551 KB – 338 Pages

PAGE – 3 ============
˜Creative Commons Attribution ˚.˛ IGO license (CC BY ˚.˛ IGO) © ˜˚˜˚ Asian Development Bank ˛ ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City, ˝˙˙˚ Metro Manila, Philippines Tel ˆ˛ˇ ˜ ˘˛ax ˆ˛ˇ ˜ ˘˛ˇ˛ ˜ www.adb.org Some rights reserved. Published in ˜˚˜˚. ˜˛-prin˜˛˝ (electronic˜˛ebook) Publication Stock No. TCS˜˚˚ˇ˛ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/˝˚.˜˜/TCS˜˚˚ˇ˛ The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily rs and policies oevelopment Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The mention oompanies or products of manufacturers does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by ADB in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term ficountryfl t, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution ˇ.˚ IGO license (CC BY ˇ.˚ IGO) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ˇ.˚/igo/. By using the content of this publication, you agree to be bound berms of this license. For attribution, translations, adaptations, and permissions, please read the provisions erms of use at https://www.adb.org/tcess. This CC license does not apply to non-ADB copyright materials in this publication. If the material is attributed tce, please contact the copyright owner or publisher of that source for permission to reproduce it. ADB cannot be held liable for any claims that arise as a result of your use of the material. Please contact pubsmarketing@adb.org if you have questions or comments with respect to content, or if you wish tain copyright permission for your intended use that does not fall within these terms, or for permission to use go. Corrigenda to ADB publications may be found at http://www.adb.org/publications/corrigenda. Notes: In this publicaefers to United States dollars, unless otherwise stated. ADB recognizes fiChinafl as the People™s Republic of China, fiIndependent State of Papua New Guineafl as Papua New Guinea, fiLaosfl as the Lao People™s Democratic Republic, fiMicronesiafl as the Federated States of Micronesia, fiVietnamfl as Viet Nam, fiBombayfl as Mumbai, and fiHanoifl as Ha Noi. All photos are by ADB. Cover design by Gayle Certeza, Daniel Desembrana, and John Michael Casipe. Printed on recycled paper

PAGE – 4 ============
CONTENTS Tables and Figures xiiForewords Justice Antonio Herman Benjamin xv Lord Robert Carnwath xix Justice Syed Mansoor Ali Shah xxiPreface xxv Acknowledgments xxviiAbbreviations xxixExecutive Summary xxxiii Climate Change: A Clarion Call for Judges xxxiii Why These Reports? xxxiii Report Series Structure xxxv Key Takeaways xxxv Moving Forward xxxviiiPART ONE.˜ INTRODUCTION ˚ I. Judiciaries Play a Role in Domestic Climate Action and ˝ Need Resources II. Report Structure and Scope ˇ III. Report Methodology and Preparation ˙ IV. Looking Forward ˛PART TWO.˜ TRENDS IN CLIMATE LAWS AND POLICIES IN ASIA ˚˚ AND THE PACIFIC I. The Paris Agreement and National Laws and Policies ˝˝ Are Mutually Reinforcing II. National Preferences Guide Climate Change Legal and ˝˜ Policy Frameworks III. Framework Climate Laws Are Growing and Hav ˝ˇ for Propelling Coordinated Action IV. Data and Reporting Requirements Are Iegal Frameworks V. Climate Litigation Is Shaping Climate Law Globally

PAGE – 5 ============
iv VI. Science Is Evolving Responses to Climate Change ˝˛ VII. Courts Are Integrating Sciento National Law VIII. Adaptation Legal Frameworks Need Strengthening ˝˘ IX. Environmental Impact Assessments Should Consider ˝˘ Climate Change X. Legal Frameworks on Oceans Need Strengthening XI. Technology and Markets Need Responsive Legal and Regulatory ˜˚ Frameworks XII. Carbon Pricing Laws and Policies Remain in the Minority ˜˝ Across the Region PART THREE. ˜COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL SURVEY ˛˝ I. Constitutional Rights Litigation in Asia and the P ˜˙ II. Constitutional Climate Litigation Is More Common in South Asia ˜˛ III. Rights-Based Climate Litigation Is Less Frequent in Southeast Asia ˜˘ and the P IV. Rights-Based Litigation Applies Universal Principles, Making It ˇ˝ Readily Transferable V. Using Tables ˇ.˝Œˇ.ˇ ˇ˝PART FOUR. ˜SOUTH ASIA LEGAL FRAMEWORKS ˙˝ I. AFGHANISTAN ˆˇA. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˙˚E. Disaster Risk Management ˙˝ II. BANGLADESH ˇ˘A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˙˜B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˙˜C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand E. Climate Finance ˙˘F. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˙˘G. Transportation H. Adaptation I. Disaster Risk Management ˛˚ III. BHUTAN A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˛˝B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˛˝C. Energy Supply ˛ˇ D. Energy Demand ˛˛CONTENTS

PAGE – 6 ============
vCONTENTS E. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˛˛F. Adaptation ˛ G. Disaster Risk Management ˛˘ IV. INDIA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˛˘B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˛ C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand E. Carbon Pricing ˙ F. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˙ G. Cities and Buildings ˙ H. Adaptation ˛ I. Subnational Activities ˛ V. MALDIVES A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˛ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply ˘ D. Energy Demand ˘˝E. Transportation ˘˝F. Adaptation ˘˝G. Disaster Risk Management ˘˜ VI. NEPAL A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˘ˇ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˘ˇ C. Energy Supply D. LULUCF and REDDˆ E. Agriculture ˘˘F. Water G. Adaptation H. Disaster Risk Management VII. PAKISTAN A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand ˛ E. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˛ F. Transportation ˛ G. Adaptation H. Disaster Risk Management VIII. SRI LANKA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework

PAGE – 8 ============
viiCONTENTS V. MYANMAR A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand E. LULUCF and REDDˆ F. Transportation G. Adaptation H. Disaster Risk Management VI. PEOPLE™S REPUBLIC OF CHINA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply ˝˙˜D. Energy Demand ˝˙ˇ E. Carbon Pricing F. LULUCF and REDDˆ G. Adaptation ˝˙˙H. Managing Water Resources ˝˙˙ VII. PHILIPPINES A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˝˙˛B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˝˙˛C. Energy Supply ˝˛ˇ D. Energy Demand ˝˛ E. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˝˛˙F. Transportation ˝˛˛G. Adaptation ˝˛ H. Disaster Risk Management ˝˛˘ VIII. SINGAPORE A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˝˛˘B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˝˛˘C. Energy Supply ˚ D. Energy Demand E. Transportation F. Adaptation IX. THAILAND ˇ A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˙ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˙ C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand ˝˘˚E. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˝˘˝F. Transportation ˝˘˜

PAGE – 9 ============
viiiG. Adaptation ˝˘ˇ H. Disaster Risk Management ˝˘ˇ X. VIET NAM A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand E. LULUCF and REDDˆ F. Transportation G. Adaptation ˛ H. Disaster Risk Management I. Vulnerable Groups PART SIX.˜ THE PACIFIC COUNTRIES LEGAL FRAMEWORKS ˛ˆ˚ I. COOK ISLANDS A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˚˝B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˚˜ C. Energy Supply ˜˚ˇ D. Energy Demand ˜˚˙E. Adaptation ˜˚˙F. Disaster Risk Management ˜˚˙ II. FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˚˛B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˚˛C. Energy Supply ˜˚˘D. Energy Demand E. Adaptation ˜˝˚F. Disaster Risk Management ˜˝˚ III. FIJI A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˝˚B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˝˝C. Energy Supply D. Energy Demand ˜˝˛E. Adaptation IV. KIRIBATI A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˝˘B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply ˜˜˝ D. Energy Demand ˜˜ˇ E. Adaptation ˜˜ CONTENTS

PAGE – 10 ============
ix V. MARSHALL ISLANDS ˘˘ˆ A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˜ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˜˙ C. Energy Supply ˜˜ D. Energy Demand ˜ E. Adaptation ˜ VI. NAURU ˘˝˙A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜ˇ˚B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜ˇ˝C. Energy Supply and Demand ˜ˇ˜D. Adaptation ˜ˇˇ VII. PALAU ˘˝ˆA. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜ˇ˙C. Energy Supply ˜ˇ˛D. Energy Demand E. Adaptation ˜ˇ˘ VIII. PAPUA NEW GUINEA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜ˇ˘B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply ˜ D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˜ E. Adaptation ˜ F. Disaster Risk Management ˜ IX. SAMOA ˘ A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜ C. Energy Supply ˜ D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˜˙˜E. Adaptation ˜˙ˇ X. SOLOMON ISLANDS ˘ˇ˝A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˙ˇ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework C. Energy Supply ˜˙˙D. Energy Demand ˜˙˛E. LULUCF and REDDˆ F. Adaptation G. Disaster Risk Management ˜˙˘ XI. TIMORTE A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˙˘B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework CONTENTS

PAGE – 11 ============
xC. Energy Supply ˜˛˚ D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˜˛˜ E. Adaptation ˜˛˜ XII. TONGA A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˛˜ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˛ˇ C. Energy Supply ˜˛˙ D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˜˛˙ E. Transportation ˜˛˛ F. Adaptation ˜˛˛ G. Disaster Risk Management ˜˛˛ XIII. TUVALU A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜˛ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜˛ C. Energy Supply ˜˛ D. Energy Demand ˜˝ E. Disaster Risk Management ˜˝ XIV. VANUATU A. Country Snapshot: Climate and Environmental Challenges ˜ B. Overarching Climate Change Legal and Policy Framework ˜ C. Energy Supply ˜ D. LULUCF and REDDˆ ˜˘ E. Adaptation ˜˘ F. Disaster Risk Management ˜ PART SEVEN. ˜CONCLUSION I. Key Takeaways A. National Climate Change Laws and Policies Reveal Likely Future Litigation Trends B. Constitutional Rights Litigation Is GrowingŠInformation ˜˘˙ about Constitutional Rights Is Valuable C. Climate Change Legal and Policy Frameworks Can Be Fragmented ˜˘˙ II. Looking Forward ˜˘˛A. ADB and Judiciaries ˜˘˛B. COVID-s Slowing International and National Climate ˜˘˛ Commitments C. But We Have a Choice to Build New Social Contracts D. Climate Justice and Legal and Policy Frameworks in the ˜˘˘ Time of COVID-yond Glossary CONTENTS

551 KB – 338 Pages