unicef/emerg/files/ParisPrinciples310107English.pdf para.3.6. Source: Guatemala/ Informe de estado en materia de trata de perso-.

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˜is publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-pro˚t purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. Suggested citation: UNODC, Global Report on Tra˜cking in Persons 2020 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.20.IV.3). Comments on the report are welcome and can be sent to: Crime Research Section Research and Trend Analysis Branch Division for Policy Analysis and Public A˛airs United Nations O˝ce on Drugs and Crime P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria E-mail: globaltipreport@un.org Tel.: (+43) 1 26060 0 Fax: (+43) 1 26060 75223 ˜e content of this publication does not necessarily re˙ect the views or policies of UNODC, Member States or contributory organizations, and nor does it imply any endorsement. ˜is document has not been formally edited. ˜e designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. © United Nations, January 2021. All rights reserved, worldwide. Title: Global Report on Tra˝cking in Persons 2020 Language: English Sales no.: E.20.IV.3 ISBN: 978-92-1-130411-4 eISBN: 978-92-1-005195-8 print ISSN: 2411-8435 online ISSN: 2411-8443

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4PREFACE ˜is is the ˚fth global report by the United Nations O˝ce on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), mandated by the General Assembly through the 2010 Global Plan of Action to Combat Tra˝cking in Persons. ˜e report comes at a time when global su˛ering has vast -ly increased vulnerabilities to tra˝cking. Extreme pover – ty is expected to rise for the ˚rst time in decades, with the continuing COVID-19 crisis casting a long shadow over our societies and economies. With many millions more women, men and children in every part of the world out of school, out of work, without social support and facing diminished prospects, targeted action is urgently needed to stop crimes like tra˝cking in persons from adding to the pandemic™s toll. In order to act, we need to understand better the factors that facilitate human tra˝cking. It is in this spirit that I present to you the Global Report on Tra˝cking in Persons 2020. ˜e report draws on data from 148 countries and ex -plores issues of particular relevance in the current crisis, including the impact of socio-economic factors, drivers of child tra˝cking and tra˝cking for forced labour, and tra˝ckers™ use of the internet. Although found in every country and every region, traf -˚cking in persons remains a hidden crime, with perpe – trators operating in the dark corners of the internet and the underbelly of the global economy to entrap victims for sexual exploitation, forced labour, domestic servitude and other forms of exploitation. For every 10 victims detected globally, ˚ve are adult wom -en and two are girls. Migrants account for a signi˚cant share of the detected victims in most regions. Tra˝ckers prey upon the marginalized and impoverished. Cases ex – amined by UNODC found that at least half involved victims who were targeted because of economic need. Children living in extremely poor households are espe -cially vulnerable, and countries in West Africa, South Asia and Central America and the Caribbean report much higher shares of detected child victims. Globally, one in every three victims detected is a child, but in low income countries, children account for half of the vic – tims detected, most of them tra˝cked for forced labour. By bringing visibility to this crime, and shedding light on tra˝cking patterns and ˙ows, this report can assist governments, parliaments and stakeholders in develop – ing solutions capable of addressing root causes and risk factors, prosecuting o˛enders, protecting the vulnerable and better supporting victims. UNODC has been systematically collecting and analys -ing data on tra˝cking in persons for more than a decade. During this time, an increasing number of countries have criminalized tra˝cking in line with the Tra˝cking in Persons Protocol under the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. More tra˝ckers are being brought to justice every year – globally, the number of people convicted per 100,000 population has nearly tripled since 2003, when the protocol entered into force. Having anti-tra˝cking legislation in place and investing in national capacities and international cooperation strengthens responses. We cannot allow the pandemic recession to reverse this progress or put more women, men and children in dan – ger of being tra˝cked. Even as the crisis puts resources under pressure, law en -forcement and social protection responses must address tra˝cking risks. Countering tra˝cking e˛ectively also requires tackling related forms of transnational organized crime, as well as cybercrime and corruption. As the Tra˝cking in Persons Protocol highlights, to pre -vent tra˝cking governments need to address poverty, underdevelopment and a lack of equal opportunity, and raise awareness. ˜at means investing in people – in ed – ucation and jobs, as part of systemic solutions pursued in solidarity, with support to developing countries most of all. An inclusive recovery must create opportunities and give hope to young people and the disadvantaged,

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5and tackle the structural inequalities that leave women as well as children and marginalized groups vulnerable to human tra˝cking. Systemic solutions also rely on broad, cross-border part -nerships between governments, with the support of inter- national and regional organizations. Civil society and pri – vate sector cooperation are also crucial – businesses and tech companies represent essential partners in addressing supply chain integrity to stop tra˝cking for forced la – bour and other forms of exploitation, and in countering recruitment and exploitation via the internet. We also need more sharing of information and intel -ligence, and more research. Over the past decade, we have seen the number of child victims go up. Victims tra˝cked domestically, without crossing international borders, are being increasingly detected. Tra˝cking pat – terns and ˙ows change and shift – possibly now more than ever in a world upended by the pandemic. But the picture is also changing because we understand more, and see more. Better training of service providers, police and healthcare workers leads to greater detection and en – hanced support. Educating the public raises awareness and fosters a sense of responsibility – as bystanders, con – sumers and concerned citizens, we all have a part to play in preventing and countering human tra˝cking. With this in mind, I urge governments and all partners to make use of the Global Report on Tra˝cking in Persons 2020 – and of the integrated technical assistance UNODC provided to 83 countries last year alone through its pro – grammes and ˚eld network – to include protection and tra˝cking prevention as part of pandemic response and recovery e˛orts, and leave no one behind. Ghada Waly Executive Director United Nations O˝ce on Drugs and Crime

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Victims are targeted when they are vulnerable and the COVID-19 economic recession will result in more people at risk of traf˜cking Female victims continue to be particularly a˛ected by tra˝cking in persons. In 2018, for every 10 victims de – tected globally, about ˚ve were adult women and two were girls. About one third of the overall detected victims were children, both girls (19 per cent) and boys (15 per cent), while 20 per cent were adult men. Tra˝ckers target victims who are marginalized or in dif – ˚cult circumstances. Undocumented migrants and peo – ple who are in desperate need of employment are also vulnerable, particularly to tra˝cking for forced labour. Criminals tra˝cking children target victims from ex -tremely poor households, dysfunctional families or those who are abandoned with no parental care. In low-income countries, children make up half of the victims detected and are mainly tra˝cked for forced labour (46 per cent). In higher income countries, children are tra˝cked main – ly for sexual exploitation, forced criminality or begging. As with previous economic crises, the sharp increase in unemployment rates brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to increase tra˝cking in persons, particularly from countries experiencing the fastest and most persistent drops in employment. Job seekers from these countries are likely to be more willing to take high risks in the hope of improving their opportunities. ˜e most vulnerable groups, even in wealthy nations, are those su˛ering the most during the Pandemic Recession. Evidence suggests low earners have been hit the hardest by spiking unemployment. As unemployment rates rise, increasing numbers are likely to be tra˝cked from the poorest communities to those parts of the world recov – ering faster. Child traf˜cking emerges from communities in extreme poverty Children account for about one third of the detected victims of tra˝cking. Tra˝cking of children, however, disproportionally a˛ects low-income countries, where it is linked to the broader phenomenon of child labour. In Sub-Saharan Africa, children have been tra˝cked to work on plantations, in mines and quarries, on farms, as vendors in markets and on the streets. In South Asia, children as young as 12 have been tra˝cked to work in brick kilns, hotels, the garment industry and in agricul – ture. Child tra˝cking for forced labour has also been re – ported on South American plantations. FIG. 1 Percentage of cases by pre-existing factors that traf˜ckers have taken advantage of Source: GLOTIP collection of court case summaries, based on 233 court cases out of a total of 489 collected by UNODC for the purpose of this Report. *Note: The same case may report multple factors, therefore percentages may add up to more than 100.Economic need51% Immigration status10%Mental, behavioural or neurological disorder 10%Child with adysfunctional family 20%Child deprived ofparental care 9%Limited education or know-ledge of foreign language 6%Physical disability 3%PASS INVALID Intimate partner as trafficker 13%

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10GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKIN G IN PERSONS 2020In addition to sexual exploitation (72 per cent of girl vic -tims) and forced labour (66 per cent of boys), children are exploited for begging and forced criminal activities, such as drug tra˝cking, among other crimes. Tra˝ckers in these cases often leverage di˝cult family backgrounds, trying to create a sense of belonging for the victim. Case summaries and literature show that parents and siblings may also be directly involved in child tra˝cking. Migration status can be used against victims Tra˝cking victims who do not have permission to work or stay in the country of exploitation face an extra layer of vulnerability. ˜e fear of being exposed as an irregular mi – grant can be a powerful tool for tra˝ckers, who typically threaten to ˚le reports with the authorities and can more easily keep victims under exploitative conditions. Migrants make up a signi˚cant share of the detected vic – tims in most global regions: 65 per cent in Western and Southern Europe, 60 per cent in the Middle East, 55 per cent in East Asia and the Paci˚c, 50 per cent in Central and South-Eastern Europe, and 25 per cent in North America. Even labour migrants who have the right to work can be vulnerable to exploitation. For instance, because they are unaware of their labour rights. Traf˜ckers exploit victims in a variety of forms and in˜ltrate the globalized legal economy by exploiting victims in many economic sectors Overall, 50 per cent of detected victims were tra˝cked for sexual exploitation and 38 per cent for forced la- bour, while 6 per cent were subjected to forced criminal activity and more than one per cent to begging. Smaller numbers were tra˝cked for forced marriages, organ removals and other purposes. Victims of tra˝cking for forced labour are exploited across a range of economic sectors, including agriculture, construction, ˚shing industry, mining, street trading and domestic servitude. Although patterns of tra˝cking for forced labour vary across economic sectors, one aspect is true for all sectors: it is generally the result of a deterioration of labour rights, such as lower salaries, longer working hours, reduced protections and informal employment. Also, it is mainly a cross-border phenomenon, especially in high-income countries Œ dozens of court cases involving hundreds of victims of tra˝cking for forced labour analysed by UN – ODC overwhelmingly involved a cross-border element. Victims were taken from their countries in much larger proportion than for any other form of tra˝cking. Broad cultural acceptance of child labour can serve as a fertile ground for tra˝ckers. It is easier to exploit young – sters when people are accustomed to sending their chil – dren to work away from home. In such settings, child tra˝cking victims may be hidden in plain sight. ˜e detection of child victims of tra˝cking for sexual exploitation is largely concentrated in Central America and the Caribbean, and East Asia.In higher income countries, child tra˝cking is general -ly less detected and typically takes the characteristics of sexual exploitation. In high-income countries in Europe or North America, children tra˝cked for forced labour constitutes roughly 1 per cent of total victims detected. Most child victims globally are tra˝cked for sexual ex – ploitation.FIG. 2 Shares of detected victims of traf-˜cking, by age group and national income,* 2018 (or most recent) Source: UNODC elaboration based on national data on detected trafficking in persons and data on national income based on World Bank groupings. *The World Bank groups countries according to their economic perfor -mance. Economies are divided into four income groupings: low, low -er-middle, upper-middle, and high. Income is measured using gross national income (GNI) per capita, in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the World Bank Atlas method. Estimates of GNI are obtained from economists in World Bank country units; and the size of the population is estimated by World Bank demographers from a variety of sources, including the UN™s biennial World Population Pros -pects. For more on this see How does the World Bank classify coun -tries? at the following link: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/378834-how-does-the-world-bank-classify-countries14333750866763500%10%20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100%HighIncomeCountriesUpperMiddleIncomeCountriesLowerMiddleIncomeCountriesLow IncomeCountriesShare of adult victims detected (18 years old or above)Share of minor victims detected (under the age of 18)

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