiple objects. The software processes these objects as a single unit even if they are separate and unconnected. Questions If you have any questions, please contact the Marriott Library Knowledge Commons at 801-581-4808.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !1 !”#$%&'(&’)# !!!”#$%&'(%!)”*+$ “This document is intended to provide a few helpful hints that will help those navigate some of the hurdles associated with 3D modeling for printing. It will be updated periodically. 1. It is always better to build your own models from scratch whenever possible. Many pre-built models that are available on the internet are not intended to be printed. These models may contain unseen non-manifold geometry (missing faces, shared edges, inverted normals) that could produce undesirable results. 2. Pre-built models not intended for printing will often be saved using a file format that cannot be recognized and processed by our 3D printing software. It is always best to convert these models to STL (.stl) format in order to be printed. Snapshot of a section from 3D model listings . Note the different formats. In the above screenshot, note the different formats that are available for each model. All of these formats will need to be converted before the model can be printed.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !2 3. One online warehouse of printable 3D models is Makerbot Thingiverse The 3D models stored here are available in formats that most 3D printing applications will recognize and process. Snapshot of a section from . Note that downloadable files are in STL format . For simplicity, we still recommend using STLs for our service, whenever possible.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !4 By having multiple back-up files, you can return to the model right before the operation that introduced the problem and proceed once more. You do not have to spend time ÒdebuggingÓ your model and you do not have to start over. 6. Regardless of the application, always make sure that you set the unitÕs of measurement before you start modeling. When you are ready to have the model printed make sure you mark those same units of measurement on the request form. Marking the wrong units of measurement will change the size of the printed model when it is imported into the printing software. Model built using c m. Left one imported using mm, right one imported using cm.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !5 7. Build your models using as high a polygon count or Òmodel resolutionÓ as is reasonably possible. If your model has complex curved surfaces or very fine details like the hand shown below, the printer will better reproduce these features if the model has a higher polygon count. 8. The time it takes to print a model is dependent on its physical size. Increasing the number of polygons will have no effect on how long it takes to print. Because the high and low resolution spheres shown below are the same size, they will both take about the same time to print. It is recommended that you use the highest possible resolution for your objects for the best results.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !6 9. Model R esolution and Printer Resolution are two different matters. On the Extrusion-Based printers, the printing software gives us control over the thickness of the individual layers used to build the object. This can be considered to be the Printer Resolution. The thicker the layers, the lower the ÒresolutionÓ and the thinner the layers the higher the ÒresolutionÓ. At higher ÒresolutionsÓ, more layers will be required to fabricate your object and the longer it will take to print. However, the level of detail of the finished print will be much more refined. The two octopi shown above are the same size but the one on the left is printed at a lower printer resolution with a thicker layer height. Printed using a thicker layer height. Printed using a thinner layer height. Note that the octopus printed with a thinner layer height has smoother overall surfaces and its features have better definition. It also took longer to print.

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3D Printing Ð Tips and Tricks !7 10. When printing your object on the Powder-Based printer, you can reduce your total cost by hollowing out your model. A hollow model uses less material than a solid one. A solid version of this bust of Nefirtiti will cost almost 3! times as much as one that has been hollowed out. When you hollow out your model for printing on the Powder-Based printer, remember to keep the walls as close to the 1/8 inch minimum-safe thickness as possible and include an opening where the un-bonded powder can be removed. Please note that you will be charged for any un-bonded powder that is trapped inside your printed object.

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