May 10, 2021 — Salvador: Emergencia Tormenta Tropical Eta Informe de. Situación No. 2016; CBM, PDF, “Disability Inclusion Policy Brief: Gap.

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˜˚˛˝˙ ˆ ˙˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˛ ˜˚˛˝˙˙˙ˆˆˇˆˆˆ ˜˚˛˝˙˚˙˙˙ ˆˆˇˆˆ˚˙˙˙ ˜˚˛˝˚˚˚˙˙ ˆ˙˙˛˝ˇ˜˘˝˚˚˚˙˙˙ ˙˜˚˛˝˙˙˙ˆˆˇˆˆ˙ ˜˚˛˝˙˚˛˛˛ˆˆˇˆˆ˜˚˛˝˝˝˙˙ˆ˙˙ The country and territory names and ˜gures are shown only when the total new displacements value exceeds 20,000. Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond with the sum of the separate ˜gures. The boundaries and the names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply of˜cial endorsement or acceptance by IDMC.˜˚˛˝˙˚ˆˇ˘˜˚˛ˆ˚˜˜˚˙˛ˇ˘˚˜˚†“ˇ‘’šˇ’˛˝˜€˝˚˛˘˚˛˚˜˜•‡˛˚…˚˘–˚˛‘˚˜–˚˙ ˜˚–ƒ˚‘⁄‹•ˇ˜ ˜ ‘˚˙˚ ˜−ˇ‘ˇ˛‰˛ˇˆ˚ˇ˘ „⁄˚˜•ˆ˚˛˜••ˆ˚˛˜˚” € €˚˜˚ ˇ˛˚˙€‚˚˛šˇ•⁄˙‚˜˚‹˜ ™ˇ˛˚˜–˚˙˚fi˚‡˘˚˛ ˜˚ –ˇfl‚˜˚ ‰˝˚˛ˆ˚ ˜˚Łˇ›˚‘ ˚‘ˇ˛˜›˝ˇ˜˚ ˚˜˚ ˚˜ ˚˜˚ Ł ˜™ ˜˚˜” New displacements by con˜ict and disasters in 2020

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With Thanks With Thanks IDMC™s ˜˚˜˛ Global Report on Internal Displacement has been produced with the generous contribution of the following funding partners: the U.S. Agency for Interna -tional Development, the German Federal Foreign O˝ce, the European Union, the Swedish International Devel -opment Cooperation Agency, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign A˙airs, Australia™s Department of Foreign A˙airs and Trade, the Asian Development Bank, the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign A˙airs, the Robert Bosch Foundation, and Liechtenstein™s Ministry of Foreign A˙airs. Cover Photo: Heavy monsoon rains in Bangladesh in July 2019 triggered widespread ˚ooding, with the major river systems of Jamuna and Teesta recording their highest ˚ood levels in a hundred years. The disasters displaced more than 300,000 people. OCHA captured the response six months on. © OCHA ROAP, February 2020 Zaimati IDP site on the outskirts of the provincial city of Qala-e-naw in Badghis, Afghanistan. NRC/Enayatullah Azad, April 2021.

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Table of contents 1 Foreword 3 Key Messages 5 Part 1: Internal displacement in 2020 7 Global ˚gures at a glance 9 New displacements 13 People living in displacement 17 The economic and social impacts of displacement 19 Regional Overviews 23 Sub-Saharan Africa Spotlight – Burkina Faso Spotlight – Mozambique 33 Middle East and North Africa Spotlight – Syria Spotlight – Yemen 43 East Asia and Paci˚c Spotlight – Storms in East Asia and Paci˜c 51 South Asia Spotlight – Afghanistan 59 The Americas Spotlight – Atlantic hurricane season 67 Europe and Central Asia 71 Special Feature: Impacts of Covid-19 on internal displacement 75 Part 2: Internal displacement in a changing climate 77 Disasters and displacement: evidence vs myth Spotlight – Disasters, displacement and disability 87 Disaster displacement and the role of climate change 91 Slow-onset events and internal displacement Spotlight – Critical thresholds for disaster displacement in India, Peru and Tanzania 95 When con˜ict and disaster collide 99 Addressing disaster displacement: progress and lessons learned Spotlight – Lessons from regional cooperation 111 Accounting for disaster displacement 119 Conclusion 147 Tables 153 Background Papers 157 Acknowledgements

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Major climate-related disasters have almost doubled in the last twenty years as greenhouse gas emissions continue to climb. Combined with weak risk governance and environmental degradation, persistent inequality and marginalisation are creating new risks and aggravating the impacts of local crises to global scales. The COVID pandemic has been a wake-up call and this Report is another reminder: today, sound evidence and global part -nership are more important than ever. Millions of people on the move in a changing climate need us to act in solidarity. Foreword People cross a lagoon formed by the combined impact of the Eta and Iota storms, in Campur village located in central Guatemala. It was estimated that 70 percent of the town was submerged by the hurricanes. © UNICEF/UN0376671/Volpe Every year, millions of people are forced to ˆee their homes because of conˆict and violence. Disasters and the e˙ects of climate change regularly trigger new and secondary displacement, undermining people™s security and well-being. The scale of displacement worldwide is increasing, and most of it is happening within countries™ borders. While responses must be led by governments and communities, the global implications of displacement require a global response and international cooperation. We have a shared responsibility to tackle this growing challenge, as it is already a˙ecting the sustainable devel -opment of communities and entire countries. Most internally displaced people are living in low- and middle-income countries that are su˙ering from the e˙ects of global inequality, the steep rise in extreme weather events, and unsustainable development practices. While e˙ective humanitarian response remains critical, it is not su˝cient: we need to tackle the underlying drivers of displacement while challenging our traditional disaster management approaches. Addressing internal displace-ment in a changing climate is a developmental endeavour that requires increased political will, more strategic ˇnancing, and better collaboration between stakehold -ers working on disaster risk reduction, peacebuilding, sustainable development and climate action. It is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed in any national strategy for disaster risk reduction but especially in countries where disaster displacement is a recurring feature of disaster events. This is essential for reducing the numbers of disaster-a˙ected people, a key target of the global blueprint to reduce disaster losses, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. This year™s Global Report on Internal Displacement is an important contribution in this regard. It provides the required evidence on the scale and impacts of displace-ment across di˙erent regions and population groups, raising attention on an issue that is often neglected. It debunks a series of myths around the relationship between climate change, disasters, and displacement, and suggests innovative ideas on how we should frame the discussion in order to develop better policies that make a real and positive di˙erence. Mami MizutoriSpecial Representative of the Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction and Head of UNDRRAsako Okai Assistant Administrator and Director for the Crisis BureauUnited Nations Development Programme

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Key Messages 1˜The number of people worldwide living in internal displacement has reached a record 55 million as of 31 December 2020. More than 85 per cent have ˆed conˆict and violence. Around seven million have been uprooted by disasters but given the incomplete data this is likely to be a signiˇcant underestimate. 6˜The convergence of con˚ict and disasters led to˜many˜people being displaced for a second or even third time, increasing and prolonging their vulner -ability. Many of those who ˆed ˆooding in Yemen had already been uprooted at least once by conˆict. Drought in Somalia drove people to ˆee from rural to urban areas where they are now at greater risk of eviction and attacks by armed groups.˘ 4˘The UN secretary general called for a global ceaseˇre to unite against the virus, but con˚ict continued unabated, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and North Africa . Persistent conˆict continued to force people to ˆee in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Syria and Afghanistan, while escalating violence and the expansion of extremist groups in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Burkina Faso fuelled some of the world™s fastest growing displacement crises. ˘ 3˘Measures to curb the spread of Covid-19 signiˇ -cantly impeded humanitarian e˙orts globally. The pandemic also heightened internally displaced people’s (IDPs) needs and vulnerabilities, while delaying the search for durable solutions.˘ 2˘Around 40.5 million new displacements were recorded in 2020, the highest ˇgure in ten years. Disasters triggered over three times more displacements than conˆict and violence. These ˇgures were recorded despite the Covid-19 pandemic, when movement restrictions obstructed data collection and fear of infection discouraged people from seeking emergency shelter. ˘ 5˜Weather-related events were responsible for 98 per cent of all disaster displacement recorded in 2020. Intense cyclones, monsoon rains and ˆoods hit highly exposed and densely populated areas in South Asia and East Asia and the Paciˇc, including China, the Philip -pines and Bangladesh. The Atlantic hurricane season was the most active on record, and extended rainy seasons across the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa uprooted millions more. 7˜Internal displacement constitutes a signiˇcant economic burden for individuals, communities and economies. The global cost of one year of displacement was nearly $20.5 billion in 2020 , a ˇgure that covers support for IDPs™ housing, education, health and security needs, and accounts for their loss of income.˘ 8˜Persistent misconceptions surround disaster displacement, with serious implications for people, policy and responses. They include that disasters are natu-ral, when human factors have a major role in how they play out; that disaster displacement is short-term, when in reality it often becomes protracted; that climate change will drive mass migration across borders when actually much displace-ment is small-scale and localised; and that small events are of little concern, when in fact they undermine people™s lives and threaten local development gains.˘ 9˘Rising temperatures are increasing the frequency and intensity of weather-related hazards, but climate change is not the only factor that drives displace-ment risk. A range of social and economic drivers must be addressed in the face of ever more powerful storms and devastating ˆoods.10˘There have been signi˛cant advances in the development of national and regional policies on disaster displacement and climate-related migration, and global attention on the issue is growing. A number of countries now recognise the issue. Implementation, and assessing progress in doing so, are the next priorities. 11˘When the impacts of climate change, slow-onset environmental change or unsustainable land use make an area uninhabitable, returning after a disaster is not an option. Two alternatives for those displaced are local integration or planned relocation. These solutions require strong local governance and decentralised inter-ventions that include the perspectives of those at risk and support community-led livelihood initiatives.12˘There is an increasing need to connect humanitarian, peacebuilding and sustainable development e˝orts to prevent and respond to displace -ment in a changing climate. Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation and mitigation are key, but more ˆexible and predictable ˇnancing is required.˘ 13˘Filling the data gaps is essential if we are to understand how displacement impedes prog -ress on the sustainable development agenda. To paint a clear picture, however, we cannot act at the global level alone. Disasters and climate impacts are essentially local phenomena, so local authorities and national governments have a key role to play. The evening sky with volcanic lightning during the eruption of Taal Volcano, as seen from the nearby province of Quezon. © Getty Images/Mariano Sayno, January 2020.

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˜˚˛˜˛˚˝˜˝˚˙˜˙˚˝˜˛˛˝˜˛˝˝˜˛˙˝˜˛˚˝˜˝˜˙˜ ˛ ˛ ˙˜ ˛˜ ˜˚˛˛˜˚˛˜˜˚˛˝˜˚˛˙˜˚˛ˆ˜˚˛ˇ˜˚˛˘˜˚˜˚ ˚˛˚˜˚˝˚˙˚ˆ˚˝˘ ˙˚ ˙˚ ˙˚ ˆ ˘˜˚˛˝˙˜ˆ˛˚˙˜ˆ˛ˇ˙ˆ˛˘˙˜ˇ˙˜ˇ˛˙˜ˇ˛˙˜˝˛˙˜˛ˇ˙˜˛˙˜˚˛˝˙ˆˇ˘ˇ˜˜˙˜˘˙˝˙˝˝˙˙˝˙˜˙˘˝˙˝ˇ˛˝˙˜˚˜˛˝˙ˆ˙ˇ˘˘˘˝˘ˇ˘˘˘ˇ˘˘˘ˇ˘˘˘ˇ˘˘˘ˆˇ˘˘˘˝ˆˆˇ˘˘˘˝ˆ˘ˇ˘˘˘˝˜ˆˇ˘˘˘˜˚˛˝˙ˆˇ˘ˆ˚˛ˇ˚˝ˇ˛ˇˇ˚ˇˇˇ˛ˇ˚˝ˇ˛˘˛˝˚˚ˇ ˜˚˛˝˙ˆ˛˝ˇ˘48m as a result of con˜ict and violence 7m as a result of disasters ˜˚˛˝ ˙˛˚ˆ˝˙ˇ˚˘˝ ˛˛˝ ˜˚˛˝˙˙˙ˆˆˇˆˆˆ ˜˚˛˝˙˚˙˙˙ ˆˆˇˆˆ˚˙˙˙ ˜˚˛˝˚˚˚˙˙ ˆ˙˙˛˝ˇ˜˘˝˚˚˚˙˙˙ ˙˜˚˛˝˙˙˙ˆˆˇˆˆ˙ ˜˚˛˝˙˚˛˛˛ˆˆˇˆˆ˜˚˛˝˝˝˙˙ˆ˙˙ 20m IDPs are children under 15 2.6m are over 65 30.7m by disasters 9.8m by con˜ict and violence Global ˚gures at a glance New displacements in 2020 40.5m new displacements, the highest ˛gure in a decade55mpeople living in internal displacementFigure 4: Total number of IDPs worldwide as of end 2020, by age group Figure 3: Con˚ict and disasters: Ten countries with the highest number of IDPs worldwide as of the end of 2020Total number of IDPs as of end of 2020 Figure 2: New displacements by con˚ict, violence and disasters worldwide (2011-2020)Figure 1: New displacements by con˚ict, violence and disasters per region*Updated ˜gures. For further details see monitoring methodology, available online. Figure 5: Total number of IDPs worldwide at year end (2011-2020) Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond with the sum of the separate ˜gures.

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˜˚˛˝˙ ˆ – ⁄ ‹ ” New displacements Two brothers play inside a tent erected as a temporary shelter in Kaya, Burkina Faso, after being displaced by insecurity in their home area. © UNICEF/UNI280378/Tremeau, December 2019. Conˆict and disasters triggered 40.5 million new internal displacements across 149 countries and territories in 2020. Conˆict continued unabated in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Syria and Ethio -pia, which are also home to some of the largest numbers of people living in protracted internal displacement. Violence increased sharply in Mozambique, Burkina Faso and the Central African Republic (CAR), forcing signiˇcant numbers of people from their homes. In countries such as Yemen and Somalia, disasters forced many already displaced by conˆict to ˆee again. Most disaster displacements were the result of tropi-cal storms and ˆoods in East Asia and the Paciˇc and South Asia. China, the Philippines and Bangladesh each recorded more than four million new displacements, many of them pre-emptive evacuations. Figure 6: Twenty- ˜ve countries with most new displacements in 2020

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˛˝˙ ˜˚˛˝˙ ˜ ˛ Disasters triggered more than three-quarters of the new displacements recorded worldwide in 2020, accounting for 30.7 million. More than 98 per cent were the result of weather-related hazards such as storms and ˆoods. The majority of conˆict displacements were triggered by armed conˆict, but communal violence accounted for a signiˇcant proportion of the global total of 9.8 million. Figure 7: New displacements in 2020: breakdown for con˚ict and disasters Figure 8: Con˚ict displacements in 2020 by locationFigure 9: Disaster displacements in 2020 by locationGeolocated data shows that although internal displace-ment is a global challenge, it tends to be concentrated not only in some regions or countries but in certain areas within them. For conˆict, these included Syria™s northern governorate of Idlib, border areas between Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, and eastern provinces of DRC. Disaster displacement was highly concentrated in the Bay of Bengal and the Caribbean basin, where tropical cyclones forced millions to ˆee. The boundaries, names and the designations used on these maps do not imply of˜cial endorsement or acceptance by IDMC.Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond with the sum of the separate ˜gures.

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People living in displacement Sunset view of Hirat provincial capital in western Afghanistan. NRC/Enayatullah Azad, October 2020. Forty-eight million people were living in internal displace-ment as a result of conˆict and violence in 59 countries and territories as of 31 December 2020, an increase of 2.1 million compared with 2019 and the highest ˇgure on record. Most IDPs were in Syria, DRC and Colombia, which between them accounted for more than a third of the global total. People may have been displaced by relatively recent events, but the ˇgures also include those who have been living in internal displacement for decades in countries such as Côte d™Ivoire, Nigeria and Palestine. Many still face signiˇcant obstacles in their e˙orts to bring their displacement to a sustainable end, and the Covid-19 pandemic has added another layer of complexity to their situations. 48 Million people living in displacement as a result of conˆict and violence in 59 countries and territories as of 31 December 2020 The boundaries, names and the designations used on this map do not imply of˜cial endorsement or acceptance by IDMC.Figure 10: Total number of IDPs by con˚ict and violence as of 31 December 2020 Con˜ict and violence ˜˚˛˝˙

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