by G Shabiralyani · 2015 · Cited by 281 — Visual aids arouse the interest of learners and help the teachers to explain the concepts easily. Visual aids are those instructional aids which are used in the
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 226 Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Pro cess Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan. Ghulam Shabiralyani 1* , Khuram Shahzad Hasan 2, Naqvi Hamad 3, Nadeem Iqbal 4 1,2 GC University Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan, 3Policy and Strategic Planning Unit, Health Departme nt Punjab, Pakistan, 4Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab Pakistan. Abstract This research explore the teachers opinions on the use of visual aids (e.g., pictures, animation video s, projectors and films) as a motivational tool in enhancing stud ents™ attention in reading literary texts. To accom plish the aim of the research, the closed ended questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The targeted po pulation for this research was the staffs and students of the pu blic and private educational institutions of Distri ct Dera Ghazi Khan. In this research the primary data was used fo r gathering information. The collected data is anal yzed through the SPSS software and also data was represe nted in the percentage distribution of pie, line, a nd bar graphs. The analysis of the data indicated that the majority of the teachers and students had positive perceptions of the use of visual aids. Keywords: Visual aids, resources, teacher trainings, student perceptions INTRODUCTION Education is necessary for everybody. Education is very vital, deprived of education no can lead a goo d life. Teaching and learning are the important element in education. The teacher use different approaches and substantial to teach their students and their activ e learning. With the passage of time, altered metho ds and techniques are entered in the field of education an d teacher use different kind of aids to make effect ive learning. Visual aids arouse the interest of learners and hel p the teachers to explain the concepts easily. Visu al aids are those instructional aids which are used in the clas sroom to encourage students learning process. Accor ding to Burton ﬁVisual aids are those sensory objects or im ages which initiate or stimulate and support learni ngﬂ. Kinder, S. James; describe visual aids as ﬁVisual a ids are any devices which can be used to make the l earning experience more real, more accurate and more active ﬂ. Visual aids are tools that help to make an issue or lesson clearer or easier to understand and know (p ictures, models, charts, maps, videos, slides, real objects etc.). There are many visual aids available these d ays. We may classify these aids as follows, visual aids are whi ch use sense of vision are called Visual aids. For example :- models, actual objects, charts, pictures, maps, f lannel board, flash cards, bulletin board, chalkboa rd, slides, overhead projector etc. Out of these black board an d chalk are the commonest ones. The challenges of c lassroom instruction increases when prescribed a course to t he class while course books (textbooks) are constit uted with too many interactive expertise activities. Most sig nificantly, it has convert a common phenomenon to i ntegrate textbooks with audio visual aids as additional or s upplementary resource for classroom course learning activities. Visual aids are important in education system. Visu al aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage students learning process a nd make it easier and interesting. Visual aids are the best tool for making teaching effective and the best dis semination of knowledge. Research of Cuban (2001) indicated the psychology o f visual aids as under, 1% of what is learned is from the sense of TASTE, 1 .5% of what is learned is from the sense of TOUCH, 3.5% of what is learned is from the logic of SMELL, 11% of what is educated is from the logic of HEARING an d 83% of what is learned is from the sense of SIGHT. Also people generally remember, 10% of what they RE AD, 20% of what they HEAR, 30% of what they SEE, 50% of what they HEAR and SEE, 70% of what they SAY and 90% of what they SAY as they DO a thing. So there is no doubt that technical devices have great er impact and dynamic informative system. Significance of the Research Visual aids are the devices that help the teacher t o clarify, establish, and correlate and co-ordinate precise conceptions, understandings and appreciations and s upport him to make learning more actual, active, mo tivating, encouraging, significant and glowing. Following are the significances of our research, Every individual has the tendency to forget. Proper use of visual aids helps to retain more concept permanently. Students can study well when they are inspired pro perly through different visual aids. Visual aids grow the accurate image when the stude nts see and hear properly. Visual aids provide complete example for conceptual thinking. Visual aids create the environment of interest for the students. Visual aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students. Visual aids helps the teacher to get sometime and m ake learning permanent. Visual aids provide direct experience to the stude nts.
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 227 Aims of Research To explore the use and benefits of visual aids, in the students learning process in Dera Ghazi Khan. Objectives of the Research Following are the main objectives of this research: 1. To investigate the teachers™ views about the use of visual aids in schools, colleges and university cl asses of Dera Ghazi Khan. 2. To describe differences and similarities in use of visual aids among teachers. 3. To compare teachers™ views regarding use of visual aids according to experiences, locations and gende r. 4. To identify the uses of visual aids at school and u niversity level. 5. To know the interest of students in visual aids at school and university level. 6. To analyze the effectiveness of visual aids in stud ents learning process at school and university leve l. 7. To find out the problems in using visual aids. 8. To find out the teachers skills through visual aids which help to make learning process effective 9. To explore how the learners active in class room af ter the use of visual aids. 10. To investigate that visual aids help in making stud ents good observer. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Learning is a complex process. It can be defined as a change in disposition; a relatively permanent ch ange in behavior over time and this is brought about partly by knowledge. Learning can happen as an outcome of afresh attained skills, principles, perception, knowledge, facts, and new information at hand (Adeyanju, 1997 ). Learning can be reinforced with different teaching/ learning resources because they stimulate, motivate as well as focus learners™ attention for a while during the in structional process. Visual aids arouse the interest of learners and hel p the teachers to explain the concepts easily. Vis ual aids are those instructional aids which are used in the clas sroom to encourage teaching learning process. As Si ngh (2005) defines: ﬁAny device which by sight and sound incre ase the individual s’ practice, outside that attain ed through read labeled as an audio visual aidsﬂ. Visual aids are those instructional devices which are used in t he classroom to encourage learning and make it easier and motiva ting. The material like models, charts, film strip, projectors, radio, television, maps etc called instructional ai ds. (Rather, 2004). Visual aids are effective tool that ﬁinvest the past with an air of actuality.ﬂ Visual aids distrib ute the learners with true knowledge, which detenti on their devotion and help in the understanding of the ancie nt marvels. They demand to the mind through the vis ual auditory senses. When we use visual aids as teachin g aid, it is one of the aspects which root particip ation of students in the lesson because when students look a t visual model or aid, it is measured as a kind of contribution. Also the uses of visual aids encourage the body mov ement and it may strengthen the control. (Jain, 2004)There is famous Chinese proverb ﬁone sighted i s worth, a hundred wordsﬂ it is fact that we take k nowledge through our intellects. There is another maxim that ﬂ if we hear we forget, if we see we remember, and if we do something we know itﬂ so it means that use of visua l aids make teaching learning process more effectiv e. As Kishore (2003) said ﬁvisual aids stimulated thinkin g and cognize.ﬂ The use of visual aids in teaching learning process has multifarious values (Mohanty, 2001). Vi sual aids give chance to speakers to make a more professional and consistent performance. The teachi ng career is full with limitless opportunities to e nrich the academic survives of students, while some ideas and educational goals will be easy for students to hol d, other will need you to think productively to ensure that important learning aims are met. By visual aids in teaching is one mode to enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject information (Kun ari, 2006). Visual aids are devices present unit of know ledge through auditory of visual stimuli both with a view to aid learning. They concretize the information to be obtainable and help in making learning practice ap ple real, active and vital. They supplement the work of the t eacher and help in the research of the text books. The great educationist Comenius has well said: The foundation of all learning consists in representing clearly t o the senses and sensible objects so they can be appreciated eas ily (Singh, 2005). (Agun et al; 1977) Examples of l earning resources include visual aids, audio aids, real obj ects and many others. Visual aids are designated ma terials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of, for illustration, wall charts, exe mplified pictures, symbolic materials and other two dimensio nal items. There are also audio visual aids. These are teaching machines like television, radio, and all k inds of projectors with sound attributes .Televisio n and radio programs provide another useful learning resource. Films, likewise, are a general teaching/learning re source. In addition to helping students remember important inf ormation, teaching/learning resources have other re turns. When accurately used they aid achievement and hold the attention of students. Visual aids can be very useful in supportive a topic, and the amalgamation of both vi sual and audio stimuli is particularly effective si nce the two most important senses are involved (Burrow, 1986). Teachers should keep in mind that they are like sal esmen of philosophies, and many of the best sales practices that attract attention of potential clients are wel l worth considering. Clear y, a major goal of all teaching is for the students to be able to retain as much kn owledge of the topic as possible, particularly the main points. Fr equent studies have attempted to determine how well learning resources serve this purpose. Indicate from the stu dies vary greatly from modest results which show 10 -15
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 228 percent increase in retention to more optimistic re sults in which retention is increased by as much as 80 percent (Burrow,1986). Good learning resources can help sol ve certain language barrier problem as they provide accurate visual image and make learning easier for the student (Chacko, 1981). Another use of learning resources is to clarify the relationship between ma terial objects and concepts to understand. Symbols, graphs, and diagrams can also show associations of location , time, size, value and frequency. By symbolizing t he factors tangled, it is even possible visualize abstract rel ationship. Instructional aides have no value in the learning process if they cannot be seen or heard. Tapes of s peeches and sounds should be confirmed for correct volume and quality in the actual environment in which they will be used (Chorley, 1966). Visual aids must be visible to the whole class. All calligraphy and illustration m ust be large adequate to be seen easily by the stud ents farthest from the aids’ .Colours, when used, should provide clear contrast and easily be visible. The efficacy of aids can be enhanced by proper sequencing to build on former knowledge. Often, good institute and natural patte rns of logic command the sequence. According to Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009), integra ting technology into the classroom begins when a te acher prepare lessons that use technology in meaningful a nd relevant ways. Technological aids should support the curriculum rather than dominate it. Ranasinghe and Leisher say that technology should assist the teach er in creating a collaborative learning environment. Koç (2005) says that the integration of technology into curriculum means using it as a tool to teach academic subjects and to promote higher-order thinking skills of the students. Developments in technology gave scope for innovativ e practices in the classroom. Practical improvement s in the creation of visual aids for classroom use have been remarkable. Technological developments in Pakistan had a positive impact on students learning environment. E ducational reforms for improving skills initiated b y the Ministry of Higher Education elevated the classroom learning environment in Pakistan. University class rooms were equipped with world class technological teachi ng aids for making classroom students learning proc ess interesting and resourceful. However, use of identi cal resources, comprising a syllabus, is suggested. Sequencing also can be improved purely by using overlays on sl ides, doffing methods on charts and or chalk, and m arker boards. Sequencing can be emphasized and prepared c learer by the use of distinct colors (Chorley, 1966 ). Problem Statement of the Research As it is known that visual aids are one of the impo rtant teaching facilities and they are essential du ring teaching, they facilitate and make calm to study, teach and e xtant a theme easily. Visual aids may provide the c hance to learn visually and are more effective and easy for human beings. During teaching with models and visua l aids, students effort to identify it, or recognize its fu nctions and try to have its interpretation, to unde rstand its use. They compare it with their preconcepts, adapting th e new sensation and pursuing to recognize about it. Hence, it is virtuous to stimulate the students or keep them active for eliciting in teaching and learning proce ss. But, utmost of the teachers do not use adequate visual a ids as teaching materials. This may cause barriers to teaching and learning process and directly affects the learn ing outcomes. So following are the main question of this research, · What are the views of teachers about using visual a ids? · How differences between the level of students that use visual aids and without visual aids? · Are there variances of views and use about visual a ids between teachers and students in Dera Ghazi Kha n? Limitation of the Research The researcher has to complete his research work wi thin short period of time. Due to lack of resources he has to confine his research work to Dera Ghazi Khan Distri ct. Conceptual Framework A conceptual framework is defined as a network or a ﬁplaneﬂ of associated models. Conceptual framework analysis offers a procedure of theorization for bui lding conceptual frameworks based on grounded theor y method. The conceptual framework of the research is given a s, Figure-1 Conceptual framework of the research. According to the conceptual framework the visual ai ds represents the independent variable while the en hancing learning process acts as dependent variable. The model shows the factors that influenced in enha ncing learning process. Visual Aids Enhancing Learning Process
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 229 Additive model is used here. The equation for the r epresentation of the models is given as, Y i = 0 + ixi + i Here is, Yi represents the dependent variable, 0 denotes the constant, i is a regression coefficient of independent variables, x i represents the independent variables also called a s explanatory variables and i denotes the random error. So equation representing our conceptual framework i s given as, ELP = 0 + 1 (VAs) Equation-1 represents the Additive model of the res earch. Here is, (ELP) represents the dependent variable en hancing learning process and 1 (VAs) is independent variable and represents the visual aids. Hypothesis Following is the main hypothesis that are generated from the conceptual framework, H1: Visual aids have a positive and significance relati on with enhancing the learning process. METHODOLOGY In this research random sampling techniques are use d for the collection of information from the partic ular individuals that had the specific knowledge. So suc h type of knowledge have been required for the quan titative research. The targeted population for this research is the staffs and students of the Ghazi University Campus Dera Ghazi Khan, Indus International Institute Dera Ghazi Khan, Government Degree College Dera Ghazi K han, Government High School No.1 (Center of Excellence) for boys and girls Dera Ghazi Khan, Government College of technology Dera Ghazi Khan, Government T echnical Training Centre Dera Ghazi Khan, Vocationa l Training Institutes for boys and girls Dera Ghazi Khan, and private technical institutes of Dera Ghaz i Khan. Sample size for this research is 200 and the primar y data is used for gathering information. The close d ended questionnaires are used to measure various paramete rs which showed the impact of visual aids in enhanc ing the learning process of the students of Dera Ghazi Khan . The data is analyzed through the SPSS software us ing regression and correlation analysis. DATA ANALYSIS The collected data is evaluated through the percent age distribution and is represented in the pie and line charts/ graphs. Motivation Visual aids helping in the motivation of teachers a nd students in Dera Ghazi Khan. The percentage dist ribution is given as, The data analysis shows that 70% of the students an d teachers agree that the visual aids help in motiv ation but 30% of students and teachers disagree in schools, c olleges and university of Dera Ghazi Khan. Clarification The data analysis shows that the 75% of the student s and teachers agree that the visual aids help in c larification of contents under researching but 25% was disagree with this statement. The bar graph of its percentag e distribution is given below.
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 230 Increased the Vocabulary Increased the vocabulary is one of the independent variable that represents the role of visual aids. A ccording to collected data 68% of the students and teacher agre e that visual aids increase the vocabulary. The lin e graph is given as, Save the Time The visual aids help in the saving of teachers and students time in preparing of lessons. The percentage scattered diagram is given as, The scattered shows that the 82% of the students an d teachers agreed that visual aids save the time in preparing of lessons. Avoid Dullness The collected data shows that 71% of the teachers a nd students agree that visual aids avoid the dullne ss but 29% disagree with this statement. The pie chart of avoi d dullness is given as,
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 231 Direct Experience According to collected data the 92% of the teachers and students agree that through visual aids the di rect experience increased to observe the things while 18 % disagree with this statement. The percentage dist ribution is given as, The above data shows that the main variables that i mpact the enhancement of learning through visual ai ds in Dera Ghazi Khan. Model Summary Model R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of t he Estimate 1 .785 .821 5.24651 Table-1 Model summary of the research The R2 in the model is 0.785 which means that the i ndependent variables can explain 78.5% of change in the dependent variable. The adjusted R2 demonstrates th at 82% of the variances between dependent and indep endent variables in this model. ANOVA Analysis ANOVA a Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 6342.651 1 6342.651 43.6 0.000 b Residual 201.63 198 25.387 Total 6543.714 199 a. Dependent Variable : ELP b. Predictors: (Constant), VAs Table-2 ANOVA Analysis of the Variables The researcher used one variable that is acting as independent variable and model shows the significan t impact of this variable on dependent variable enhancing le arning process of students in district Dera Ghazi K han.
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.6, No.19, 2015 233 understanding towards the lesson. Furthermore, the implementation of visual aids in teaching is less t ime consuming. As a result, the teachers will have more ample time to create enjoyable classroom activitie s and conduct an effective teaching and learning process. CONCLUSIONS From this research following conclusions have been drawn; 1- The research concluded that using visuals aids as a teaching method stimulates thinking and improves learning environment in a classroom. 2- Effective use of visual aids substitutes monotonous learning environments. 3- Students develop and increase personal understandi ng of the areas of learning when they experience a successful and pleasant learning in the classroom. 4- Students find visual aids sessions useful and rele vant when it has some direct relation to the course content. 5- The present research gave insights on students™ per ception and opinions on the use of visual aids and resources. However, it is also imperative to redire ct teachers opinions, perceptions, experiences, fai lures and success while using visual aids resources. RECOMMENDATIONS According to the findings following recommendation s are made in this research: 1- Teachers may be gave importance to the students opi nion regarding the visual aids understanding. 2- The school, college and university administration a uthority must share the opinions of the students re garding the usage of visual aids that will be helpful in en hancing the learning system. 3- Refresher courses, workshops and conferences may be arranged for the teachers for improving their skil ls of using visual aids to the needs of students. 4- There is need for the Ministry of Education to moun t periodic training sessions for teachers who are a lready in the field to be retrained on recent discovery re garding the use of teaching/learning resources in t eaching lessons in high schools of Dera Ghazi Khan. 5- The Ministry of Education should appeal to non-gove rnmental organizations, the private sectors, indivi duals and industries to assist in supplementing and subst ituting obsolete educational materials and teaching /learning aids like audio and visual materials and software packages. 6- There is need for teachers in the field to have a f orum for meeting periodically to assess the effecti veness of their teaching using the methods of instructional a nd educational technology as applicable to the organization of the content of the school syllabuse s at high schools, colleges and university of Dera Ghazi Khan. 7- The research has further shown that the type of tea ching/learning resources mostly used by high school teachers were text books which they continued to re ly heavily on for their teach. This research theref ore, recommends that high school teachers should be expo sed to modern use of other teaching resources such as audio and visual aids, computers, photographic mate rials such as film strips slides, photographs, flat pictures and internet. This should be facilitated by the gov ernment through the Districts offices. 8- The personality of a teacher is a symbol for his st udents so the teachers may be tackled the students carefully and wisely. REFERENCES 1. Adeyanju, J. L, (1987) Creativity Learning and Learn ing Styles. Isola Ola & Sons: Zaria. 2. Agun, I & Okunrotifa, P (1977) Educational Technolo gy in Nigerian Teacher Education: NERDDC Press, Lagos . 3. Burrow, T (1986) Horizons in Human Geography. Macmil lan: London 4. Chacko, I (1981) Learning Out comes in secondary sch ools mathematics related to teacher and student cha racteristics. PhD Thesis University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 5. Chorley, R, J. (1966) Models in Geography. Methuen: L ondon. 6. Cuban, L. (2001). Computers in the Classroom, Cambridge , M.A. Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://www.webpages. uidaho.edu/mbolin/akerele-afol able.htm 7. Jain,P..(2004); Educational Technology, Delhi Moujp ur publication. 8. Kishore. N.(2003); Educational technology, Abhishek publication. 9. Koç, M. (2005). Implications of learning theories f or effective technology integration and pre-service teacher training: A critical literature review. Journal of Science Educ ation, 2, (1), 1-16. 10. Kunari ,C (2006); Methods of teaching educational Te chnology, New Delhi. 11. Mohanty, J (2001); Educational Technology, Publish by Rajouri garden New Delhi. 12. Orodho, J. A. (2003). Social Science Research Metho ds. Nairobi: Kanezja Publishers. 13. Ranasinghe, A. I. & Leisher, D. (2009). The benefit of integrating technology into the classroom. Inter national Mathematical Forum, 4, (40), 1955-1961. 14. Rather,A.R.(2004);Essentials Instructional Technolog y, published by Darya gaj New Delhi. 15. Singh, Y.k(2005);Instructional Technology in Educat ion, published by Darya ganj new Delhi.
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