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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 3 An average of 25 .4 million people are displaced by disasters every year. This document sets out an operational plan to assist Member States in taking forward the priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The plan situates mobility at the centre of IOM™s efforts to support States to r educe risk and build resilience. It outlines a set of concrete assistance activities organized under Prevention, Preparedness, Response, Recovery and Partnerships, stressing the intrinsic links between mobility, risk and resilience. CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 5 2. SENDAI & KEY GLOBAL FRAMEWORKS 6 3. IOM™S ADDED VALUE AN D COMPARATIVE ADVANT AGE IN DRR AND RESIL IENCE .. 8 4. KEY CONCEPTS AND APP ROACH ES 10 4.1 Mobility & Disaster Risk Reduction .. 10 4.2 Mobility & Resilience -Strengthening . 10 4.3 Mobility & Risk -Informed Development 11 5. IOM MISSION STATEMEN T ON DRR AND RESILIE NCE .. 12 5.1 Programme Beneficiaries . 12 6. STRATEGIC OUTCOMES A ND PROGRAMMING . 13 6.1 Strategic Outcome I: Prevention – ‚having the choice to stay™ .. 13 6.2 Strategic Outcome II: Preparedness – ‚building capacity for response™ 15 6.3 Strategic Outcome III: Response – ‚managing mobility in a disaster™ . 18 6.4 Strategic Outcome IV: Recovery – ‚fostering resilience in recove ry™ . 19 6.5 Strategic Outcome V: Partnerships Œ ‚strengthening coordinated support for mobility -based resilience™ .. 20 7 MONITORING, EVALUATI ON & LEARNING 21 ANNEX 1 Global -Level Output Indicators and Institutional Leads ANNEX 2 Projects Overview ANNEX 3 IOM Membership in Key Disaster Risk Reduction Networks ANNEX 4 Key Terms and Definitions
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 4 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CADRI Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative IHR International Health Regulations CBI Cash -Based Interventions INFORM Index for Risk Management CCCM Camp Coordination and Camp Management IOM International Organization for Migration CDC Cent ers for Disease Control and Prevention MCOF Migration Crisis Operational Framework DMIS Disaster Management Information System MEND Mass Evacuations in Natural Disasters DRR Disaster Risk Reduction MICIC Migrant s in Countries in Cris is DTM Displacement Tracking Matrix MiGOF Migration Governance Framework ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States NDRF National Disaster Response Framework EOC Emergency Operation s Centre NFI Non -food Items FAO Food and Agriculture Organization PDD Platform on Disaster Displacement FSM Federated States of Micronesia SDGs Sustainable Development Goals GBV Gender -Based Violence SIDS Small Island Developing States HBMM Health, Border and Mobility Management UNCT United Nations Country Team HCT Humanitarian Country Team UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework HLP Housing, Land and Property UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change HRP Humanitarian Response Plans UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees IASC Inter -Agency Standing Committee UNISDR United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction IDP Internally Displaced Person WHS World Humanitarian Summit IEC Information, Education, and Communication
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 5 1. INTRODUCTION There are today at least 244 million people on the move across borders worldwide 1, and another 763 million people have been estimated to move internally within countries .2 Mobility, when dignified and properly managed, can bring important benefits for migrants seeking opportunities and a better life. It is also recognized that mobility can make significant, and often overlooked, social and economic contributions to communiti es and States of origin, transit and destination. In the period 2008 -2016, however, an average of 25.4 million people each year were displaced by disasters 3, triggered by natural hazards. Such hazards are increasingly caused or magnified by environmental factors , climate change and the compounding effects of fast -paced urbanization, population growth and rising inequalities. Beyond the direct human, material and environmental costs on affected communities and countries, disasters frequently result in large -scale movements of populations which can lead to reduced access to basic services and livelihood op tions, and increased exposure to violence, poverty and food insecurity for both the displaced populations and their host communities. Further, data shows that disasters and environmental degradation have the potential to fuel conflict and fragility, reverse development gains, and hamper progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially for least developed countries, l andlocked developing countries and small island developing states. As environmental degradation and climate change are expected to increase the frequency and worsen the impacts of sudden – and slow -onset disasters , the implications with respect to human mob ility are projected to be significant. 4 In the context of disasters, mobility is principally understood as a negative impact or factor that can give rise to heightened vulnerability and new risks for people on the move. While this can be and often is the c ase, IOM has highlighted the direct importance of mobility decisions in reducing risk and promoting resilience, and the conditions of extreme vulnerability that are associated with those who are unable to move out of harm™s way, or to invest in alternative livelihood strategies amidst environment and climatic change pressures. 5 The present paper outlines IOM™s strategic approach to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and resilience within the broader frame of the Organization™s global mobility mandate. It present s a set of concrete actions that IOM will undertake over the course of 2017 -2020 to assist Member States™ efforts to reduce risk and strengthen resilience. In doing so, th is document will bring to light the relevance of mobility as a fundamental human proc ess that can increase risk, but can also be central to building resilience in contexts of sudden or slow -onset disasters, whether natural or man -made. 1 Trends in International Migrants Stock: The 2015 Revision, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN (UN DESA), 2015. 2 Cross -National Comparisons of Internal M igration: An update on global patterns and trends, UN DESA, 2013. 3 Global Report on Internal Displacement 2016, IDMC and NRC, 2016. 4 The Atlas of Environmental Migration, IOM, 2016. 5 IOM Compendium of Activities in Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience, IOM, 201 3; Outlook on Migration, Environment and Climate Change, IOM, 2014.
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 6 2. SENDAI & KEY GLOBAL F RAMEW ORKS In advance of the Third UN World Conference on D isaster Risk Reduction in Sendai in 2015, IOM worked closely with the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) 6, agency partners, and its Member States to support the integration of mobility and displacement in global efforts to reduce disaster risk . Agreed in March 2015, the resultin g Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 -2030 (Sendai Framework) outlines global commitments to reduce risk and promote resilience. Now part of the development architecture around the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2030 Agenda), the Se ndai Framework is the first global agreement on disaster risk reduction to incorporate clear references to mobility and displacement. It not only recognizes the centrality of displacement management in the disaster risk reduction context, but also clearly acknowledges the role of migrants in strengthening prevention and preparedness, in supporting recovery and in promoting resilience to future disaster risk. Beyond the Sendai Framework, the need to build resilience to disasters is a central theme in a number of other international processes and agreements. The 2030 Agenda, also adopted in 2015, recognizes and reaffirms the urgent need to reduce the risk of disasters as part of its commitment ﬁto leave no one behindﬂ. It makes direct references to the ou tcomes of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sendai Framework and outlines 25 specific targets related to disaster risk reduction and resilience in 10 of the 17 SDGs. The Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015 by the partie s to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), recognizes the need to protect vulnerable populations, including migrants; calls for enhanced action to address loss and damage; and establishes a special Task Force on Displacement, to develop recommendations for integrated approaches to avert, minimize and address displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change. Further, as an outcome of the World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) in 2016, the biggest donors and aid providers s igned up to the Grand Bargain, which commits to ﬁsignificantly increase prevention, mitigation and preparedness for early action to anticipate and secure resources for recoveryﬂ .7 The Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), also launched on the sidelines of the WHS, seeks to address the protection needs of people displaced across borders in the context of disasters and climate change. 8 The New Urban Agenda 9, agreed in Quito in October 2016, commits to strengthening resilience in cities by implementing bett er urban planning, quality infrastructure and improving local responses. Also of significance, the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, adopted the same year by the UN General Assembly, recognizes the importance of disasters, climate change and other environmental factors as drivers of large -scale, unmanaged migration that need to be addressed. The Declaration makes direct references to the Sendai Framework, the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement, emphasizing the importance of aligning these pro cesses in order to effectively address the priorities set out within respective agenda. 6 As the UN office for disaster risk reduction, UNISDR supports the implementation, follow -up and review of the Sendai Framework. UNISDR is led by the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary -General for Disaster Risk Reduction (SRSG/ASG). 7 The Grand Bargain – A Shared Commitment to Better Serve People in Need, 2016. 8 The PDD will play an important role to follow -up on the work started by the Nansen Initiative to implement the recommendations of the Protection Agenda, a toolbox to better prevent and prepare for displacement and to respond to situations when people are forced by disas ters to find refuge, within their own country or across the border. 9 The New Urban Agenda ai ms to sets global standards of achievement in sustainable urban development, rethinking the way we build, manage, and live in cities through drawing together cooperation with committed partners, relevant stakeholders, and urban actors at all levels of gove rnment as well as the private sector. Migrants as builders of resilience: Migrants play an important role in building the resilience of home and host communities through the exchange of resources and support. They and their networks can contribute to managing risk for the community at large. Migrants are often overrepresented in the healthy, productive age gro ups and provide diversified skills that can support disaster preparedness, response and recovery efforts, particularly in ageing societies. World Migration Report 2015, IOM
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 8 3. IOM™S ADDED VALUE AND COMPA RATIVE ADVANTAGE IN DRR AND RESILIENCE As the global migration agency, IOM brings a unique perspective and comparative advantage in supporting Member States to implement the Sendai Framework given the intrinsic links between mobility, risk and resilience. IOM is also highly operational, with the ability to work directly with beneficiary groups to identify and integrate their particular needs and capacities into programming that is align ed with national frameworks and priorities. Guided by its migration governance policies at the global level, and working at the request of its Member States, the Organization™s DRR and resilience work capital izes on longstanding experience managing mobility in various complex crisis environments over several decades, as IOM currently work s across 100 countries through a network of 400 offices. 13 Over the years, IOM has developed contextual analysis capacity and a strategic data collection and analysis tool on the nexus of crisis and mobility, the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). 14 IOM adopts a projectized and flexible business model that brings operational agility to managing and mitigating the impacts of sudden – and slow -onset displacement crises through both immediate life -saving support, and longer -term support for re covery, stabilization and resilience. Through its early and sustained presence, and direct access to affected populations, IOM places beneficiaries at the heart of its efforts to assess and reduce core drivers of disasters and displacement, underpinned by a participatory community -engagement approach. At the planning level, DRR and resilience constitute a core service sector in the Organization™s institution -wide Migration Crisis Operational Framework (MCOF) 15. Through MCOF, IOM incorporates risk and resili ence into country -specific strategic planning processes and resource mobilization efforts, reflecting the strategic relevance of this area of work for IOM in addressing the mobility dimensions of crisis . Over the last five years, IOM has im plemented more than 160 DRR -related projects in over 7 0 countries through over $245 million in programming. Since Sendai alon e, IOM has implemented over $116 milli on of DRR programming through 64 projects in 47 countries. 16 13 For past IOM activities in the area of DRR, see Compendium of IOM™s Activities in Migration, Climate Change and the Environment, IOM, 2009 and Compendium of IOM Activities in Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience, IOM, 2013. 14 IOM™s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) is a system to track and monito r displacement and population mobility. It is designed to regularly and systematically capture, process and disseminate information to provide a better understanding of the movements and evolving n eeds of displaced populations, whether on site or en route. 15 MCOF is a practical, operational and institution -wide strategic planning tool to improve and systematize the way in which the Organization supports its Member States and partners to better prepare for and respond to migration crises. IOM Member States u nanimously adopted Resolution 1243, endorsing the Migration Crisis Operational Framework (MCOF) in 2012. 16 This includes 36 proj ects in Asia and the Pacific, 13 in Africa, four in the Middle East and North Africa, four in Central America and the Caribbean , four in South -Eastern Europe, Easte rn Europe and Central Asia, and four global or multi -country projects managed through the European Economic Area. These projects include 42 di saster prevention initiatives, 30 preparedness initiatives, 20 emergency respo nse initiatives and 1 9 initiatives that involve building back better during recovery. These 163 projects include dedicated initiatives as well as broader projects and programmes with components of DRR.
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 10 4. KEY CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES 4.1 Mobility & Disaster Risk Reduction An inter -governmental expert group recently defined ‚disaster risk™ as: ‚The potential loss of life, injury, or destroyed or damaged assets which could occur to a system, society or a community in a specific period of time, determined probabilistically as a function of hazard, exposur e, vulnerability and capacity.™ 17 ‚Disaster risk reduction™ is then defined as: ‚Preventing new and reducing existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development.™ 18 IOM support s its Member States with DRR activities to reduce disaster -indu ced displacement, as well as mitigate the negative impacts of displacement on those affected, through strengthened capacity in disaster prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. This requires that individuals, communities and authorities are able to make timely and strategic mobility choices before, during and after a sudden or slow -onset disaster event. IOM™s approach to risk reduction is based on the premise that exposure, vulnerability and resilience are to a large degree shaped by mobility options and choices and that mobility is thus an underlying dynamic of risk. 19 For example, while unplanned and unmanaged mobility often generates new sets of personal vulnerability and risks, planned and well -organized movement of individuals can help people preserve and access resources to cope and recover in the face of adversity. Whether undertaken through organized evacuation assistance, a planned Government relocation programme, or traditional migratory patterns, humane and orderly movement of individuals can be essential to helping people protect life and assets, access assistance and livelihood opportunities and progressively recover as conditions allow. In addition , other forms of movements , such as labour migration, can result in diaspora networks that can provide significant support to disaster risk reduction efforts through remittances, skills and technology transfer, as well as through investment in community -based risk reducti on initiatives 20. 4.2 Mobility & Resilience -Strengthening Closely related to DRR, the concept of ‚resilience™ has been defined as: ‚the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and re cover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions through risk management™ 21 17 Report of the open -ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction, UN, 2016. 18 Ibid. 19 Human Mobility in a Socio -Environmental Context: Complex Effects on Environmental Risk, L. Guadagno / IOM, 2017. 20 See for example ﬁMigration, Development and Natural Disasters: Insights from the Indian Ocean tsunamiﬂ, Naik, Stigter and Laczko, IOM Migration Research Series No. 30, 2007. 21 Report of the open -ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction, UN, 2016.
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TAKING SENDAI FORWARD I STRATEGIC WORK PLAN ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTI ON & RESILIENCE 2017 Œ 2020 11 Similarly, IOM understands resilience -strengthening as a ﬁstrategy to promote agency, coping and self -reliance capabilities, and to create opportunities for informed decision -making, while simultaneously building capacity to manage the underlying drivers o f vulnerability and displacementﬂ. 22 By incorporating resilience perspectives across its programmes, IOM seeks to empower vulnerable or affected people to better prevent or mitigate their crisis conditions, including through mobility choices, while reducing vulnerability to future, protracted or reoccurring shocks and stresses. Consequently, IOM incorporates resilience -building dimensions not only within its disaster risk reduction portfolio, but in a range of initiatives across its broader programmatic work to deliver life -saving humanitarian assistance, provide solutions to displacement, promote community stabilization, support peace -building, facilitate recovery from crisis and promote development. IOM recognizes the importance of individuals™ and communit ies™ access to information in order to strengthen both disaste r risk reduction and resilience . Timely, reliable and actionable information can generate a greater range of strategic mobility options, support critical decision -making in crisis situations, an d help shape preventative or mitigating action prior to the onset of adverse events. Further, information regarding unmanaged, residual risks , as well as information related to livelihood viability and access to secure housing, land and property, can have great bearing on decisions related to possible return, local integration or resettlement elsewhere. 4.3 Mobility & Risk -Informed Development Development will not be sustainable if it is not informed by risk. The concept of ﬁrisk -informed developmentﬂ reco gnizes that development programmes do not necessarily reduce hazard s and associated displacement risks but may in fact create new risks or exacerbate existing ones. Further, achieving sustainable development requires that countries and communities are resi lient to shocks and stresses, which otherwise will undermine the efforts of States to advance national development goals. The concept of risk -informed development, therefore, requires an expanded understanding of DRR as a central strategy to reducing pover ty and advancing broader social and economic development aims. The 2030 Agenda recognizes that shocks and stresses can reverse years of development gains and underscores the need to strengthen resilience. It sets forth the following core target on resilience: ‚By 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate -related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters™. 23 In line with IOM ™s mandate to support States™ efforts to achieve the SDGs, IOM seeks to ensure that risk and resilience perspectives are integrated in the planning and delivery of IOM™s core migration management services and development activities, including in migration health, immigration and border management, migrant assistance, labour mobility and human development, as well as in work addressing the linkages between migration, environment and climate change. 22 Resilience -Building in Crisis, Pre -Crisis and Fragile Contexts, IOM, 2016 (Draft). 23 Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (target 1.5), UN, 2015.
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