Chapter summary. 19. 2 Methods in neuropsychology. 21. Introduction. 21. Invasive techniques for measuring brain structure and function.
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Introducing Neuropsychology Introducing Neuropsychology, second edition investi- gates the functions of the brain and explores the relationships between brain systems and human behaviour. The material is presented in a jargon-free, easy to understand manner and aims to guidestudents new to the eld through current areas of research. Following a brief history of the discipline and a description of methods in neuropsychology, the remaining chapters review traditional and recent research ndings. Both cognitive and clinical aspects of neuropsychology are addressed to illustrate the advances scientists are making (on many fronts) in their quest to understand brainŒbehaviour relation- ships in both normal and disturbed functioning. The rapid developments in neuropsychology and cogni- tive neuroscience resulting from traditional research methods as well as new brain-imaging techniques are presented in a clear and straightforward way. Each chapter has been fully revised and updated and new brain-imaging data are incorporated throughout, especially in the later chapters on Emotion and Motivation, and Executive Functions. As in the rstedition, key topics are dealt with in separate focus boxes, and ﬁinterim commentﬂ sections allow the reader a chance to ﬁtake stockﬂ at regular intervals. The book assumes no particular expertise on the reader™s part in either psychology or brain physiology. Thus, it will be of great interest not only to those studying neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, but also to medical and nursing students, and indeed anyone who is interested in learning about recent progress in understanding brainŒbehaviour relationships. John Stirling has worked at Manchester Polytechnic/ MMU for over 30 years, teaching Bio- and Neuro- psychology, Psychopathology and Experimental Design and Statistics. He has published over 30 scientic journal articles, and three books. Rebecca Elliott has worked at the University of Manchester for 8 years, using brain-imaging tech- niques to study emotion and cognition in psychiatric disorders. She has published over 50 scienti cresearch articles.
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Psychology FocusSeries editor: Perry Hinton, Oxford Brookes UniversityThe Psychology Focus series provides students with a new focus on key topic areas in psychology. It supports students taking modules in psychology, whether for a psychology degree or a combined programme, and those renewing their quali cation in a related discipline. Each short book: presents clear, in-depth coverage of a discrete area with many applied examples assumes no prior knowledge of psychology has been written by an experienced teacher has chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary of key terms. Also available in this series: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence Phil ErwinGender and Social Psychology Vivien Burr Jobs, Technology and People Nik ChmielLearning and Studying James Hartley Personality: A Cognitive Approach Jo Brunas-Wagsta Intelligence and Abilities Colin CooperStress, Cognition and Health Tony Cassidy Types of Thinking S. Ian Robertson Psychobiology of Human Motivation Hugh Wagner Stereotypes, Cognition and Culture Perry R. Hinton Psychology and ﬁHuman Nature ﬂPeter Ashworth Abnormal Psychology Alan CarrAttitudes and Persuasion Phil ErwinThe Person in Social Psychology Vivien Burr The Social Psychology of Behaviour in Small Groups Donald C. Pennington Attention: A Neuropsychological Perspective Antony Ward Attention, Perception and Memory Elizabeth A. StylesIntroducing Cognitive Development Laura M. Taylor
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First published 2008 by Psychology Press 27 Church Road, Hove, East Sussex BN3 2FA Simultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Psychology Press 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016Psychology Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2008 by Psychology Press All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. This publication has been produced with paper manufactured to strict environmental standards and with pulp derived from sustainable forests. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Stirling, John D., 1951 ŒIntroducing neuropsychology / John Stirling and Rebecca Elliott. Œ 2nd ed.p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84169-653-9 (hardcover) Œ ISBN 978-1-84169-654-6 (pbk.) 1. Neuropsychology.I. Elliott, Rebecca, 1969 ŒII. Title. [DNLM: 1. Neuropsychology.WL 103.5 S861i 2008] QP360.S793 2008 612.8Œdc222007048903ISBN: 978Œ1Œ84169Œ653Œ9 (hbk)ISBN: 978Œ1Œ84169Œ654Œ6 (pbk)This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2010.To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge™scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.ISBN 0-203-84120-4 Master e-book ISBN
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CONTENTSPreface to the series viiPreface to the second edition viiiPreface to the Þrst edition xi1The foundations of neuropsychology3 Introduction3 Neuropsychology as a distinctdiscipline3 The (re)emergence ofneuropsychology12 Chapter summary19 2Methods in neuropsychology21 Introduction21 Invasive techniques for measuringbrain structure and function22 Electrical procedures25 In-vivo imaging27 Neuropsychological assessment32 Chapter summary37 3Lateralisation41 Introduction41 Structural differences42 Unilateral neurological damage44 The split-brain syndrome45 Asymmetries in normal individuals57 Individual differences in brain organisation60 Lateralisation: A footnote on theevolutionary perspective67 Chapter summary68 4Somatosensation and neuroplasticity71 Introduction71 General features of sensory systems72 The somatosensory system72 Plasticity in the somatosensory cortex78 Neuroplasticity beyond S184 Chapter summary90 5Motor control and movement disorders93 Introduction93 BrainŒspinal cord pathways94 The cerebellum96 The basal ganglia98 The cortex103 Peripheral and spinal movementdisorders113 Cortical movement disorders115 Subcortical movement disorders119 Chapter summary126 6Language and the brain129 Introduction129 The classic neurological approach andaphasia130 Connectionist models of language134 The psycholinguistic approach138 The modern era of language research139 Language and laterality149 Chapter summary150 7Memory and amnesia153 (contributed by Andrew Parker)Introduction153 Short-term memory and workingmemory154
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PREFACE TO THE SERIESThe Psychology Focus series provides short, up-to-date accounts of key areas in psychology without assuming the reader ™s prior knowledge in the subject. Psychology is often a favoured subject area for study, because it is relevant to a wide range of disciplines such as sociology, education, nursing, and business studies. These rela- tively inexpensive but focused short texts combine suf- cient detail for psychology specialists with su cientclarity for non-specialists. The series authors are academics experienced in undergraduate teaching as well as research. Each takes a topic within their area of psychological expertise and presents a short review, highlighting important themes and including both theory and research ndings. Each aspect of the topic is clearly explained with supporting glossaries to elucidate technical terms. The series has been conceived within the context of the increasing modularisation which has been developed in higher education over the last decade and fulls the consequent need for clear, focused, topic- based course material. Instead of following one course of study, students on a modularisation programme are often able to choose modules from a wide range of disciplines to complement the modules they are required to study for a speci c degree. It can no longer be assumed that students studying a particular module will necessarily have the same background knowledge (or lack of it!) in that subject. But they will need to familiarise themselves with a particular topic rapidly because a single module in a single topic may be only 15 weeks long, with assessments arising during that period. They may have to combine eight or more modules in a single year to obtain a degree at the end of their programme of study. One possible problem with studying a range of separate modules is that the relevance of a particular topic or the relationship between topics may not always be apparent. In the Psychology Focus series, authors have drawn where possible on practical and applied examples to support the points being made so that readers can see the wider relevance of the topic under study. Also, the study of psychology is usually broken up into separate areas, such as social psychology, developmental psychology, and cognitive psychology, to take three examples. While the books in the Psychology Focus series will provide excellent coverage of certain key topics within these ﬁtraditional ﬂ areas, the authors have not been con- strained in their examples and explanations and may draw on material across the whole eld of psychology to help explain the topic under study more fully. Each text in the series provides the reader with a range of important material on a speci c topic. Theyare suitably comprehensive and give a clear account of the important issues involved. The authors analyse and interpret the material as well as present an up-to-date and detailed review of key work. Recent references are provided along with suggested further reading to allow readers to investigate the topic in more depth. It is hoped, therefore, that after following the informative review of a key topic in a Psychology Focus text, readers not only will have a clear understanding of the issues in question but will be intrigued, and challenged to investigate the topic further.
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONFor this revised and fully updated edition of Intro- ducing Neuropsychology , John Stirling has been joined by Rebecca Elliott as co-author. Although the rst edition of Introducing Neuro- psychology was published just 5 years ago, such has been the growth of interest in research into brain Œbehaviour relationships that we felt an updated edition would be timely. Much of this growth has been driven by the more widespread availability of in-vivo imaging techniques, an area of expertise for the second author. Such techniques, of course, provide opportunities for researchers to identify brain regions that are engaged as participants undertake all manner of activities. Recently, these have ranged widely, from basic cogni- tive tasks designed to tap working memory processes (Fletcher et al., 2003) to more elaborate ﬁemotionalﬂchallenges aimed, for example, at invoking sympathy/ empathy in healthy controls and/or psychopaths (Farrow et al., 2001; Vollm et al., 2004). Data from such studies have been amalgamated with more basic science research in the areas of molecular genetics, neurophysiology, and psycho- pharmacology, initially in the US but increasingly in the rest of the world, to provide a knowledge-base for the discipline called ﬁcognitive neuroscience ﬂ (Gazzaniga,Ivry, & Mangun, 2003). We considered whether we too should acknowledge this emerging enterprise by re-titling our book ﬁIntroducing Cognitive Neuro- scienceﬂ. On balance, however, we felt that neuro- psychology, as a subject area, was not yet ready to be subsumed under the cognitive neuroscience banner. This may be seen as an exercise in hair-splitting, but the facts of the matter are that not everything in this second edition could be said to be either strictly ﬁcognitive ﬂ or even strictly ﬁneuroscienti cﬂŠyet we hope all our material falls within the domain of neuropsychology. In truth of course, such dividing lines are seen as more important by some people than others. Take, for instance, animal research, which is quite widespread in the eld of cognitive neuroscience, but rare in neuro- psychology Šrare, but not unheard of (see Rizzolatti et al.™s study of mirror neurons in macaque monkeys which we review in Chapter 5). Case study, on the other hand, could reasonably claim to be the modus operandi of traditional ﬁclinicalﬂ neuropsychology. But combine it with longitudinal neuroimaging or some other basic science assaying Šsuch as analysis of cerebrospinal uid (CSF) or blood, for example Šandit would unquestionably qualify as cognitive neuro- science research. In short, what we have is a di erence of emphasis, but with many areas of overlap. Both authors have published research in cognitive neuro- science journals, and attended/spoken at neuroscience conferences. However, both are psychologists by train- ing, and this edition, like the rst, is written primarily with the needs of psychology students in mind. Thus, on balance we felt we should retain the original title yet be entirely open to describing research that some authors might consider more cognitive neuroscience than neuropsychology. Three later chapters in this edition, covering Attention and Consciousness (Chapter 9), Emotion and Motivation (Chapter 10), and Executive Functions (Chapter 11), attest to the
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common ground between the two approaches and we expect that such instances of overlap will become more commonplace in the years to come. However, it is instructive to note that just as the rise of ﬁcognitive scienceﬂ in the US in the early 1960s (Miller, 2003) did not bring about the demise of mainstream psychology, so the rise of ﬁcognitive neuro scienceﬂ from the 1990s onwards has not yet brought about the demise of neuro psychology. In planning the format of this second edition we have tried to adapt and revise the rst in light of adramatically expanded research base and important renements of existing research techniques and methods, plus the arrival on the scene of some com- pletely new procedures that are now beginning to bear fruit. In no particular order, this work has included the following: Promising e orts to further characterise the frac- tionation (functional subdivisions) of the frontal lobes and the anterior cingulate gyrus (Botvinick, Cohen, & Carter, 2004; Wagner et al., 2001). New insights into and models of consciousness (Cooney & Gazzaniga, 2003).Expansion and re nement of the concept of brain modularity (Catani & ytche, 2005; Cavanna & Trimble, 2006). Renement of paradigms aimed at informing models of attention, including attentional blink and inattentional blindness (Rensink, 2002; Sergent, Baillet, & Dehaene, 2005). Conrmation of the existence of mirror neurons, and their possible role in imitation and perhaps even in empathy (Brass & Heyes, 2005; Rizzolatti & Buccino, 2004). Development of the eld sometimes called ﬁsocialneuroscience ﬂ encompassing research into autism and Asperger ™s syndrome, psychopathy, and pathological gambling (Frith & Frith, 2003; Rilling et al., 2007).Developments in the eld of brain plasticity and recovery of function coupled with con rmation of the growth of new neurons (neurogenesis) in specic regions of the mature adult mammalian brain (Brown et al., 2003; Carlen et al., 2002; Mirescu, Peters, & Gould, 2004). Renements in functional imaging including pathway tracing using di usion tensor imaging (DTI) (e.g., Minati & Aquino, 2006). The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to reversibly manipulate brain activity, and as a possible therapeutic procedure (Heiser et al., 2003; Hilgetag, Theoret, & Pascual-Leone, 2001). Of course, these changes need to be accommodated within the framework of the Psychology Focus series, meaning that we have tried to adhere to the criteria set out by Perry Hinton (series editor) outlined above. As with the rst edition, our book is written principally with the ﬁinterested beginner ﬂ in mind but we have not used this as an excuse for failing to be up to date. Nevertheless, two early warnings may be in order: First, some readers might nd sections of coverage in this edition rather complicated for an introductory text. Our only excuse is that the brain, the principal subject of our book, has rightly been characterised as the most complex entity known to man . We have tried hard to keep things simple wherever possible, but admit to not always succeeding. However, skipping complex sections (often separated from the general text in boxes) should not, we hope, detract from your general understanding of the material. Second, despite the rapid growth in research, many funda- mental neuropsychological questions remain to be answered. Our view is that in such instances it is better to admit to uncertainty (while presenting the relevant material) than to o er glib but premature conclusions, even if the reader may nd such lack of resolution frustrating. As in the rst edition, we have made liberal use of ﬁinterim commentﬂ sections in each chapter in order variously to pull ideas together, identify inconsistencies in the data, describe continued uncertainties about what particular research ndings mean, or simply to summarise a body of research before the ﬁgistﬂ islost. We have tried to avoid unnecessary jargon, and where this has been impossible have sought to explain or de ne a term or concept there and then, with additional information provided in the expanded glossary. We have included an appendix (also some- what expanded in this edition) on the structure and basic workings of the brain and its key constituent components as a reference for information rather than as obligatory reading. Our book should be under- standable to readers with a fairly modest working knowledge of the structure and functioning of the mammalian nervous system, but if you want to know more, we o er sources in the Further Reading section at the end of the book. We have identi ed some key journal articles/reading assignments for each chapter Preface to the second editionix
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to aid further understanding of particular topics andissues, along with some general recommended reading and some interesting, accessible, and relevant web- pages for you to explore. In the interests of continuity we have retained the broad chapter structure of the rst edition, althougheach has been revised and updated. One entirely new chapter, on Emotion and Motivation (Chapter 10), has been added, and the Summary and Conclusions chapter from the rst edition has been removed to make space for it. The methods chapter (Chapter 2) has been expanded to accommodate recent advances in imaging technology now available to the researcher, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and di u-sion tensor imaging, and consideration is also given to recent research in which TMS has been used to induce temporary reversible disruptions to brain functioning. The chapter on somatosensation (Chapter 4) now additionally includes an extended section on neuro- plasticity. The chapter on attention (Chapter 9) has been extensively revised and now includes an extended section reviewing neuropsychological investigations into consciousness, an area that has recently seen dramatic and exciting new developments. Other chapters have changed more modestly, being updated wherever possible to provide a avour of the direction that research (in that area) is going, and how it is aecting the way we think about the subject material. Nevertheless, this edition contains over 600 new journal references, many post-dating publication of the rst edition, and 60 or more additional/revised gures and diagrams. We are particularly grateful to Andrew Parker from MMU who has contributed Chapter 7: Memory and Amnesia, and made helpful comments on other sections of the book. We would also like to thank Marilyn Barnett from MMU both for her work on collating references for this edition and for her help with numerous other administrative chores. Elsewhere in writing the book, while one or other of us has initially taken the role of lead author for a section or chapter, the other has edited, revised, and even re- drafted. Thus, in the spirit of collective responsibility, we (JS and RE) consider ourselves equally culpable! We hope you nd the second edition of Intro- ducing Neuropsychology a useful entry point into theneuropsychology literature, and that our interest in trying to understand brain Œbehaviour relationships through neuropsychological (and cognitive neuro- science) research whets your appetite to learn more about the structure and functioning of the astonishing 1200 to 1500 grams of tissue we call the (mature) human brain. Manchester, August 2007 xPreface to the second edition
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