presentation of contrary evidence, and careful instruction on the burden in a particular case is a matter that the law grants the trial judge broad.
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The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report: Document Title: Strengthening Fo rensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward Author: Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community, National Research Council Document No.: 228091 Date Received: August 2009 Award Number: 2006-DN-BX-0001 This report has not been published by the U.S. Department of Justice. To provide better customer service, NCJRS has made this Federally- funded grant final report available electronically in addition to traditional paper copies. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

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Visit the National Academies Press online, the authoritative source for all books from the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council: ! Download hundreds of free books in PDF ! Read thousands of books online for free ! Explore our innovative research tools Œ try the fiResearch Dashboardfl now! ! Sign up to be notified when new books are published ! Purchase printed books and selected PDF files Thank you for downloading this PDF. If you have comments, questions or just want more information about the books published by the National Academies Press, you may contact our customer service department toll-free at 888-624-8373, visit us online, or send an email to feedback@nap.edu. This book plus thousands more are available at http://www.nap.edu. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF File are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Distribution, posting, or copying is strictly prohibited without written permission of the National Academies Press. Request reprint permission for this book. ISBN: 0-309-13131-6, 352 pages, 6 x 9, (2009)This PDF is available from the National Academies Press at:http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12589.htmlhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog/12589.htmlWe ship printed books within 1 business day; personal PDFs are available immediately.Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community, National Research Council

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Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community Committee on Science, Technology, and Law Policy and Global Affairs Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences FORENSIC A PA TH FOR WARD IN THE UNITED ST AT ES STRENGTHENING SCIENCE

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern -ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer -ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri -ate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. 2006-DN-BX-0001 between the Na -tional Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Justice. Any opinions, ˜ndings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily re˚ect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Strengthening forensic science in the United States : a path forward : summary / Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, Committee on Science, Technology, and Law Policy and Global Affairs, Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13135-3 (hardcover) ISBN-10: 0-309-13135-9 (hardcover) ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13131-5 (pbk.) ISBN-10: 0-309-13131-6 (pbk.) 1. Forensic sciencesŠUnited States. 2. Criminal investigationŠUnited States. 3. Evidence, CriminalŠUnited States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Science, Technology, and Law Policy and Global Affairs. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics. HV8073.S7347 2009 363.250973Šdc22 2009011443 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu .Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonpro˜t, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scienti˜c and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad -emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scienti˜c and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en -gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer -ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi -dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti -tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci -ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy™s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scienti˜c and engineering communities. The Coun -cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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viStaff ANNE-MARIE MAZZA , Study Director SCOTT T. WEIDMAN , Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications JOHN SISLIN , Program Of˜cer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce DAVID PAD GHAM , Program Of˜cer, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (until 5/08) STEVEN KENDALL , Senior Program Associate KATIE MA GEE , Senior Program Assistant (until 9/07) KATHI E. HANNA , Consultant Writer SARA D. MADDOX , Editor ROBIN ACKERMAN , Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow GEMA YEL JEAN-PA UL, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow JOHNAL YN D. L YLES , Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow SANDRA OTTENSMANN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow DEIRDRE PARSONS , Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow SARAH R YKER , Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow SUNBIN SON G, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow

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vii COMMITTEE ON S CIENCE , T ECHNOLO GY, AND L AW DONALD KENNED Y (NAS/IOM), ( Co-chair) , President Emeritus and Bing Professor of Environmental Science Emeritus, Stanford University; Emeritus Editor-in-Chief, Science RICHARD A. MERRILL (IOM), ( Co-chair ), Daniel Caplin Professor of Law Emeritus, University of Virginia Law School FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, JR. , Partner, McKenna, Long, & Aldridge LLP MAR GARET A. BER GER , Suzanne J. and Norman Miles Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School ARTH UR I. BIENENSTOCK , Special Assistant to the President for SLAC and Federal Research Policy, Stanford University BARBARA E. BIERER , Senior Vice President for Research, Brigham and Women™s Hospital ELIZABETH H. BLACKB URN (NAS/IOM), Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco JOE S. CECIL , Project Director, Program on Scienti˜c and Technical Evidence, Federal Judicial Center RICHARD F. CELESTE , President, Colorado College JOEL E. COHEN (NAS), Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor and Head, Laboratory of Populations, The Rockefeller University and Columbia University KENNETH W. DAM , Max Pam Professor Emeritus of American and Foreign Law and Senior Lecturer, University of Chicago Law School ROCHELLE COOPER DRE YFUSS , Pauline Newman Professor of Law and Director, Engelberg Center on Innovation Law and Policy, New York University School of Law ALICE P. GAST (NAE), President, Lehigh University LAWRENCE O. GOSTIN (IOM), Associate Dean for Research and Academic Programs, Linda D. and Timothy J. O™Neill Professor of Global Health Law, Georgetown University; Professor of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University GAR Y W. HART , Wirth Chair Professor, School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado, Denver BENJAMIN W. HEINEMAN, JR. , Senior Fellow, Harvard Law School and Harvard Kennedy School of Government DAVID BROCK HORNB Y, Judge, U.S. District Court, District of Maine DAVID KORN (IOM), Vice Provost for Research, Harvard University RICHARD A. MESERVE (NAE), President, Carnegie Institution of Washington

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viii DUNCAN T. MOORE (NAE), Professor, The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester ALAN B. MORRISON , Visiting Professor, Washington College of Law, American University HARRIET RABB , Vice President and General Counsel, Rockefeller University PA UL D. RHEIN GOLD , Senior Partner, Rheingold, Valet, Rheingold, Shkolnik & McCartney LLP BARBARA ROTHSTEIN , Director, Federal Judicial Center JONATHAN M. SAMET (IOM), Founding Director, Institute for Global Health and Chairman, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California DAVID S. TATEL , Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Staff ANNE-MARIE MAZZA , Director STEVEN KENDALL , Senior Program Associate

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ix COMMITTEE ON A PPLIED AND T HEORETICAL S TATISTICS KAREN KAFADAR , ( Chair ), Rudy Professor of Statistics and Physics, Indiana University AM Y BRAVERMAN , MISRCo-Investigator,StatisticsandDataAnalysis, MISR Co-Investigator, Statistics and Data Analysis, Earth and Space Sciences Division, JetPropulsionLaboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory CONSTANTINE GATSONIS , Director, Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University MICHAEL GOODCHILD (NAS), Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHR YN B. LASKE Y, Professor, Department of Systems Engineering and Operations Research, George Mason University MICHAEL LESK (NAE), Professor, LibraryandInformationSciences, Library and Information Sciences, Rutgers University THOMAS A. LO UIS , Professor, DepartmentofBiostatistics,Bloomberg Department of Biostatistics, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University MICHAEL A. NEWTON , Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison MICHAEL L. STEIN , Professor, Department of Statistics, The University of Chicago Staff SCOTT WEIDMAN , Director NEAL GLASSMAN , Senior Program Of˜cer BARBARA WRI GHT , Administrative Assistant

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