Chapter 2: The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study and Acid Rain. Brief History of Acid Rain Research at HBEF education/teachersguide.pdf.

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PAGE – 2 ============ Exploring Acid Rain / 2 Data from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study used in this guide were provided by Gene E. Lik ens through funding from the National Scie nce F oundation and the Andre w W . Mellon F oundation. Hubbard Brook Experimental F orest is one of 26 national Long – T er m Ecological R esearch (LTER) sites established by the National Science F oundation to support research on long – term ecological phenomena in the United States. The Netw ork is a collaborative effort involving more than 1800 scientists and students investigating ecological processes o v er long temporal and broad spatial scales. The Netw ork promotes synthesis and comparative research across site s and ecosystems and among other related national and international research programs. The Hubbard Brook Experimental F orest is one of 22 experimental f orests administered by the USDA F orest Service, Northern R esearch Station which partners with the Hu bbard Brook R esearch F oundation to de v elop and implement the Environmental Literacy Program (ELP), of which this guide is a component. Experimental f orests are dedicated to long – term research on ecosystem processes, silviculture and f orest management optio ns, wildlife habitat characteristics, and f orest growth and de v elopment. The ELP program works to bring the lessons of this research to teachers, students and the public. © Cop yright 2010 Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation. Hubbard Brook R esearch Foun dation Web Cop yright Statement and R elease The Hubbard Brook R esearch Foundation(HBRF) is providing infor mation and services on the W orld W ide W eb in furtherance of its non – profit and tax – exempt status. P ermission to use, copy and distribute docum ents delivered from this W eb ser v er and related graphics is hereby granted for private, non – commercial and educational purposes only, provided that the abo v e copyright notice appears with the f ollowing statement: This document may be reprinted and distrib uted for non – commercial and educational purposes only, and not for resale. No resale use may be made of material on this web site at any time. All other rights reser v ed. The names and logos of the Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation, or other logos appeari ng herein, may not be used without specific, written prior permission. The Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation makes no representation about the suitability of this infor mation for any purpose. It is provided without express or implied war r anty. THE HUBBARD BROOK RESEAR CH FOUNDATION DISCLAIMS ALL W ARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED W ARRANTIES OR MER CHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE HUBBARD BROOK RESEAR CH FOUNDATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CON SEQ UENTIAL DAMA GES OR ANY DAMAGES WHA TSOEVER RESULTING FROM L OSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT , NEGLIGENCE, OR O THER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS INFORMATION. HBRF does no t exer t editorial control o v er materials that are posted to any site to which this site may be linked. Links established from this site do not imply endorsement of another products and services by HBRF . The user hereby releases HBRF from any and all liability for any claims or damages which result from any use of this site. HBRF images may be used with permission of HBRF , with the stipulation that images are credited as f ollows: Courtesy of Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation

PAGE – 3 ============ Exploring Acid Rain / 3 T able of Contents Introd uction Chapter 1: About This T eaching Guide Arrangement of the Guide Curriculum Planning Science Standards addressed in this guide Chapter 2: The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study and Acid Rain Brief History of A cid Rain R esearch at HBEF The Interplay between Monitoring and Experimentation What Does Long – T erm Data T ell Us about A cid Rain? Ecosystem R ecovery from A cid Deposition The Calcium Experiment Chapter 3: Concept – Building Lessons 3.1 Pre/Post – Test 3.2 Pick Y our Brain about A cid Rain 3.3 The pH Game 3.4 Model a Catchment Basin 3.5 Just P assing Through 3.6 Buf f ering Experiment s 3.7 What Does the Data T ell Us? 3.8 What Is Ecosystem R ecovery ? Chapter 4: Fieldwork Introduction Preparation 4.1 Globe V ideo, Student Inquiry 4.2 Practicing Y our Protocols 4.3 Globe V ideo, Data, Process, and Flow 4.4 Planning F ieldwork Sessions Protocols 4.5 Precipitation Collection 4.6 pH 4.7 Alkalinity 4.8 Soil Characterization 4.9 Soil pH Results 4.10 Interpreting and Synthesizing R esults 4.11 R epresenting and Communicating R esults

PAGE – 4 ============ Exploring Acid Rain / 4 Chapter 5: Slideshows 5.1 A cid Rain 101 5.2 Hubbard Brook A cid Rain Story, Par t I : The Discovery 5.3 Hubbard Brook A cid Rain Story, Par t II: The Calcium Experiment 5.4 Hubbard Brook Acid Rain Story, Par t III: Ecosystem Recovery Chapter 6: Curriculum Options 6.1 A Suggested Fr amework for Middle School Inquiry 6.2 Understanding by Design 6.3 Student Inv esti gations 6.4 Scientific P osters 6.5 Student Independent R esearch Projects 6.6 Designing Student Assessments Appendix A: Glossary Appendix B: Resour ces Scientific P apers P opular Articles Books and Magazines W eb Sites

PAGE – 5 ============ Introduction Exploring Acid Rain / 5 T Introduction his teaching guide was designed by the Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation to be a resource for teachers of grades 7 through 12. It off ers content information, classroom lessons, experimental activities, outdoor fi eldwork, and data analysis suggestions that will introduce acid rain and build knowledge about the complex interactions between acid rain and ecosystems . Students who participate in fi eldwork and data analysis will generate information and data that can be used to raise local awareness about acid rain. About Hub bard Br ook The Hubbard Brook Experimental F orest (HBEF) is a 7,800 – acre f orested v alley in central Ne w Hampshire that was set aside by the United States F orest Service in 1955 and dedicated exclusively to the long – term study of f orest and aquati c ecosystems. The first stream at the f orest was fitted with measuring devices ( weirs ) in 1956 and, since then, water samples, stream fl ows, soil profiles, and other scientific measurements ha v e been taken by research technici ans on a weekly basis, in all kinds of weather conditions. Neatly stacked ro ws of thousands of water samples are testament to the on – the – ground efforts of countless researchers and technicians o v er nearly half a century. These samples and other data repres ent a treasure trov e for scientists seeking to understand the long – term changes that occur in f orests. In the early 1960s, scientists from Dartmouth College and the U.S. F orest Service began conducting long – term ecological research at the f orest, which led to the establishment of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study . Ov er the years, the study has involved researchers from dozens of universities, go v ernment agencies, and other institutions representing a wide range of disciplines, from botany to geochemistry , limnology to avian biology. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study employs the watershed to understanding ecosystems, whic h was once considered a no v el, e v en re v olutionary, idea. T oday more than 2,000 scientific papers using Hubbard Brook data ha v e been published in peer – reviewed journals and books. P erhaps no paper was more important than the 1968 study documenting the link between the increasing acidity of precipitation and f ossil fuel combustion in North America, a study in which Hubbard Brook researchers coined the phrase r ain. Hubbard Brook is one of the 26 Long – T er m Ecological R esearch (LTER) sites , which are supported by the National Science F oundation. The Hubbard Brook Experimental F orest is operated and maintained by the U.S. F or est Service, Northern R esearch Station . The Hubbard Brook R esearch F oundation (HBRF) is a nonprofit or ganization that supports the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study. Our mission is to promote the understanding and stewardship of ecosystems through scientific research, long – term monitoring and education. View at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest Monitoring equipment at Hubbard Brook P hoto : B uck S lee P er

PAGE – 6 ============ Introduction Exploring Acid Rain / 6 Our Environmental Literacy Program (ELP) has been developed and conducted in partnership with the U.S. F orest Service, Northern R esearch Station, and is aimed at middle and high school level education. The goal of the ELP is to f oster a society where individual and collective decisions are informed b y a working knowledge of ecosystem functioning. W e strive to meet this goal by facilitating the transfer of scientific knowledge from researcher to teacher by developing curriculum, of f ering teacher professional development, and working directly with inter ested local schools. Education f or college – level students is conducted through our R esearch Experience for Under graduates Program (REU) which provides in – depth, hands – on research experiences at the Hubbard Brook Experimental F orest. The program emphasizes both the process of scientific research and the skills and importance of communicating that research to broader audiences. After an eight – week session students are partnered with research mentors and with regional non profit or ganizations and management a gencies involved with communicating ecological information to broad audiences. s Science Links program was established to bridge the gap between science and public policy, working with Hubbard Bro ok scientists to communicate the results of their research to government, the media, environmental and public – interest groups, and the general public. Our first Science Links project, Acid Rain Revisited , published in 2001, synthesized long – term monitoring data and ecosystem experiments that shed light on acid rain in the Northeast. A valuable resource, the report is used by policy makers, land managers, and the general public, including high school and college classes. Y ou may wish to use the entire Acid Rain Revisited report or the summary as a resource f or your students during your study of acid rain. F or more information on the pH scale and the causes and chemistry of acid rain, please view the P owerPoint slideshow titled Acid Rain 101 , or use one of the resources listed in Appendix B. W hy W as This T eaching Guide Cr eated? A cid rain continues to degrade ecosystems. A cid rain w as first documented in North America in the early 1960s at the HBEF . The results of early sampling of upland streams in the Hubbard Brook v alley perplexed scientists when the water indicated unusually high acidity. The y subsequently traced the source of th e pollution to coal – burning electric utilities located in the Midw estern U.S. and transportation sources. Further investigations showed that acid rain was altering and degrading the ecosystem. This research played an important role in shaping the Clean Air A c t of 1970, subsequent Clean Air A c t Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and the Clean Air Interstate Rule of 2005, which colle c tiv ely mandated reductions in emissions that contribute to acid rain. Hubbard Brook scientists ha v e since been able to document that ecosystems ha v e benefited from this federal legislation, but that acid rain is still a problem and has had a greater envir onmental impact than previously projected. See Chapter 2 for more information. All citizens should become environmentally literate. When students graduate from high school, they should understand how to use ecological Sam pling stream water at Hubbard Brook knowledge to make informed decisions for themselves and society. An environmentally literate citizenry has the skills, knowledge, and motiv ation needed to promote a sustainable future. Students need to be aware of the i ssues, why they matter , and how they can be addressed. Environmental literacy is f ostered through place – based education. Some students may know about the issue of acid rain, but do they know how acid rain affects their region? When lessons directly link st udents to their community, they become meaningful learning opportunities that P hoto : u .S. F ore S t S er vice archiv e S

197 KB – 137 Pages