It includes information on first aid kits, procedures, facilities and training for first aiders. This Code applies to all types of work and all workplaces
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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD 21. INTRODUCTION 31.1 The meaning of key terms 31.2 Who has health and safety duties in relation to ˜rst aid? 41.3 What is required in providing ˜rst aid? 42. HOW TO DETERMINE FIRST AID REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE 62.1 The nature of the work and workplace hazards 62.2 Size and location of the workplace 72.3 The number and composition of workers and other people 83. FIRST AID EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES AND TRAINING 93.1 First aid kits 93.2 First aid signs 103.3 Other ˜rst aid equipment 103.4 First aid facilities 113.5 First aiders 133.6 First aid procedures 153.7 Providing ˜rst aid information 164. REVIEWING YOUR FIRST AID REQUIREMENTS 17APPENDIX A Œ FIRST AID AND THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS 18APPENDIX B Œ EXAMPLE OF A FIRST AID ASSESSMENT 19APPENDIX C Œ EXAMPLE OF CONTENTS FOR A FIRST AID KIT 21APPENDIX D Œ STANDARD PRECAUTIONS FOR INFECTION CONTROL 23

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2This Code of Practice on ˜rst aid in the workplace is an approved code of practice under section 274 of the Work Health and Safety Act (the WHS Act). An approved code of practice is a practical guide to achieving the standards of health, safety and welfare required under the WHS Act and the Work Health and Safety Regulations (the WHS Regulations). A code of practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the circumstances described in the code. In most cases, following an approved code of practice would achieve compliance with the health and safety duties in the WHS Act, in relation to the subject matter of the code. Like regulations, codes of practice deal with particular issues and do not cover all hazards or risks that may arise. The health and safety duties require duty holders to consider all risks associated with work, not only those for which regulations and codes of practice exist. Codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings under the WHS Act and Regulations. Courts may regard a code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk or control and may rely on the code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the circumstances to which the code relates. An inspector may refer to an approved code of practice when issuing an improvement or prohibition notice. This Code of Practice has been developed by Safe Work Australia as a model code of practice under the Council of Australian Governments™ Inter-Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety for adoption by the Commonwealth, state and territory governments. SCOPE AND APPLICATION This Code of Practice provides practical guidance for persons conducting a business or undertaking on how to comply with duties under the WHS Act and Regulations to provide adequate ˜rst aid facilities in the workplace. It includes information on ˜rst aid kits, procedures, facilities and training for ˜rst aiders. This Code applies to all types of work and all workplaces covered by the WHS Act, including workplaces that are outdoors, mobile or remote. HOW TO USE THIS CODE OF PRACTICE In providing guidance, the word ‚should™ is used in this Code to indicate a recommended course of action, while ‚may™ is used to indicate an optional course of action. This Code also includes various references to provisions of the WHS Act and Regulations which set out the legal requirements. These references are not exhaustive. The words ‚must™, ‚requires™ or ‚mandatory™ indicate that a legal requirement exists and must be complied with. FOREWORD

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3Providing immediate and effective ˜rst aid to workers or others who have been injured or become ill at the workplace may reduce the severity of the injury or illness and promote recovery. In some cases it could mean the difference between life and death. 1.1 The meaning of key terms First aid is the immediate treatment or care given to a person suffering from an injury or illness until more advanced care is provided or the person recovers. First aider is a person who has successfully completed a nationally accredited training course or an equivalent level of training that has given them the competencies required to administer ˜rst aid. First aid equipment includes ˜rst aid kits and other equipment used to treat injuries and illnesses. First aid facilities include ˜rst aid rooms, health centres, clean water supplies and other facilities needed for administering ˜rst aid. High risk workplace means a workplace where workers are exposed to hazards that could result in serious injury or illness and would require ˜rst aid. Examples of workplaces that may be considered high risk are ones in which workers: use hazardous machinery (for example, mobile plant, chainsaws, power presses and lathes) use hazardous substances (for example, chemical manufacture, laboratories, horticulture, petrol stations and food manufacturing) are at risk of falls that could result in serious injury (for example, construction and stevedoring) carry out hazardous forms of work (for example, working in con˜ned spaces, welding, demolition, electrical work and abrasive blasting) are exposed to the risk of physical violence (for example, working alone at night, cash handling or having customers who are frequently physically aggressive) work in or around extreme heat or cold (for example, foundries and prolonged outdoor work in extreme temperatures). Low risk workplace means a workplace where workers are not exposed to hazards that could result in serious injury or illness such as of˜ces, shops or libraries. Potential work- related injuries and illnesses requiring ˜rst aid would be minor in nature. 1. INTRODUCTION

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41.2 Who has health and safety duties in relation to ˜rst aid? A person conducting a business or undertaking has the primary duty under the WHS Act to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that workers and other persons are not exposed to health and safety risks arising from the business or undertaking. The WHS Regulations place speci˜c obligations on a person conducting a business or undertaking in relation to ˜rst aid, including requirements to: provide ˜rst aid equipment and ensure each worker at the workplace has access to the equipment ensure access to facilities for the administration of ˜rst aid ensure that an adequate number of workers are trained to administer ˜rst aid at the workplace or that workers have access to an adequate number of other people who have been trained to administer ˜rst aid. A person conducting a business or undertaking may not need to provide ˜rst aid equipment or facilities if these are already provided by another duty holder at the workplace and they are adequate and easily accessible at the times that the workers carry out work. Of˜cers , such as company directors, have a duty to exercise due diligence to ensure that the business or undertaking complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes taking reasonable steps to ensure that the business or undertaking has and uses appropriate resources and processes to eliminate or minimise risks to health and safety. Workers have a duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and must not adversely affect the health and safety of other persons. Workers must comply with any reasonable instruction and cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure relating to health and safety at the workplace, such as procedures for ˜rst aid and for reporting injuries and illnesses. 1.3 What is required in providing ˜rst aid? First aid requirements will vary from one workplace to the next, depending on the nature of the work, the type of hazards, the workplace size and location, as well as the number of people at the workplace. These factors must be taken into account when deciding what ˜rst aid arrangements need to be provided. This Code provides information on using a risk management approach to tailor ˜rst aid that suits the circumstances of your workplace, while also providing guidance on the number of ˜rst aid kits, their contents and the number of trained ˜rst aiders that are appropriate for some types of workplaces. The risk management approach involves the following four steps (summarised in Appendix A): identifying hazards that could result in work-related injury or illness assessing the type, severity and likelihood of injuries and illness providing the appropriate ˜rst aid equipment, facilities and training reviewing your ˜rst aid requirements on a regular basis or as circumstances change. 1. INTRODUCTION

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6When considering how to provide ˜rst aid, a person conducting a business or undertaking must consider all relevant matters including: the nature of the work being carried out at the workplace the nature of the hazards at the workplace the size, location and nature of the workplace the number and composition of the workers at the workplace. 2.1 The nature of the work and workplace hazards Certain work environments have greater risks of injury and illness due to the nature of work being carried out and the nature of the hazards at the workplace. For example, factories, motor vehicle workshops and forestry operations have a greater risk of injury that would require immediate medical treatment than of˜ces or libraries. These workplaces will therefore require different ˜rst aid arrangements. Table 1: Injuries associated with common workplace hazards that may require ˜rst aid Hazard Potential harm Manual tasksOverexertion can cause muscular strain. Working at height Slips, trips and falls can cause fractures, bruises, lacerations, dislocations, concussion. ElectricityPotential ignition source could cause injuries from ˜re. Exposure to live electrical wires can cause shock, burns and cardiac arrest. Machinery and equipmentBeing hit by moving vehicles, or being caught by moving parts of machinery can cause fractures, amputation, bruises, lacerations, dislocations. Hazardous chemicalsToxic or corrosive chemicals may be inhaled, contact skin or eyes causing poisoning, chemical burns, irritation. Flammable chemicals could result in injuries from ˜re or explosion. Extreme temperatures Hot surfaces and materials can cause burns. Exposure to heat can cause heat stress and fatigue. Exposure to extreme cold can cause hypothermia and frost bite. Radiation Welding arc ˚ashes, ionizing radiation and lasers can cause burnsViolence Behaviours including intimidation and physical assault can cause nausea, shock and physical injuries BiologicalInfection, allergic reactions AnimalsBites, stings, kicks, scratches Regulation 42 2. HOW TO DETERMINE FIRST AID REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE

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7Records of injuries, illnesses, ‚near miss™ incidents and other information that has already been obtained to assist in controlling risks at the workplace will be useful to make appropriate decisions about ˜rst aid. You should check the safety data sheets (SDS) for any hazardous chemicals that are handled, used or stored at your workplace. The SDS provides information about the chemical, possible health effects, controls that may be used to reduce exposure and ˜rst aid requirements. Manufacturers, importers and suppliers of hazardous chemicals have a duty under the WHS Regulations to ensure that the current SDS is provided to a person at the workplace if the person asks for it. 2.2 Size and location of the workplace In relation to the size and location of the workplace, you should take into account: the distance between different work areas the response times for emergency services. First aid equipment and facilities should be located at convenient points and in areas where there is a higher risk of an injury or illness occurring. A large workplace may require ˜rst aid to be available in more than one location if: work is being carried out a long distance from emergency services small numbers of workers are dispersed over a wide area access to a part of the workplace is dif˜cult the workplace has more than one ˚oor level. Where there are separate work areas (for example, a number of buildings on a site or multiple ˚oors in an of˜ce building), it may be appropriate to locate ˜rst aid facilities centrally and provide ˜rst aid kits in each work area. This may include portable ˜rst aid kits in motor vehicles and other separate work areas. The distance of the workplace from ambulance services, hospital and medical centres should be taken into account when determining your ˜rst aid requirements. For example, if life- threatening injuries or illnesses could occur and timely access to emergency services cannot be assured, a person trained in more advanced ˜rst aid techniques (such as the provision of oxygen) will be needed. Additional ˜rst aid considerations may be necessary for workers in remote or isolated areas. For example, where access is dif˜cult due to poor roads or weather conditions, arrangements may need to include aerial evacuation. In minimising the risks to health and safety associated with remote or isolated work, you must provide a system of work that includes effective communication with the worker. This will assist in enabling an immediate response in an emergency. Further guidance about working in remote or isolated areas is available in the Code of Practice: Managing the Work Environment and Facilities. 2. HOW TO DETERMINE FIRST AID REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE

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82.3 The number and composition of workers and other peopleWhen considering the size of your workforce, you should include any contractors, subcontractors, and volunteers you engage. This may mean the size of your workforce may vary over time. For the purposes of deciding who requires access to ˜rst aid, you should consider the maximum number of workers that you may engage at any one time. Generally, a larger workforce requires more ˜rst aid resources. You should also consider: the particular needs of workers who have a disability or a known health concern others at your workplace who are not your workers, for example, students in workplaces such as schools, members of the public in places of entertainment, fairgrounds and shopping centres. Appendix B provides an example of how to determine ˜rst aid requirements. 2. HOW TO DETERMINE FIRST AID REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR WORKPLACE

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9The information provided in this chapter may be used as a guide to determine the appropriate ˜rst aid equipment, facilities, ˜rst aiders and procedures needed in various workplaces. First aid equipment, facilities and ˜rst aiders must be accessible to workers whenever they work, including those working night shifts or overtime. 3.1 First aid kits All workers must be able to access a ˜rst aid kit. This will require at least one ˜rst aid kit to be provided at their workplace. CONTENTS The ˜rst aid kit should provide basic equipment for administering ˜rst aid for injuries including: cuts, scratches, punctures, grazes and splinters muscular sprains and strains minor burns amputations and/or major bleeding wounds broken bones eye injuries shock.The contents of ˜rst aid kits should be based on a risk assessment. For example, there may be higher risk of eye injuries and a need for additional eye pads in a workplace where: chemical liquids or powders are handled in open containers spraying, hosing or abrasive blasting operations are carried out there is any possibility of ˚ying particles causing eye injuries there is a risk of splashing or spraying of infectious materials welding, cutting or machining operations are carried out. Additional equipment may be needed for serious burns and remote workplaces. The recommended content of a typical ˜rst aid kit and information on additional equipment is provided in Appendix C. DESIGN OF KITS First aid kits can be any size, shape or type to suit your workplace, but each kit should: be large enough to contain all the necessary items be immediately identi˜able with a white cross on green background that is prominently displayed on the outside contain a list of the contents for that kit be made of material that will protect the contents from dust, moisture and contamination. 3. FIRST AID EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES AND TRAINING

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