Stockape de viannes sterilisees par irradiation en presence de chn~bon Active. Irradiation des. Aliments •. ( of irradiAted meat with ()ctiv,.terl CbR.

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FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF CANADA Translation Series No. 896 Food technol_ogy By Johann Kuprianoff FISHERIES RESEA ” , -. RLH BO:;R;:, OF CANA Ha/tfax . . DA :1707 LOW . . y . Ltbrary ER V//: TER STREET P. 0. BOX 429 I HALIFAX NC”V. s I ‘ .) A COT/A Original titles From: VDI-Zeitschrift, Vol. 108, No. 9,’pp. 400-408. 1966. ‘Ł Translated by the Translation Bureau (SGS) Foreign Languages Division Department of the Secretary of State of Canada Fisheries Research Board of Canada Technological Research Laboratory, Halifax, N. S. 1967

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Ł . ” . FRB-89£ -! L. . ···-·· .. ——Ł. ——,-· .. Ł -.; .L:. Special Printinp from VDI-Journal Vol.l08 (1966) No.9,pp.400/08 · J e ,., , . .. () ·:t FOOD /by Johnnn KupriA.noff, VDI,Karlsruhe Training Rnd Specinlization r-Ł r. ,;.. . .L . –···-, The “Food” p:roup of the Europenn ing held the 2nd European Symposium in the of 1965 Frankfurt a.M.·, on the theme of “Food-Latest .velopments in Heat MRnap:ement”; the 17 lectures delivered there hA.Ve been published /1/ Ł. A comprehensive picture of the training in food ce technique in the Holland,Norwey,Frqnce,Germany,Polpnd and the Soviet Union provides,qs well, nn insip:ht into the teaching plans /2/. In East Germany,the public qUthorities are supporting basic qnd advanced trAining of speciqlized m8npower for the food industry ( skilled workers, technicians, Ell gineers )/3/. Dr.Eng.Johann Kuprianoff is Full of Food ing Technology nnd Director of namesake institute at the Cql University,Knrlsruhe,as well as Director,Federql Research Institute for retention of fresh ness in food.

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. ‘ ‘ 2 Apart from trade schoo1s (.for training masters) there are already four schools for the .food industry (Dahlen/S9.,Dinnoldiswqlde, Gerwisch b.Ma.gdeburg ,::)nd stadt). University courses leading to an engineering degree are offered by Humboldt University (main professional orientation-food technology) and the Technical University Dresden (f6od technology): Rostock has a Depart-ment of fishery techninue. C6rva !It’s At Conrnvalis,Oregon (U.S.A.), a symposmum was held for the firRt time on smell and flavouB substances in food /4/. The annual number of graduates (B.Sc.) in food science and food technology, from 24 American versities, is estimated at about 100. In the Soviet Union there is a “Scientific-Technical Food Industry Society” (membership at the end of 1965 nearly 200,000) which arranges lectures,courses and seminars; some 200 insti-tutes and lqboratories devote themselves to scientific research /5/. At Kra.snodar (USSR) various faculties have for the last 40 years been training engineers for tae food industry; some 5500 have graduqted f this uni-versity,so far. ·—.. 1

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” . ‘ ‘ 3 In the USSR it has been proposed to coordinate the scientific research on meat technique,technology And economy cRrried on in more than 100 labora_toriex. ‘II 11 The”British Institute of Fodd Science and echnolop:y has decided to publish its own quarterly “Journal of Food Technology11 at the beginning of 1966. The Technical University,Prague, has had a professional trade guidance section for chemical, food andhines and qppartus construction; in 1965 a chair for · food machinery established. An 11Advisory Service. for the Food Industri_” was witl established by the Ministry of Commerce jointly the food industrysin Israel. Basic Research ·–An instrument for measuring temP,er8ture in food has been developed (accur8cy 9bout 5% obtained) /6/. Experiments on p spherical-shaped substance with the thermic que.lities of meat equation Nu-2,708 Re0 1422 f h or eat exchange on the moist 1 —-·-···–.

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. ‘ ‘ 4 ( -4 surface /7/. The temperature range 4,4 Ł 10 to _4 5,0 Ł10 m2/h, the heat conductivity ( 0,38·to 0,39 kcal/m h grd) and the specific heat (o,e·to· 0, 7 4 kcl!l.l/kg grd) of the substR.nce were mea.sured in a temperRture rqnge of 30 to 80°C /8/. A new instrument will measure the tenderness of meat (Brit.Pat. 1 005 228) The influence of the temperature of the meat on its elas-ticity modulus qnd resistance to was measurPd in the temperature range of -10 to plus 2Q°C /9/. The surface firmness of the meat was also checked /10/. The elevtrical of meat can serve as criterion for its quality /11/. From the fractioning index of fatt, acids, their purity,various physico.;;.chemical properties and molecular can be determined /12/. Entropy of several fatty acids was computed /13/. The viscosity of pectin from apples (molecular weight 27,000),, lemons,(l9,000),beetroot (32,000) in solutions of water and of sugar concentrations governed by temperature was establlshed; it was proven that no reqctions whatever occur between saccharides and pectin,ll4/ The rheological properties of starch were studied 3nd it was shown that as the starch thickens scattered 1

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5 swollen granules found in colloidRl dispersion /15/. The British “Food Standards Corr.mittee” proposed the prohibiti0n of twelve substances and the admis-1 sion of new ones only if their safety for health is clear-ly established; a “positive” list of gpproved aromq stances will be issued,without indicating mqximum sible concentrations, as the use of the substances is self-limiting. Further, on the recommendation or the Committee, six food colourlngs have since been prohibited /16/. In England, the cost of investigating a substance for health safety (e.g. a preservative substAnce) is estimated to be 32,000 Pounds /17/. Industrial Developments The turnover in the German food industry in 1964 was 42 billion DM (German Marks) (87,000 DM per food try ooerator); for 1965 it is estimqted to be 44 to 45 lion DM. In 1964 the German food industry invested 2.3 bil-116n pM of which efficiency and expansion as well cost of production changes may have rea.ched 2.4 billion DM.-In the year reported a series of new German food have u ‘ a:opeared (governing cheese,potatoes,poltry, among other items)-_/.,

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” . Ł 7 The fprmers suplied only about 10% of this market; the number of plpnts with 20 employees (1963:14 080) continues to diminish, but their averAge size is creasing ; only the number of factories has creased ( to about 4100) and poultry processing ries (to 0bout 1000) because of rapidly increased Some v5 Mrd was spent in 1963 for food trans-2 port. In 1964 U.S.A exports of food amounted to Mrd. The State food industry in the USSR operates under food laws only in the form of obligatory standards which the State Committee for StRndards,Weip:hts and Measures jointly with the Ministry of Health lay dow;t; ‘fhe Minlst.ry exercises surveillance over food industry products for health safety ‘( all uncertified additives are prohibited). More than 300 new industrial food plants may hAVe gone into operation in 1965. The can-ning industry delivered nearly 8 Mrd tins in 1965. A sugar reasearch institute has been estab-lished in Austria in December 1964 a facility for In Britain, a board was set up jointly by the food industry and food machinery manufacturers which e)!:,A:roines, amonp: others, foreign machines that are

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Ł 8 superior to the British or such types 13_s are not built in their own country /19/. The of the Polish food inndustry is about 15.5%. 2 The employment of accurate scale models of chines and aPParatus facilitates the planning of factories. /20/. The possibilities were studied of introducing data processiBg instqll qtions in the food industry /21/. considerqtion was also given to elimination of waste water /22/ 8nd the foreseeijble development stage of the food industry in the year 2000 /23/.Food warehouses are being automated /24/. Automated systems 3J’e finding wide’B qcceptance /25/. FOOD Refrigeration An symposium on the employment of for food (meat,poultry,eggs) too:m place at Karlsruhe in May,l965 /26/. In the report of the at Abidjan,Ivory Coast, on use of refrigeration in tropica.l countries , all the talks delivered there were published /27/.

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‘Ł 9 ·, In the years 1963-1965the German fleet was creased by 17 modern refrigerator ers of between 4100 6540 tdw with speeds of up to 22 knots: At the end of 1964, 172 ships with GermAn Lloyd re&rigeration certificates were in use. Among them wine tank freighters. The influence of the bulkhead substahce in KrRtkuhler can be mathemQtically computed /28/. In the refrigeition of apples and pears in crates an initial refrigeration rAte of 17 grd/h in the center of the container the time values of the refriF!eration was about 20 to 30/h , in the pile 20 to 40 h /29/. Freezing In the Federal Republic,–consumption of frozen foods rose to around 70,000 t ( Spinach, 26,’000 con-, med,in addition, about 85,000 t of frozen rowland over 50,000 t industrially produced icecream. Large sumers of-frozen cooked foods (canteens,hospitals,and restaurant enterprises) about 50,000 such –:—————2

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10 foods on deep-frozen food” in the Food Book in the of In the .U.S. qbout 4 Mt of frozen food (not count-ing were produced in 1964, counting icecream 5.5 Mt; of these, about 1.2 were frozen vegetables,some in cook pouches. Work is continuinp on use of liquid nitrogen for freezing melons,mushrooms,avocados and some sea products. A plant for flash freezing food in atomized liquid nitrogen has gone into operation /30/. In New Zealand a special installation has been built for loading dressed meat in weatherproof conditibns /31/. Methods are sugpested for improvement in the freeze concentration process ( juices, gar) U.S.Pat. 3 205 078 ). Pasteurization and Sterilization technological No./38/ reports on the new development in the field of sterilization (flotation heating; aseptic can-ning, “Flash·l8” sterilization 2 and others)/32/. The aseptic canning process is especially

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